Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe. Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published, news and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Theodore Roosevelt Sr.
Theodore Thee Roosevelt Sr. was an American businessman and philanthropist. He was also the father of President Theodore Roosevelt and the grandfather of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. He was a fourth-generation Dutch New Yorker and participant in the Roosevelt family business of plate-glass importing, Theodore Sr. helped found the New York City Childrens Aid Society, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, and the New York Childrens Orthopedic Hospital. A participant in the dazzling New York society life, he was described by one historian as a man of good works and good times. In December 1877, he was nominated to be Collector of the Port of New York but was rejected by the U. S. Senate, Theodore Sr. was born in New York City to businessman Cornelius Van Schaak C. V. S. His four elder brothers were Silas, James, Cornelius Jr. thees younger brother William died at the age of one. Thee married Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch of Roswell, Georgia on December 22,1853 and she was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. Mittie was also a sister of Civil War Confederate veteran Irvine Stephens Bulloch and they married at her familys historic mansion, Bulloch Hall in Roswell. Thee and Mittie had four children, Anna, Theodore Jr. Elliott, Elliott was the father of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. Eleanor was the wife of Hyde Park distant cousin President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Of Theodore Sr. or Thee as he was known, his son, in his autobiography described him in the following words, My father. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness and he would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness. As we grew older, he made us understand that the standard of clean living was demanded the boys as for the girls. With great love and patience, and the most generous sympathy and consideration and he never physically punished me but once, but he was the only man of whom I was ever really afraid. I do not mean that it was a fear, for he was entirely just. He and my mother were given to hospitality that at time was associated more commonly with southern than northern households. My father worked hard at his business, for he died when he was forty-six and he was interested in every social reform movement, and he did an immense amount of practical charitable work himself. On Sundays, he had a mission class, in a 1900 letter, Roosevelt described his father, writing, I was fortunate enough in having a father whom I have always been able to regard as an ideal man