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1. Anatolian beyliks – Anatolian beyliks, sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small Turkish principalities in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century. A second more extensive period of foundations took place as a result of the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm in the half of the 13th century. One of the beyliks, the Ottomans, expanded from its capital in Bursa and completed its conquest of the other beyliks by the late 15th century, the word beylik denotes a territory under the jurisdiction of a Bey, equivalent in other European societies to a Lord. The term has a context within the 16th century Ottoman governmental institutions in the then regencies along the coastline of Tunisia and Algeria. Following the 1071 Seljuq victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert and these clans, led by beys, would receive military and financial aid from the Seljuqs in return for their services and full allegiance. Seljuq power deteriorated with the Mongol invasions from the east, the Ilkhanate commanders in Anatolia then gained strength and authority and this encouraged the beys to declare sovereignty. To maintain control of their new territory, these reestablished emirs employed Ghazi warriors from Persia, as the Byzantine empire weakened, their cities in Asia Minor could resist the assaults of the beyliks less and less, and many Turks gradually settled in the western parts of Anatolia. By 1300, Turks had reached the Aegean coastline, held momentarily two centuries before, in the beginning, the most powerful states were the Karamanids and the Germiyanids in the central area. The Beylik of Osmanoğlu Dynasty who were later to found the Ottoman Empire was situated to the northwest, around Söğüt, along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched Karasids, Sarukhanids, Aydinids, Menteşe and Teke principalities. The Jandarids controlled the Black Sea region around Kastamonu and Sinop, under its eponymous founder, Osman I, the Beylik of Osmanoğlu expanded at Byzantine expense south and west of the Sea of Marmara in the first decades of the 14th century. Towards the end of the 14th century, the Ottomans advanced further into Anatolia by acquiring towns, meanwhile, the Karamanids assaulted the Ottomans many times with the help of other beyliks, Mamluks, Aq Qoyunlu, Byzantines, Pontics and Hungarians, failing and losing power every time. By the close of the century, the early Ottoman leaders had conquered parts of land from Karamanids. These had a respite when their territories were restored to them after the Ottoman defeat suffered against Tamerlane in 1402 in the Battle of Ankara. But the Ottoman state quickly collected itself under Mehmed I and his son Murad II re-incorporated most of these beyliks into Ottoman territory in a space of around 25 years. The final blow for the Karamanids was struck by Mehmed II who conquered their lands, many of the former Anatolian beyliks became the basis for administrative subdivisions in the Ottoman Empire. In 1337 Alaşehir was granted autonomy under Aydınids and this lasted until the total Ottoman conquest, combined with the Seljuqs and the immigration of Turkic tribes into the Anatolian mainland the Anatolian Beyliks spread Turkish and Islamic influence in Anatolia. Unlike the Seljuqs, whose language of administration was Persian, the Anatolian emirates adopted spoken Turkish as their literary language. The Turkish language achieved widespread use in these principalities and reached its highest sophistication during the Ottoman era, in spite of their limited sources and the political climate of their era, art during the Anatolian beyliks flourished, probably building the basis for Ottoman art
2. Aq Qoyunlu – The Ağ Qoyunlu Turkomans first acquired land in 1402, when Timur granted them all of Diyar Bakr in present-day Turkey. For a long time, the Ağ Qoyunlu were unable to expand their territory, however, this changed with the rule of Uzun Hassan, who defeated the Black Sheep Turkoman leader Jahān Shāh in 1467. After the defeat of a Timurid leader, Abu Said, Uzun Hassan was able to take Baghdad along with territories around the Persian Gulf and he expanded into Iran as far east as Khorasan. However, around this time, the Ottoman Empire sought to expand eastwards, as early as 1464, Uzun Hassan had requested military aid from one of the Ottoman Empires strongest enemies, Venice. Despite Venetian promises, this aid never arrived and, as a result, Uzun Hassan was defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of Otlukbeli in 1473, though this did not destroy the Ağ Qoyunlu. When Uzun Hassan died early in 1478, he was succeeded by his son Khalil Mirza, Yaqub, who reigned from 1478 to 1490, sustained the dynasty for a while longer. However, during the first four years of his there were seven pretenders to the throne who had to be put down. Following Yaqubs death, civil war erupted, the Ağ Qoyunlus destroyed themselves from within. The early Safavids, who were followers of the Safaviyya religious order, the Safavids and the Ağ Qoyunlu met in battle in the city of Nakhchivan in 1501 and the Safavid leader Ismail I forced the Ağ Qoyunlu to withdraw. In his retreat from the Safavids, the Ağ Qoyunlu leader Alwand destroyed an autonomous state of the Ağ Qoyunlu in Mardin, the last Ağ Qoyunlu leader, Murad, brother of Alwand, was also defeated by the same Safavid leader. Though Murād briefly established himself in Baghdad in 1501, he withdrew back to Diyar Bakr. The leaders of Ağ Qoyunlu were from the Begundur or Bayandur clan of the Oghuz Turks and were considered descendants of the founding father of the Oghuz, Oghuz Khan. The Bayandurs behaved like statesmen rather than warlords and gained the support of the merchant, with the conquest of Iran, not only did the Ağ Qoyunlu center of power shift eastward, but Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture. Uzun Hassan also held the title Padishah-i Irān Padishah of Iran, amidst the struggle for power between Uzun Hassans grandsons Baysungur and Rustam, their cousin Ahmed Bey appeared on the stage. Beyazid agreed to this idea, and by May 1497 Ahmad Bey faced Rustam near Araxes, list of rulers of Aq Qoyunlu Turkmen invasions of Georgia Diarbakriya, the most important primary source about the dynasty. The Aqquyunlu, Clan, Confederation, Empire University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, ISBN 0-87480-565-1
3. Beylik of Dulkadir – The Anatolian beylik of Dulkadir, was one of the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz, Turcoman clans Bayat, Afshar and Begdili after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. The capitals of the beylik were located around the town of Elbistan in Kahramanmaraş Province of Turkey in different eras and they became part of the Ottoman Empire in early 16th century. Until the mid-19th century, the centered on the town of Elbistan in Kahramanmaraş Province of Turkey was often referred to as Dulkadiroğulları State in Ottoman documents. The Dulkadir dynasty also gave many brides to the Ottoman dynasty, emine Hatun, the daughter of Nasreddin Mehmed Bey, the fifth ruler of Dulkadiroğulları State, was Mehmed Is third consort, and thus the mother of Ottoman Sultan Murad II. Their marriage served as an alliance between the Ottomans and this buffer state and their son Murad II is the ancestor of all succeeding Sultans. Similarly, Mükrime Hatun, the daughter of Süleyman Bey, the ruler of Dulkadiroğulları State, was the third wife of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. Moreover, Ayşe Hatun, the daughter of Alaüddevle Bozkurt, the ruler of the Dulkadir State, was the wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II
4. Byzantine Anatolia – In the middle of the 3rd century the empire briefly split into three, but there followed repeated cycles of division and reunification. Diocletian established a centre at Nicomedia in Bithynia. Initially designated Nova Roma, but then Constantinopolis in Constantines honour, byzantium had long been considered of strategic importance, guarding the access from the Black Sea to the Aegean. Various emperors had either fortified or dismantled its fortifications depending on power was using it. Byzantium featured in Constantines last war against Licinius in which Constantine had besieged the city and he set about renewing the city almost immediately, inaugurating it in 330. This is a year sometimes picked as the beginning of the Byzantine Empire, the new capital was to be distinguished from the old by being simultaneously Christian and Greek and a centre of culture. However the empire split again on his death, only to be reunited again by Theodosius I, Theodosius died in Milan in 395, and was buried in Constantinople. His sons Honorius and Arcadius divided the empire between them and it was never again to be united. Thus the Eastern Empire was finally established by the beginning of the 5th century, as it entered the Middle Ages, while the west was to decay and Rome to be sacked under Honorius. The west limped on under a series of short lived emperors and progressively shrinking empire, in which the east frequently intervened, effectively ending with Julius Nepos. In 395 Arcadius inherited an empire that for the first time was independent, the peace engineered by his father with the Persian Sassanid Empire proved to be long lasting, taking the pressure off the eastern frontier. Although the barbarians to the north and west pose a constant threat and he had two years previous experience of ruling as a junior Augustus under his father. Under Arcadius religious controversy continued to be a concern of the state. He predeceased his brother in the west, being succeeded by his son Theodosius II, like his father his reign was very much influenced by powerful women. In his fathers reign, Theodosius mother Aelia Eudoxia was an influence on policy, and in his reign, his sister Pulcheria. His domestic accomplishments included founding the University of Constantinople in 425 and he also carried out considerable strengthening of Constantinoples walls against the threat of the Huns, following an earthquake in 448, that would serve the city well for hundreds of years. Religious controversies continued amongst the conflicting Christian theologies, and often reflected theological geopolitics within the Empire as much as doctrine, on Theodosius death, Pulcheria married Marcian who became at least nominally emperor, and is considered a Theodosian if only by marriage. During Marcians reign the empire pursued an isolationist policy, leaving the western empire increasingly helpless under Barbarian attacks, like many of his predecessors he presided over a doctrinal conference, the Council of Chalcedon, and is recognized as a saint
5. Classical Anatolia – Anatolia, also known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is considered to be the westernmost extent of Asia. The earliest representations of culture in Anatolia were Stone Age artifacts, the remnants of Bronze Age civilizations such as the Hattian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Hittite peoples provide us with many examples of the daily lives of its citizens and their trade. After the fall of the Hittites, the new states of Phrygia and Lydia stood strong on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish, only the threat from the emerging Persian kingdom prevented them from advancing past their peak of success. For the next 200 years, all of Anatolia came under Achaemenid Persian rule and their system of local government divided in satrapies in Anatolia allowed many port cities to grow and to become wealthy. Their governors revolted periodically but did not pose a serious threat, in the aftermath of the Greco-Persian Wars, all of Anatolia still remained under Persian control. The Greek Alexander the Great finally wrested control of the region from Persia in successive battles. The Seleucid Empire, the largest of Alexanders territories, and which included Anatolia, became involved in a war with Rome culminating in the battles of Thermopylae. The resulting Treaty of Apamea in saw the Seleucids retreat from Anatolia, the Kingdom of Pergamum and the Republic of Rhodes, Romes allies in the war, were granted the former Seleucid lands in Anatolia. The development of alphabetised written languages during the preceding Iron Age facilitated this, the era of Classical Antiquity produced an unprecedented body of literary and scientific writing, much of which has survived to this day and continues to influence modern thought. Our sources, predominantly Greek historians such as Herodotus, provide details about Western Anatolia. By this time Lydia had become the predominant power in western Anatolia, however, Sadyattes or joined forces with Cyaxares the Mede to drive the Cimmerians out of Anatolia. In the course of it the Medes gained many victories over the Lydians, the Medean Empire turned out to be short lived. The Medes then became subject to the Persians, the Persians, who had scant resources for governing their vast empire, ruled relatively benignly as conquerors, attempting to obtain the cooperation of the local elite in governance. They ruled their vassal states by appointing local rulers, or satraps with responsibility for their satrapies, however, the Greeks referred to these satraps as tyrants, meaning they were neither democratically elected or derived authority from dynasty. The Achaemenid Persian Empire, continued its expansion under Darius the Great, the satrap system of local governors continued to be used and upgraded and other governmental upgrades were carried out. Anatolia was carved up under Persian hegemony into regional administrations which replaced the hegemonic kingdoms prior to the conquest, Satrap and Satrapy corresponding to Governor and Province respectively. The administration was hierarchical, often referred to as Great, Main and these correspond to Herodotuss Districts I-IV. However, the number of satrapies and their boundaries varied over time, within the hierarchical system, Sparda was a Great Satrapy consisting of the Major Satrapies of Sarda and Cappadocia