Nights into Dreams
Nights into Dreams is an action video game developed by Sonic Team and published by Sega for the Sega Saturn in 1996. The story follows two teenagers and Elliot, who enter a world called Nightopia where all dreams take place. With the help of Nights, an exiled Nightmaren, they begin a journey to stop the evil ruler Wizeman from destroying Nightopia, gameplay is centred around Nights flying through Claris and Elliots dreams to gather enough energy to defeat Wizeman and save Nightopia. The game is presented in 3D and imposes time limits on every level, development began soon after the release of Sonic & Knuckles in 1994, although the concept originated during the development of Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Development was led by Sonic Team veterans Yuji Naka, Naoto Ohshima, Naka began the project with the main idea revolving around flight, and Ohshima designed the character Nights to resemble an angel that could fly like a bird. Ohshima designed Nights specifically as an androgynous character, the team conducted research on dreaming and REM sleep, and was influenced by the works and theories of psychoanalysts Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud.
An analogue controller, known as the Saturn 3D controller, was designed alongside the game and was included with retail copies sold. Nights into Dreams received positive reviews upon release, critics praised the graphics, soundtrack and it has been included on multiple lists as being the best Sega Saturn game of all time, as well as among the best games ever made. An abbreviated version of the game with a Christmas theme, titled Christmas Nights, was released in December 1996. The game was ported to the PlayStation 2 in 2008 exclusively in Japan and a version was released worldwide for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. A direct sequel, Journey of Dreams, was released for the Wii in 2007, Nights into Dreams is split into seven levels, referred to as Dreams. The levels are distributed equally between the two characters, three are unique to Claris, three to Elliot, and each play through an identical final seventh level, Twin Seeds. Initially, only Claris Spring Valley and Elliots Splash Garden levels are available, points are accumulated depending on how fast the player completes a level, and extra points are awarded when the player flies through rings.
Each level is split up into four Mares set in Nightopia, the goal of each Mare is to recover one of the stolen Ideya by collecting 20 blue chips and delivering them to the cage holding the Ideyas, which will overload and release the orb it holds. If the player walks around the landscape for too long, they will be pursued by a sentient alarm clock which will awaken the character and end the level if it comes into contact with the player. The majority of the centres on flying sequences, which are triggered by walking into the Ideya Palace near the start of each level so that the character merges with the imprisoned Nights. Once the flying sequence is initiated, the limit will begin. In the flying sections, the player controls Nights flight along a route through each Mare
Final Fantasy V
Final Fantasy V is a medieval-fantasy role-playing video game developed and published by Square in 1992 as a part of the Final Fantasy series. The game first appeared only in Japan on Nintendos Super Famicom and it has been ported with minor differences to Sonys PlayStation and Nintendos Game Boy Advance. An original video produced in 1994 called Final Fantasy, Legend of the Crystals serves as a sequel to the events depicted in the game. It was released for the PlayStation Network on April 6,2011 in Japan. An enhanced port of the game, with new high resolution graphics and an interface, was released for iPhone and iPad on March 28,2013. The game begins as a wanderer named Bartz investigates a fallen meteor, there, he encounters several characters, one of whom reveals the danger facing the four Crystals that control the worlds elements. These Crystals act as a seal on Exdeath, an evil sorcerer and his party must keep the Crystals from being exploited by Exdeaths influence and prevent his resurgence.
Final Fantasy V has been praised for the freedom of customization that the player has over the characters, despite being released only in Japan, the Super Famicom version sold more than two million copies. The PlayStation version has earned Greatest Hits status, selling more than 350,000 copies, Final Fantasy V includes many standard role-playing elements as well as renovated features introduced in earlier Final Fantasy games. Players navigate from a perspective, a traversable overworld connects the various towns, dungeons. The player can traverse the overworld by foot, hydra-guided ship, wind drake, or airship, most towns contain scattered inns for resting, shops for purchasing equipment, and people from whom the player can gain information. The player may embark on several quests that become available as the story progresses. Characters grow in strength by gaining points from random encounters with monsters on the overworld or in a dungeon. Experience culminates in a level up, in which character attributes such as hit points, a menu-based management system allows the player to equip and change each characters selected job outside of battle as well as to save the games progress.
Final Fantasy V is the second Final Fantasy game to use the Active Time Battle system and this system was first established in Final Fantasy IV, but in that game there was no way to visibly anticipate which characters turn would come up next. In Final Fantasy V, the player can see which characters turn is next in battle. The ATB mechanic with a gauge, as seen in Final Fantasy V, would be used in the four following main titles in the series, the main feature of the gameplay of Final Fantasy V is the Job System. Players can freely select jobs for their characters to master, allowing each character to gain special abilities, each character begins with only the Freelancer class, to gain access to new jobs, players must acquire crystal shards
Id Software LLC is an American video game developer headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The company was founded on February 1,1991, by four members of the computer company Softdisk, programmers John Carmack and John Romero, game designer Tom Hall, business manager Jay Wilbur was involved. Id Software made important technological developments in video game technologies for the PC, including work done for the Wolfenstein, ids work was particularly important in 3D computer graphics technology and in game engines that are heavily used throughout the video game industry. The company was heavily involved in the creation of the first-person shooter genre. Wolfenstein 3D is often considered as the first true FPS, Doom was a game that popularized the genre and PC gaming in general, on June 24,2009, ZeniMax Media acquired the company. In 2015, they opened a studio in Frankfurt, Germany. The founders of id Software met in the offices of Softdisk developing multiple games for Softdisks monthly publishing and these included Dangerous Dave and other titles.
In September 1990, John Carmack developed an efficient way that would perform rapid side-scrolling graphics on the PC, upon making this breakthrough and Hall stayed up late into the night making a replica of the first level of the popular 1988 NES game Super Mario Bros. 3, inserting stock graphics of Romeros Dangerous Dave character in lieu of Mario, when Romero saw the demo, entitled Dangerous Dave in Copyright Infringement, he realized that Carmacks breakthrough could have potential. Despite their work, Nintendo turned them down, saying they had no interest in expanding to the PC market, miller suggested that they develop shareware games that he would distribute. On December 14,1990, the first episode was released as shareware by Millers company and orders began rolling in. In a legal settlement, the team was required to provide a game to Softdisk every two months for a period of time, but they would do so on their own. On February 1,1991, id Software was founded, the shareware distribution method was initially employed by id Software through Apogee Software to sell their products, such as the Commander Keen and Doom games.
They would release the first part of their trilogy as shareware, only did id Software release their games via more traditional shrink-wrapped boxes in stores. Id Software moved from the cube-shaped Mesquite office to a newly built location in Richardson, on June 24,2009, it was announced that id Software had been acquired by ZeniMax Media. The deal would eventually affect publishing deals id Software had before the acquisition, namely Rage, on June 26,2013, id Software president Todd Hollenshead quit after 17 years of service. He was the last of the founders to leave the company. It is presented by the company as a reference to the id, evidence of the reference can be found as early as Wolfenstein 3D with the statement thats id, as in the id, and superego in the psyche appearing in the games documentation
The Nintendo 64, stylized as the NINTENDO64 and often referred to as the N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. It was the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until Nintendos seventh console, while the Nintendo 64 was succeeded by Nintendos MiniDVD-based GameCube in September 2001, the consoles remained available until the system was retired in late 2003. Codenamed Project Reality, the the N64 design was complete by mid-1995, but its launch was delayed until 1996. It launched with three games, Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64, released worldwide, and Saikyō Habu Shōgi, as part of the fifth generation of gaming, the system competed primarily with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn. The suggested retail price at its United States launch was US$199.99, the console was released in a range of colors and designs over its lifetime. In 2015, IGN named it the 9th greatest video game console of all time, as of 2016, the system remains a popular retro console in North America.
At the beginning of the 1990s, Nintendo led the game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System. Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES, was successful, competition from long-time rival Sega, and relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendos need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendos strict licensing policies, the company created a design proposal for a video game system, seeking an already well established partner in that market. James H. Clark, founder of SGI, initially offered the proposal to Tom Kalinske, the historical details of these preliminary negotiations were controversial between the two competing suitors. Tom Kalinske said that he and Joe Miller of Sega of America were quite impressed with SGIs prototype, the engineers from Sega Enterprises claimed that their evaluation of the early prototype had uncovered several unresolved hardware issues and deficiencies.
Those were subsequently resolved, but Sega had already decided against SGIs design, Nintendo resisted that summary conclusion, arguing that the reason for SGIs ultimate choice of partner is due to Nintendo having been a more appealing business partner than Sega. While Sega demanded exclusive rights to the chip, Nintendo was willing to license the technology on a non-exclusive basis, michael Slater, publisher of Microprocessor Report said, The mere fact of a business relationship there is significant because of Nintendos phenomenal ability to drive volume. If it works at all, it could bring MIPS to levels of volume never dreamed of, james Clark met with Nintendo CEO Hiroshi Yamauchi in early 1993, thus initiating Project Reality. This announcement coincided with Nintendos August 1993 Shoshinkai trade show, as with most of the computing industry, Nintendo had limited experience with 3D graphics, and worked with several outside companies to develop the technology comprising the console. Some chip technology was provided by NEC, and Sharp, SGI had recently acquired MIPS Computer Systems, and the two worked together toward a low-cost realtime 3D graphics hardware system.
SGI and its subsidiary MIPS Technologies were responsible for the R4300i microprocessor and that software-based console prototype platform was supplanted by a workstation-hosted console simulation board, representing the finalized console hardware. SGIs performance estimates based upon their RealityEngine supercomputing platform were ultimately reported to be accurate to the final consumer console product
Final Fantasy III
It is the first numbered Final Fantasy game to feature the job-change system. The story revolves around four orphaned youths drawn to a crystal of light, the crystal grants them some of its power, and instructs them to go forth and restore balance to the world. The game was released in Japan on April 27,1990. It had not been released outside Japan until a remake was developed by Matrix Software for the Nintendo DS on August 24,2006, at that time, it was the only Final Fantasy game not previously released in North America or Europe. The Nintendo DS version of the game was received, selling over one million copies in Japan. The gameplay of Final Fantasy III combines elements of the first two Final Fantasy games with new features, auto-targeting for physical attacks after a friendly or enemy unit is killed is featured for the first time. Unlike subsequent games in the series, magical attacks are not auto-targeted in the same fashion, the experience point system featured in Final Fantasy makes a return following its absence from Final Fantasy II.
The character class system featured in the first game reappears, any playable character has access to every currently available job and can change from job to job at will. Switching jobs consumes capacity points which are awarded to the party following every battle. Different weapons and accessories, and magic spells are utilized by each job, a characters level of proficiency at a particular job increases the longer the character remains with that job. Higher job levels increase the statistics of the character and reduce the cost in capacity points to switch to that job. Final Fantasy III is the first game in the series to feature special battle commands such as Steal or Jump, certain jobs feature innate, non-battle abilities, such as the Thiefs ability to open passages that would otherwise require a special key item. Final Fantasy III is the first game in the series to feature summoned creatures and they did not realize that they could not control such fundamental forces of nature. This power of light would have consumed the world itself had the light crystals not had their natural counterparts, the four dark elemental crystals.
Disturbed by the interruption of the careful balance between light and dark, four warriors were granted the power of the dark crystals to recapture the power of the light crystals. These so-called Dark Warriors succeeded in their quest, and restored harmony to the world, but their victory came too late to save the doomed civilization, whose culture was reduced to ruin, though their floating continent remained. On that continent, the circle of Gulgans, a race of blind soothsayers and fortune-tellers, appearing in a female-like form, the Cloud of Darkness refers to herself in first-person plural because her two tentacles have minds of their own. Although she initially defeats the Light Warriors, they are resurrected with Unei and Dogas help, an earthquake opens up a previously hidden cavern in Altar Cave near the village of Ur on the floating continent
Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games and the first sports arcade video game. It is a tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics. While other arcade games such as Computer Space came before it. The game was manufactured by Atari, which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created Pong as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell, Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey, which resulted in a lawsuit against Atari. Surprised by the quality of Alcorns work and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney decided to manufacture the game, soon after its release, several companies began producing games that copied Pongs gameplay, and eventually released new types of games. As a result, Atari encouraged its staff to more innovative games. The company released several sequels that built upon the gameplay by adding new features. During the 1975 Christmas season, Atari released a version of Pong exclusively through Sears retail stores.
It was a success and led to numerous copies. The game has been remade on numerous home and portable platforms following its release, Pong has been referenced and parodied in multiple television shows and video games, and has been a part of several video game and cultural exhibitions. Pong is a sports game that simulates table tennis. Players use the paddles to hit a back and forth. The aim is for player to reach eleven points before the opponent. Pong was the first game developed by Atari, after producing Computer Space, Bushnell decided to form a company to produce more games by licensing ideas to other companies. The first contract was with Bally Manufacturing Corporation for a driving game, soon after the founding, Bushnell hired Allan Alcorn because of his experience with electrical engineering and computer science and Dabney had previously worked with him at Ampex. Prior to working at Atari, Alcorn had no experience with video games, to acclimate Alcorn to creating games, Bushnell gave him a project secretly meant to be a warm-up exercise.
Bushnell told Alcorn that he had a contract with General Electric for a product, in 2011, Bushnell stated that the game was inspired by previous versions of electronic tennis he had played before, Bushnell played a version on a PDP-1 computer in 1964 while attending college
History of video games
The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academic computer scientists began designing simple games and simulations as part of their research. Since the 1980s, video gaming has become a form of entertainment. One of the games was Spacewar. Which was developed by computer scientists, early arcade video games developed from 1972 to 1978. During the 1970s, the first generation of consoles emerged, including the popular game Pong. The 1970s was the era of computer games. The golden age of video games was from 1978 to 1982. During the 1980s, gaming computers, early online gaming and handheld LCD games emerged, from 1976 to 1992, the second generation of video consoles emerged. The third generation of consoles, which were 8-bit units, emerged from 1983 to 1995, the fourth generation of consoles, which were 16-bit models, emerged from 1987 to 1999. The 1990s saw the resurgence and decline of arcades, the transition to 3D video games, improved handheld games, the fifth generation of consoles, which were 32 and 64-bit units, was from 1993 to 2006.
During this era, mobile phone gaming emerged, during the 2000s, the sixth generation of consoles emerged. During this period, online gaming and mobile games became important, the seventh generation of consoles was from 2005 to 2012. In 2013, the generation of consoles emerged, including Nintendos Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, Microsofts Xbox One. PC gaming has been holding a market share in Asia. The term video game has evolved over the decades from a technical definition to a general concept defining a new class of interactive entertainment. Technically, for a product to be a game, there must be a video signal transmitted to a cathode ray tube that creates a rasterized image on a screen. From a technical standpoint, these would more properly be called games or computer games. Today, the video game has completely shed its purely technical definition
Final Fantasy VIII
Final Fantasy VIII is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square for the PlayStation console. Released in 1999, it is the eighth installment in the Final Fantasy series. Set on a fantasy world with science fiction elements, the game follows a group of young mercenaries, led by Squall Leonhart. After defeating Edea, the protagonists learn that she was under the control of Ultimecia, during the quest to defeat Ultimecia, Squall struggles with his role as leader and develops a romance with one of his comrades, Rinoa Heartilly. Development began in 1997, during the English localization of Final Fantasy VII, the game builds on the visual changes brought to the series by Final Fantasy VII, including use 3D graphics and pre-rendered backgrounds, while departing from many Final Fantasy traditions. Final Fantasy VIII was mostly well received by critics, who praised its originality and it was voted the 22nd-best game of all time in 2006 by readers of the Japanese magazine Famitsu. It was ported to Windows-based personal computers and became available on PlayStation Network as a PSone Classics title in 2009, as of December 2013, it has sold more than 8.5 million copies worldwide.
Like the Final Fantasy games before it, Final Fantasy VIII consists of three modes of play, the world map, the field map, and the battle screen. The world map is a 3D display in which the player may navigate freely across a small-scale rendering of the game world, characters travel across the world map in a variety of ways, including by foot, Chocobo and airship. The field map consists of controllable 3D characters overlaid on one or more 2D pre-rendered backgrounds, the battle screen is a 3D model of a location such as a street or room, where turn-based fights between playable characters and CPU-controlled enemies take place. The interface is menu-driven, as in previous titles, but with the weapon and armor systems removed and new features present. Also featured is a collectible card-based minigame called Triple Triad, for Final Fantasy VIII, Hiroyuki Ito designed a battle system based on summon-able monsters, called Guardian Forces, abbreviated in-game as GF. Assigning a GF onto a character allows the player to use battle commands beyond Attack with the weapon, such as Magic, GF.
Spells are stocked on characters as quantified inventory and are consumed one by one when used, characters can junction these spells onto their statistics—such as Strength and Luck—for various bonuses, provided the character has junctioned a Guardian Force. The junction systems flexibility affords the player a range of customization options. The use of summoned creatures for anything other than a single devastating attack during battle was a significant departure for the Final Fantasy series, the junction system acts as a substitute for armor and accessories used in previous titles to enhance the characters statistics. Characters in Final Fantasy VIII have unique special attacks called Limit Breaks, the magic spell Aura increases the probability of Limit Breaks appearing, regardless of a characters remaining hit points, while various status afflictions can prevent Limit Breaks. Final Fantasy VIII introduced elements to complement Limit Break animations
An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games. While exact dates are debated, the age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks provided the inspiration and atmosphere for arcade games, in the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. These early amusement machines differed from their electronic cousins in that they were made of wood and they lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, and used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring, another Sega 1969 release, Missile, a shooter and vehicle-combat simulation, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen.
In 1970 Midway released the game in North America as S. A. M. I, in the course of the 1970s, following the release of Pong in 1972, electronic video-games gradually replaced electro-mechanical arcade games. In 1972, Sega released a game called Killer Shark. In 1974, Nintendo released Wild Gunman, a shooter that used full-motion video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen. The 1978 video game Space Invaders, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games, in 1971 students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin-operated version of the Spacewar video game. This ranks as the earliest known instance of a video game. Later in the year, Nolan Bushnell created the first mass-manufactured game, Computer Space. In 1972, Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, Atari essentially created the coin-operated video game industry with the game Pong, the first successful electronic ping pong video game. Pong proved to be popular, but imitators helped keep Atari from dominating the fledgling coin-operated video game market, taitos Space Invaders, in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game.
Its success marked the beginning of the age of arcade video games. Space Invaders, Pac-Man, Defender, by 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth $8 billion. By the late 1980s, the video game craze was beginning to fade due to advances in home video game console technology. By 1991, US arcade video game revenues had fallen to $2.1 billion, the pseudo-3D sprite/tile scaling was handled in a similar manner to textures in texture-mapped polygonal 3D games of the 1990s
Machinima is the use of real-time computer graphics engines to create a cinematic production. Most often video games are used to generate the computer animation, machinima-based artists, sometimes called machinimists or machinimators, are often fan laborers, by virtue of their re-use of copyrighted materials. Originally, these recordings documented speedruns—attempts to complete a level as quickly as possible—and multiplayer matches, the addition of storylines to these films created Quake movies. The more general term machinima, a portmanteau of machine cinema, arose when the concept spread beyond the Quake series to other games, after this generalization, machinima appeared in mainstream media, including television series and advertisements. Machinima has advantages and disadvantages compared to other styles of filmmaking. Its relative simplicity over traditional frame-based animation limits control and range of expression and its real-time nature favors speed, cost saving, and flexibility over the higher quality of pre-rendered computer animation.
Virtual acting is less expensive and physically restricted than live action, Machinima can be filmed by relying on in-game artificial intelligence or by controlling characters and cameras through digital puppetry. Scenes can be scripted, and can be manipulated during post-production using video editing techniques. Editing, custom software, and creative cinematography may address technical limitations, Game companies have provided software for and have encouraged machinima, but the widespread use of digital assets from copyrighted games has resulted in complex, unresolved legal issues. Machinima productions can remain close to their roots and feature stunts or other portrayals of gameplay. Popular genres include dance videos and drama, some filmmakers attempt to stretch the boundaries of the rendering engines or to mask the original 3-D context. Some general film festivals accept machinima, and game companies, such as Epic Games, Blizzard Entertainment, 1980s software crackers added custom introductory credits sequences to programs whose copy protection they had removed.
Increasing computing power allowed for more complex intros, and the demoscene formed when focus shifted to the intros instead of the cracks, the goal became to create the best 3-D demos in real-time with the least amount of software code. Disk storage was too slow for this, graphics had to be calculated on the fly, in Disney Interactive Studios 1992 computer game Stunt Island, users could stage and play back stunts, as Nitsche stated, the games goal was not. A high score but a spectacle, released the following year, id Softwares Doom included the ability to record gameplay as sequences of events that the game engine could replay in real-time. Because events and not video frames were saved, the game demo files were small. A culture of recording gameplay developed, as Henry Lowood of Stanford University called it, the result was nothing less than a metamorphosis of the player into a performer. Another important feature of Doom was that it allowed players to create their own modifications, maps, in machinima, there is a dual register of gestures, the trained motions of the player determine the in-game images of expressive motion
Final Fantasy II
Final Fantasy II is a fantasy role-playing video game developed and published by Square in 1988 for the Family Computer as the second installment of the Final Fantasy series. The game has received numerous enhanced remakes for the WonderSwan Color, the PlayStation, the Game Boy Advance, the PlayStation Portable, and multiple mobile and smartphone types. As neither this game nor Final Fantasy III were initially released outside Japan, Final Fantasy IV was originally released in North America as Final Fantasy II, so as not to confuse players. The most recent releases of the game are enhanced versions for the iOS and Android, the games story centers on four youths whose parents were killed during an army invasion by the empire of Palamecia, who are using hellspawn to conquer the world. Three of the four main characters join a rebellion against the empire, embarking on missions to gain new magic and weapons, destroy enemy superweapons, the Game Boy Advance remake adds a bonus story after the game is completed.
Final Fantasy II introduced many elements that would become staples of the Final Fantasy franchise, including chocobos. Despite being a sequel to Final Fantasy, the game includes no characters or locations from the first game, Final Fantasy II received little attention at the time from non-Japanese reviewers, though its remakes have garnered favorable reviews. Final Fantasy II features gameplay similar to that of its predecessor, the player can freely roam an overworld containing several towns and dungeons. A menu-based system allows the player to each character with equipment. Magic spells are assigned to the character from the item menu, the player can save their progress on the overworld. Weapons, armor and magic spells can be purchased at shops, there exist a handful of special items that can be shown to NPCs during conversation or used on certain objects, which have the same effect. Players can fight with less than four characters in their party, Final Fantasy II introduced the chocobo, the signature Final Fantasy mascot, which lets characters ride to a location at great speed without being attacked by enemies.
The recurring character Cid was introduced in II, a character of the name has appeared in every main-series game since. On the overworld and within dungeons, random encounters with enemies can be fought to improve each characters attributes, unlike the original Final Fantasy, players could not upgrade their characters classes. The game is one of the few games in the series to not use experience-based levels. Instead, each participating in battle develops depending on what actions they take. For instance, characters who use a particular type of weapon will become more adept at wielding a weapon of that type. Attributes include hit points, magic points, magic power, strength, agility, players can increase their ability to wield certain types of weapon, and repeated use in combat causes the ability to level up