Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand. Linen, gold, or silver threads were used. Now lace is made with cotton thread, although linen and silk threads are still available. Manufactured lace may be made of synthetic fiber. A few modern artists make lace with a fine silver wire instead of thread; the word lace is from Middle English, from Old French las, strin, from Vulgar Latin *laceum, from Latin laqueus, noose. There are many types of lace, classified by; these include: Needle lace, such as Venetian Gros Point, is made using a needle and thread. This is the most flexible of the lace-making arts. While some types can be made more than the finest of bobbin laces, others are time-consuming; some purists regard needle lace as the height of lace-making. The finest antique needle laces were made from a fine thread, not manufactured today. Cutwork, or whitework, is lace constructed by removing threads from a woven background, the remaining threads wrapped or filled with embroidery.
Bobbin lace, as the name suggests, is made with a pillow. The bobbins, turned from wood, bone, or plastic, hold threads which are woven together and held in place with pins stuck in the pattern on the pillow; the pillow contains straw, preferably oat straw or other materials such as sawdust, insulation styrofoam, or ethafoam. Known as Bone-lace. Chantilly lace is a type of bobbin lace. Tape lace makes the tape in the lace as it is worked, or uses a machine- or hand-made textile strip formed into a design joined and embellished with needle or bobbin lace. Knotted lace includes tatting. Tatted lace is made with a tatting needle. Crocheted lace includes Irish crochet, pineapple crochet, filet crochet. Knitted lace includes Shetland lace, such as the "wedding ring shawl", a lace shawl so fine that it can be pulled through a wedding ring. Machine-made lace is any style of lace replicated using mechanical means. Chemical lace: the stitching area is stitched with embroidery threads that form a continuous motif.
Afterwards, the stitching areas are removed and only the embroidery remains. The stitching ground is made of a non-heat-resistant material; the origin of lace is disputed by historians. An Italian claim is a will of 1493 by the Milanese Sforza family. A Flemish claim is lace on the alb of a worshiping priest in a painting about 1485 by Hans Memling, but since lace evolved from other techniques, it is impossible to say that it originated in any one place. The late 16th century marked the rapid development of lace, both needle lace and bobbin lace became dominant in both fashion as well as home décor. For enhancing the beauty of collars and cuffs, needle lace was embroidered with picots. Lace was used by clergy of the early Catholic Church as part of vestments in religious ceremonies but did not come into widespread use until the 16th century in the northwestern part of the European continent; the popularity of lace increased and the cottage industry of lace making spread throughout Europe. In 1840, Britain's Queen Victoria was married in lace, influencing the wedding dress style until now.
In North America in the 19th century, missionaries spread the knowledge of lace making to the Native American tribes. St. John Francis Regis guided many women out of prostitution by establishing them in the lace making and embroidery trade, why he became the Patron Saint of lace making; the English diarist Samuel Pepys wrote about the lace used for his, his wife's, his acquaintances' clothing, on 10 May 1669, noted that he intended to remove the gold lace from the sleeves of his coat "as it is fit should" in order to avoid charges of ostentatious living. Catherine of Aragon while exiled in Ampthill, was said to have supported the lace makers there by burning all her lace, commissioning new pieces; this may be the origin of the lacemaker's holiday - Cattern's day. On this day lacemakers were given a day off from work, Cattern cakes - small dough cakes made with caraway seeds, were used to celebrate. Historical Giovanna Dandolo 1457–1462 Barbara Uthmann 1514–1575 Morosina Morosini 1545–1614 Federico de Vinciolo sixteenth-century Lacemaker in painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, completed around 1669–1670.
Contemporary Rosa Elena Egipciaco Anglo Scotian Mills Doily Lacebark Lippitt Mill Ribbons See-through clothing Scranton Lace Company A lace collection including images and descriptions Museo del Merletto, Venice Lace bands and fabrics
Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook. The name is derived from the French term crochet, meaning'small hook'; these are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The salient difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before the next one is begun, while knitting keeps a large number of stitches open at a time; the word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, both meaning "hook". It was used in 17th-century French lace making, crochetage designating a stitch used to join separate pieces of lace, crochet subsequently designating both a specific type of fabric and the hooked needle used to produce it. Although the fabric is not known to be crochet in the present sense, a genealogical relationship between the techniques sharing that name appears likely.
Knitted textiles survive from early periods, but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric relates to its appearance in Europe during the 19th century. Earlier work identified as crochet was made by nålebinding, a different looped yarn technique; the first known published instructions for crochet explicitly using that term to designate the craft in its present sense appeared in the Dutch magazine Penélopé in 1823. This includes a color plate showing five styles of purse of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread; the first is "simple open crochet". The second starts in a semi-open form, where chain-stitch arches alternate with long segments of slip-stitch crochet, closes with a star made with "double-crochet stitches"; the third purse is made in double-crochet. The instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle and introduce a number of decorative techniques; the earliest dated English reference to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook—shepherd's knitting—is in The Memoirs of a Highland Lady by Elizabeth Grant.
The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its subsequently published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, the actual date of publication was first in 1898. Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherd's hook, recommends its use for crochet with coarser yarn. In 1842, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states: "Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds' hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood, they have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and drawn through the work. These instruments are to be procured of various sizes..."Two years the same author, writes: "Crochet, — a species of knitting practised by the peasants in Scotland, with a small hooked needle called a shepherd’s hook, — has, within the last seven years, aided by taste and fashion, obtained the preference over all other ornamental works of a similar nature. It derives its present name from the French.
This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, both countries, although unjustifiably, have claimed the invention."An instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or Single Crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U. S. American terminology always using the latter, it equates "Double" and "French crochet". Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is solid evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet; the former method of production was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderot's Encyclopedia. The tip of the needle shown there is indistinguishable from that of a present-day inline crochet hook and the chain stitch separated from a cloth support is a fundamental element of the latter technique; the 1823 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.
This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of that work, 1847. The strong taper of the shepherd's hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time. Early yarn hooks were continuously tapered but enough to accommodate multiple loops; the design with a cylindrical shaft, commonplace today was reserved for tambour-style steel needles. Both types merged into the modern form that appeared toward the end of the 19th century, including both tapered and cylindrical segments, the continuously tapered bone hook remained in industrial production until World War II; the early instruction books make frequent reference to the alternative use of'ivory, bone, or wooden hooks' and'steel needles in a handle', as appropriate to the stitch being made. Taken with the synonymous labeling of shepherd's- and single crochet, the similar equivalence of French- and double crochet, there is a strong suggestion that crochet is rooted both in tambour embroidery and shepherd's knitting, leading to thread and yarn crochet
A coaster, drink coaster, beverage coaster, or beermat is an item used to rest drinks upon. Coasters protect the surface of any other surface where the user might place a drink. Coasters placed on top of a beverage can be used to show that a drink is not finished or to prevent contamination. Coasters can stop hot drinks burning the table surface. Pubs will have beermats spread out across their surfaces, they are used not just to protect the surface of the table, but, as they are made of paper, they can be used to absorb condensation dripping along the glass or serve as an ad-hoc notepad. Beermats are branded with trademarks or alcohol advertising. Beermats are not to be confused with bar mats, rectangular pieces of rubber or absorbent material used to protect the countertop and limit the spread of spilled drinks in a bar or pub; the first coasters were designed for decanters or wine bottles, so that they could be slid around the dinner table after the servants had retired. They were in common use after about 1760.
Early coasters took the form of a shallow tray or dish made of wood, papier-mâché, silver or silver plate. In 1880, the first beermats made of cardboard were introduced by the German printing company, Friedrich Horn. In 1892, Robert Sputh of Dresden manufactured the first beermat made of wood pulp. Watney brewery introduced them to the United Kingdom in 1920 to advertise their pale ale; the packaging company Quarmby Promotions, established in 1872, began manufacturing beermats in Milnsbridge in 1931. After Quarmby Promotions was taken over by the Katz Group, it moved production to Brighouse and in 2006 to Morley, West Yorkshire, before closing its production in 2009. Saucers are long used in western culture for much the same purpose; when drinking tea, it is customary to use a saucer set. By the mid-twentieth century, drink coasters made in many materials and styles were being manufactured for domestic use. Today, they are common as an everyday houseware piece and are used in restaurants. Coasters are made from high grammage paperboard, but may be made from several layers of tissue paper.
Important parameters for beer mats are wet rub and printability. More glass coasters with empty frames have been produced; the consumer can personalize each one with a different picture or design. More some beermat manufacturers have overhauled their manufacturing processes, allowing them to supply bespoke pulpboard beermats in quantities as low as 100 without significant price premiums associated with smaller print orders; this has expanded the reach of the beermat with individuals choosing to have bespoke beermats printed for their wedding and political parties utilising them to deliver campaign messages. Coaster Factory and Canada Coaster, based in North America, The Katz Group, based in Weisenbach, produce 75% of the estimated 5.5 billion beermats in the world, including about two-thirds of the European market and 97% of the US market. In addition to the factory in Weisenbach, Katz has another two conversion factories in the U. S.: one in Sanborn, New York, the other in Johnson City, Tennessee.
Drink coasters are made from soapstone, metal and silicone. Beermats are adorned with a customized image—usually mentioning or advertising a brand of beer, although they can be used to promote a drinking establishment, sports franchise, businesses or special events; some coasters are collectible items. Tegestology is a term coined from Latin defined as the practice of collecting beermats or coasters, with practitioners known as tegestologists. A 1960 British Pathe News short shows comedy duo Wise as tegestologists; the dictionary definition of drink coaster at Wiktionary Media related to Beermats at Wikimedia Commons
Crochet thread is specially formulated thread made from mercerized cotton for crafting decorative crochet items such as doilies or filet crochet. Crochet thread produces fabric of fine gauge. Crochet thread is always produced from cotton and has a denser pile and smaller diameter than ordinary yarn. Most crochet threads are thicker in diameter than sewing thread. Crochet thread can withstand considerable stresses from pulls with sharp hooks. Crochet manufacturing conventions treat thread and yarn quite differently: manufacturers designate different sizing scales for thread and yarn. Thread is packaged on spools instead of skeins or hanks and is offered for sale in a separate section from ordinary yarns or threads. Crochet hooks for use with thread are sized according to a different scale from yarn hooks. Thread hooks are manufactured differently from yarn hooks: modern yarn hooks are aluminum or plastic, while thread hooks are made of steel and have smaller hook heads and shorter shanks; the division between yarn and thread is somewhat arbitrary: crochet thread at its thickest is similar in diameter and behavior to fine cotton yarn.
The largest sizes of thread crochet hooks overlap with the smallest sizes of yarn crochet hooks. Crochet thread comes in sizes from 3 to 100, although it came in much finer sizes, down to 200. Diameter is inversely proportional to number, so size 3 is nearly as thick as yarn and size 100 is as fine as sewing thread. Thread may be categorized by number of plies and size 10 thread is known as bedspread weight. Smaller sizes are used for tatting jewelry and fine lace. Edie Eckman, The Crochet Answer Book, North Adams, Massachesetts: Storey Publishing, 2005
A granny square is a piece of square fabric produced in crochet by working in rounds from the center outward. Granny squares are traditionally handmade, they resemble coarse lace. Although there is no theoretical limit to the maximum size of a granny square, crocheters create multiple small squares and assemble the pieces to make clothing, Afghan blankets, other household textiles. Granny square apparel is a cyclical fashion; as Stitch'n Bitch series author Debbie Stoller describes: If you grew up in the seventies, as I did, you might fear the granny square--if only because, for a while, clothing was made of nothing else. Granny square vests, granny square shorts, granny square hats. Heck, I bet there was some kid out there, forced to go to school wearing granny square underwear. Although particular color and pattern schemes for granny squares change with time, this class of motif is a staple among crocheters. Multicolor granny squares are an effective way to use up small amounts of yarn left over from other projects and basic granny square motifs do not require advanced skills to execute.
According to Edie Eckman in The Crochet Answer Book, Any granny square begins with a small loop of chain stitches. Basic granny squares alternate sets of double stitches and chain stitches. Variant patterns produce other geometric shapes such as hexagons. In order to achieve a distinct angle at the corners the designer uses extra chain stitches. Subsequent rounds are added by wrapping multiple stitches around the existing chain stitches. Hundreds of variant motifs are in use and entire books have been devoted to granny square designs. Cottrell, Susan; the New Granny Square, Utah: Lark/Chapelle, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57990-980-2 Media related to Granny squares at Wikimedia Commons Granny square tutorial
Amigurumi is the Japanese art of knitting or crocheting small, stuffed yarn creatures. The word is a portmanteau of the Japanese words ami, meaning crocheted or knitted, nuigurumi, meaning stuffed doll. In the West they are called amigurumi, which are the original phonetics of 編みぐるみ in Japanese language. Amigurumi vary in size and there are no restrictions about size or look. While the art of amigurumi has been known in Japan for several decades, the craft first started appealing to the masses in other countries in the West, in 2003. By 2006, amigurumi were reported to be some of the most popular items on Etsy, an online craft marketplace, where they sold for $10 to $100. Since popularity has continued to increase. Though amigurumi seem popular online due to their presence on sites such as Etsy and Ravelry, amigurumi is still a developing craft permeated and directly depending on emerging trends and popular culture. According to the Crochet Guild of America, there are earlier records of crocheted or knitted dolls made in China.
According to Yoshihiro Matushita, there are records of analogous techniques in Japan, such as needle binding, a fabric creation technique predating knitting and crocheting. During the Edo period, Japan traded with the Dutch and, as a result, it is believed that knitting was introduced as a technique. Knitting evolved with the samurai, who were experts in creating garments and decorations for their katana and winter wear. During the Meiji era, Japan transitioned from being a feudal society into a more modern model, it was during that period that industrialization started in the country. The educational model was changed and thousands of students were sent abroad to learn practices from the west. More than 3,000 westerners were hired to teach modern science, mathematics and foreign languages in Japan. According to Dai Watanabe, “Women were invited to teach western needleworks during that time.” She identifies the first stuffed crocheted motif, 西洋毛糸編物教授, a twigged loquat with a leaf and more fruit motifs which started appearing in 1920.
Cute amigurumi are the most aesthetically popular. Amigurumi may be used as children's toys but are purchased or made for aesthetic purposes. Although amigurumi originated in Japan, the craft has become popular around the world. Amigurumi can be knitted, though they are crocheted out of yarn or thread, using the basic techniques of crochet. Amigurumi can be worked as one piece or, more in sections which are sewed or crocheted together. In crochet, amigurumi are worked in spiral rounds to prevent "striping", a typical feature of joining crochet rounds in a project. Small gauge crochet hooks or knitting needles are used to achieve a tight gauge that does not allow the stuffing to show through the fabric. Stuffing can be standard polyester, wool, or cotton craft stuffing, but may be improvised from other materials. Wires, such as pipe cleaners or floral wire, may be used to make the doll posable. Plastic pellets, glass pebbles, stones may be inserted beneath the stuffing to distribute weight at the bottom of the figure.
Ramirez Saldarriaga, Jennifer. Amigurumi. Helsinki, Finland: The Sun and the Turtle
Bead crochet is a crochet technique that incorporates beads into a crochet fabric. The technique is used to produce decorative effects in women's fashion accessories; the word "crochet" is derived from the French "croche" or "croc" meaning "to hook". Published descriptions of bead crochet date from around 1824 although it was common before then. At one time, bead crochet was thought by some people to be appropriate only for rich people. Early examples of bead crochet include nineteenth century miser's purses. By the 1920s bead crochet technique made necklace ropes and beaded bags. Bead crochet waned during the 1930s when the great depression reduced free time for decorative needlework and as inexpensive manufactured goods became more available. Interest in bead crochet has revived somewhat in recent years as a hobbyist pastime. Most bead crochet is created by stringing beads onto uncut crochet thread prior to crocheting. Most artists either use a beading needle or apply clear nail polish to the end of the thread to create an anchor point for beading.
At predetermined stitches, the crocheter incorporates it into the fabric. Pre-stringing requires both the bead sequence and the crochet pattern to be planned in advance of manufacture; this technique aligns beads on one side of the stitch. So crocheting in rounds yields a bead side and a crochet side. Projects that are worked in rows would either have beads on both sides of the fabric or have alternating bead and non-bead rows. Off-loom stitches and fringing may be used to add beads onto finished crochet work. Design considerations in bead crochet include the size of the yarn or weight to be used, the diameter of the beads, the weight of the bead material. Bethany Barry, Bead Crochet, Colorado, Interweave Press, 2004. Bead crochet