Tver is a city and the administrative centre of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606. Located 180 kilometres northwest of Moscow, Tver was the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on 14 January 1913, it is situated at the confluence of the Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin from 1931 to 1990; the city is where three rivers meet, splitting the town into northern and southern parts by the Volga River, divided again into quarters by the Tvertsa River, which splits the left bank into east and west halves, the Tmaka River which does the same along the southern bank. Tver's foundation year is accepted to be 1135, although there is no universal agreement on this date and some estimates place it as late as the second half of the 13th century; the name of the city is of Finish origin Tiheverä. A minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1246, Alexander Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich, from whom a dynasty of local princes descended.
Four of them were killed by the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox church. A land of woods and bogs, the Principality of Tver was transformed into one of the richest and most populous Russian states; as the area was hardly accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population from the devastated south. By the end of the century, it was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and Moscow were young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far from being certain. Mikhail, the Grand Prince of Tver, who ascended the throne of Vladimir in 1305, was one of the most beloved of medieval Russian rulers, his policy of open conflict with the Golden Horde led to his assassination there in 1318. His son Dmitry "the Terrible Eyes" succeeded him, concluding an alliance with the mighty Grand Duchy of Lithuania, managed to raise Tver's prestige higher. Exasperated by Dmitry's influence, Prince Ivan Kalita of the Grand Duchy of Moscow engineered his murder by the Mongols in 1326.
On hearing the news of this crime, the city revolted against the Horde. The Horde joined its forces with brutally repressed the rebellion. Many citizens were enslaved or deported; this was the fatal blow to Tver's aspirations for supremacy in Russia. In the second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to the grand ducal throne; the claimers were backed up by Moscow and settled at the Moscow Kremlin court. During the Great Feudal War in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tver once again rose to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania, Novgorod and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of Tver sent one of his men, Afanasy Nikitin, to search for gold and diamonds as far as India. Nikitin's travelogue, describing his journey from 1466 to 1472, is the first firsthand account of India by a European. A monument to Nikitin was opened on the Volga embankment in 1955.
On 12 September 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great seized the city. The principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty were executed by Ivan the Terrible during the Oprichnina. At that turbulent time, Tver was ruled by a former khan of Kasimov; the only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 kilometers northeast of Tver. The city's decline was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg, Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway en route from Moscow, it was much visited by Russian royalty and nobility traveling from the old capital to the new one and back. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Tver was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate. In 1727 it was transferred to the newly established Novgorod Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, the whole area was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate.
Tver was the center of Tverskoy Uyezd. Following a devastating fire of 1763, the city was rebuilt in a Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great, the central part was reconstructed. Crumbling medieval buildings were replaced with imposing Neoclassical structures; the most important of these are the Travel Palace of the Empress, the Ascension church. In 1809 a committee was set up on the improvement of the city, where he worked the famous architect of the capital Rossi, his projects include Cathedral of Christ, houses on the waterfront and city center. He rebuilt Travel Palace. At this time, in the city lived a sister of Alexander I, Catherine Pavlovna, married to the governor of Tver, which turned the Palace into one of the centers of social life of the country and fashionable literary salon, where going to the high society of Tver and, visited by many prominent people from Moscow and St. Petersburg. Writer and historian Nikolay Karamzin read here Emperor Alexander excerpts from his "History".
In the palace of the Prince of Persia took Khozrev Mirz
Order of Nakhimov
The Order of Nakhimov is a military decoration of the Russian Federation named in honour of Russian admiral Pavel Nakhimov and bestowed to naval officers for outstanding military leadership. The order was established during World War II by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 3, 1944. Following the 1991 dissolution of the USSR, the Order of Nakhimov was retained unchanged by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation № 2424-1 of March 2, 1992 but it was not awarded in this form; the all encompassing Decree of the President of the Russian Federation № 1099 of September 7, 2010 that modernised and reorganised the entire Russian awards system away from its Soviet past amended the Order of Nakhimov to its present form, a ribbon mounted single class Order. From its establishment in 1944 until September 2010, the Order of Nakhimov was awarded in two classes to officers of the Navy for outstanding achievements in the development and prosecution of naval operations resulting in the successful repelling of an opponent's offensive or for active fleet operations that caused considerable damage to the enemy while conserving fleet assets.
The Order of Nakhimov 1st class was awarded to naval officers for: cleverly planned and well executed operations coordinated with all naval forces in defensive positions, which led to the destruction and harassment of numerically superior enemy naval forces. The Order of Nakhimov 1st class was worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other Orders of the USSR, located after the Order of Kutuzov 1st class; the Order 2nd class was worn on the right side and located after the Order of Kutuzov 2nd class. The Order of Nakhimov 1st class was of multi part construction consisting of a gold five pointed star displaying radiant rays, the bottom arm pointing straight down, a silver five pointed star with each arm ending in a naval sea anchor, its upper arm pointing straight up with the rays of the gold star protruding between its arms, a central gold medallion covered with dark enamel and the gold left profile relief image of the bust of admiral Nakhimov over two laurel branches at the center of the medallion, above the admiral's head along the medallion's upper circumference, the inscription in gilt letters "ADMIRAL NAKHIMOV".
The hammer and sickle bisected the laurel branches on the central medallion. Five triangular red rubies were affixed to the silver star, one on each arm pointing out from the central medallion's outer edge. On the reverse of the silver star, a threaded screw and a 33 mm in diameter nut arrangement for attachment to clothing; the maker's mark was located at the upper part of the gold star's reverse, the award serial number was hand etched in the lower part. The Order of Nakhimov 2nd class was of two part construction and made of silver with red enamel in lieu of rubies; the only noticeable difference between the Soviet and early Russian Federation variants was the abrogation of the hammer and sickle from the latter. The Order first class was awarded 82 times, including twice to naval units, such as the 1st torpedo-boat brigade of Sevastopol and the 1st Red Banner torpedo-boat brigade of the Baltic Fleet; the Order second class was awarded 469 times, including twice to naval units. The individuals listed below were awarded the Soviet variant of the Order of Nakhimov 1st class: Admiral Nikolay Mikhaylovich Kharlamov Rear Admiral Ivan Isidorovich Nosenko Admiral Stepan Grigorievich Kucherov Admiral Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Admiral Arseniy Grigoriyevich Golovko Admiral Vladimir Filippovich Tributs Admiral of the Fleet Ivan Matveyevich Kapitanets Rear Admiral Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin Admiral Yuri Aleksandrovich Panteleyev Admiral Nikolai Nikolaevich Amel'ko Coastguard Colonel General Ivan Vasil'evich Rogov Rear Admiral Aleksandr Petrovich Aleksandrov Vice Admiral Aleksandr Grigor'evich Orlov Admiral of the Fleet Simon Fyodorovich Zhavoronkov Admiral Vitaliy Alexeevich Fokin Vice Admiral Ilya Danil
N. G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy
The N. G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy located in Saint Petersburg is the only academy of the Russian Navy. In 1827 Admiral Ivan Kruzenshtern initiated an Officers' Class at the Naval Cadet Corps. In 1862 the Class was reorganized into an Academic Course of Maritime Science. In 1877, to mark its fiftieth anniversary, the Class was renamed the Nikolaev Maritime Academy and in 1910 was detached from the Naval Cadet Corps; the Academy's last pre-revolutionary class was in 1913. Toward the end of the Soviet era the Academy was named the A. A. Grechko Naval Academy and was renamed the N. G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy, it is a postgraduate institution somewhat comparable to the U. S. Naval War College and should not be confused with officer commissioning schools such as the U. S. Naval Academy. Advanced Officers' Class Russian scholar M. V. Lomonosov envisioned the establishment of a naval academy in 1759. However, only 68 years in 1826, did the famous admiral and seafarer Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern propose the establishment of the earliest organizational precursor to today's Naval Academy - the "Advanced Officers' Class" of the Russian Navy which were opened on 25 April 1827 under the Naval Corps.
The mission of the Advanced Officers' Class was to improve the theoretical training of the most promising naval officers in exact and applied sciences. As a result of the revolution in naval affairs brought about by the Crimean War and the clear end of the age of sail the future of naval education in Russia and its transformation was reviewed by a special commission in 1862. By the 7 August 1862 order of the Naval Minister, the Officers' Class was transformed into the newly established Academic Course of Maritime Sciences having a two-year period of study and divided into three departments: hydrographic and mechanical; the graduates of the course provided the navy with scientific officers for the fleets and instructors for the Naval Cadet Corps. Nikolayev Naval Academy In 1872 the council of the Academic Course developed a proposal for a full-fledged Academy. On 28 January 1877, the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Officers' Class, by the imperial directive of Aleksandr II the Officers' Class was renamed the Nikolayev Naval Academy.
At this time both the Naval Cadet Corps and the Naval Academy were headed by the same naval officer. Heads of the Academy during Imperial times Advanced Officers' Class Krusenstern, Ivan Fyodorovich Rimskiy-Korsakov, Nikolay Petrovich Kazin, Nikolay Glebovich Glazenap, Bogdan Aleksandrovich Davydov, Aleksey Kuzmich Nakhimov, Sergey Stepanovich Rimskiy-Korsakov, Voin Andryevich Epanchin, Aleksey Pavlovich Nikolayev Naval Academy Arsenyev, Dmitriy Sergeyevich Kriger, A. Kh. Damozhirov, A. I. Chukhnin, G. P. Rimskiy-Korsakov, Nikolay Aleksandrovich Voyevodskiy, Stepan Arkadyevich Rusin, Aleksandr Ivanovich Shulgin, Grigoriy Ivanovich After October 1917 the various Officers' Classes were combined into a single institution - the Navy Combined Special Officers' Classes. There were five specialties: artillery, submarine and electrical equipment. In 1920 two new classes and shipbuilding, were added. On 28 September 1920 the classes were classified as a higher special naval educational institution. In the Fall 1925 the institution was renamed Special Courses for Improving Fleet Commanders and as Special Courses for the Navy Command Staff.
In 1938 the Courses received their own building and they remain there today. In 1939 they were again renamed - Advanced Special Courses for the Command Staff of the Workers' & Peasants Navy. During the 900-day siege of Leningrad the Courses were moved and continued to function in Astrakhan and Samarkand. In 1946 the Courses transitioned to a peacetime work regime and received the name they carry today - Navy Advanced Special Officers' Classes. Heads of the Academy during Soviet times Maritime Academy Klado, Nikolay Leontiyevich Krylov, Aleksey Nikolayevich Zherve, Boris Borisovich RKKF Naval Academy Petrov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (1921–1923 Zherve, Boris Borisovich Dushenov, Konstantin Ivanovich Duplitskiy, Dmitriy Sergeyevich K. E. Voroshilov RKKF Naval Academy Okunev, Grigoriy Sergeyevich Stasevich, Pavel Grigoryevich Ludri, Ivan Martynovich RK Navy K. E. Voroshilov Naval Academy Stavitskiy, Sergey Petrovich Isakov, Ivan Stepanovich Stepanov, Georgiy Andreyevich Petrovskiy, Vladimir Alekseyevich Order of Lenin K.
E. Voroshilov Naval Academy Abankin, Pavel Sergeyevich Alafuzov, Vladimir Antonovich Panteleyev, Yuriy Aleksandrovich Yumashev, Ivan Stepanovich Andreyev, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Panteleyev, Yuriy Aleksandrovich Order of Lenin Naval Academy Order of Lenin and Ushakov Naval Academy Orel, Aleksandr Yefstafyevich Order of Lenin and Ushakov Marshal of the Soviet Union A. A. Grechko Naval Academy Order of Lenin, October Revolution, Ushakov Marshal of the Soviet Union A. A. Grechko Naval Academy Sysoyev, Viktor Sergeyevich Ponikarovskiy, Valentin Nikolayevich N. G. Kuznetsov Naval AcademyHeads of the Academy since 1991 Order of Lenin, October Revolution, Ushakov Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union N
Order of the Red Star
The Order of the Red Star was a military decoration of the Soviet Union. It was established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 6 April 1930 but its statute was only defined in decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 5 May 1930; that statute was amended by decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 7 May 1936, of 19 June 1943, of 26 February 1946, of 15 October 1947, of 16 December 1947 and by decree No 1803-X of 28 March 1980. The Order of the Red Star was awarded to soldiers of the Soviet Army, Navy and internal security forces, employees of the State Security Committee of the USSR, as well as NCOs and officers of the bodies of internal affairs; the Order of the Red Star is worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other orders of the USSR, placed after the Order of the Patriotic War 2nd class. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence; the Order of the Red Star was used as a long service award from 1944 to 1958 to mark fifteen years of service in the military, state security, or police.
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 14 September 1957 emphasised the devaluation of certain Soviet high military Orders used as long service awards instead of their intended criteria. This led to the joint 25 January 1958 decree of the Ministers of Defence, of Internal Affairs and of the Chairman of the Committee on State Security of the USSR establishing the Medal "For Impeccable Service" putting an end to the practice; the Order of the Red Star is a red enamelled 47mm to 50mm wide silver five pointed star. In the center of the obverse, an oxydised silver shield bearing the image of an erect soldier wearing an overcoat and carrying a rifle, along the shield's entire circumference, a narrow band bearing the Communist motto in relief, "Workers of the world, unite!", the band below the soldier bore the relief inscription "USSR". Below the shield, the hammer and sickle of oxydised silver; the otherwise plain reverse bore the award serial number. The Order was attached to clothing by a threaded screw attachment.
When the order wasn't worn, a ribbon could be worn in its stead on the ribbon bar on the left side of the chest. The ribbon of the Order of the red Star was a 24mm wide silk moiré dark red with a 5mm wide central silver stripe; the Order of the Red Star was awarded 6 times to 5 people, 5 times to more than 15 people, four times to more than 150 people, three times to more than 1,000 people. Below is a short partial list of such multiple recipients: Colonel Philip Petrovich Onoprienko Colonel Peter Petrovich Panchenko Lieutenant Colonel Vasily Vasilevich Silantyev Colonel Konstantin Ivanovich Malkhasyan Major General Ivan Nikiforovich Stepanenko Colonel Alexey Petrovich Yakimov Lieutenant General Galaktion Alpaidze Colonel General Georgy Baydukov Colonel General Alexander Ivanovich Babaev Colonel Valentin Gavrilov Lieutenant Colonel Naum Shusterman Lieutenant Colonel Anatoly Lebed Army General Alexei Yepishev Army General Gennady Ivanovich Obaturov Captain Asaf Abdrakhmanov Lieutenant General Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov Rear Admiral Aksel Berg Admiral Nikolai Sergeyev Aviator Olga Yamshchikova Major Marina Chechneva Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergey Akhromeyev Marshal of the Soviet Union Nikolai Bulganin Major General Georgy Beregovoy Colonel General Igor Rodionov Sergey Ilyushin Semyon Nomokonov Colonel Ivan Kozhedub Colonel Dmitry Loza Marshal of Aviation Alexander Pokryshkin Marshal of the Soviet Union Boris Shaposhnikov Senior Sergeant Yakov Pavlov Admiral Arseniy Golovko Rear Admiral Vladimir Konovalov Admiral Gordey Levchenko Admiral Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev Army General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov Alexandrov Ensemble 89th Rifle Division 9th Infantry Division 80th Airmobile Regiment 8th Army Corps 7th Guards Airborne Division 10th Guards Motor Rifle DivisionIn 2015 the Order of the Red Star award awarded to Ukrainian army units were removed as part of a removal of Soviet awards and decorations from Ukrainian military units.
Legal Library of the USSR Soviet-Awards.com A non-commercial website Russian language, non-commercial website
Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
The Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on May 7, 1965 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the twentieth anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II. The Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was awarded to: all military and civilian personnel of the Armed Forces of the USSR who took part in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, to partisans of the Great Patriotic War, to the personnel of the Armed Forces of the USSR, as well as any other persons who were awarded the Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"; the medal was awarded on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR by commanders of military units, the heads of agencies, institutions. The Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was worn on the left side of the chest and in the presence of other orders and medals of the USSR, was located following the Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945".
If worn in the presence of orders and medals of the Russian federation, the latter have precedence. The Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal. On its obverse, the relief image of the caped Soviet soldier-liberator, holding a child in his left arm and a mighty sword pointing down in the other, standing over two oak branches. On his left the date in prominent numbers "1945", on his right "1965". On the reverse, along the circumference of the medal, the relief inscription "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945". In center, a relief five pointed star overlapping the Roman numeral "XX" over a background of diverging rays; the medal was secured to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount by a ring through the medal suspension loop. The mount was covered by a 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with stripes on the right side beginning at the edge, 1mm green, 3mm black and 3mm green; the individuals below were all recipients of the Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945".
Admiral of the Fleet Nikolay Kuznetsov Cosmonaut Colonel Yuri Gagarin World War 2 veteran physicist Alexander Prokhorov World War 2 fighter pilot cosmonaut, Major Pavel Belyayev Rear Admiral Vladimir Konovalov Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Sokolovsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Meretskov Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky World War 2 veteran and author Vasil Bykaŭ Admiral Lev Vladimirsky Army General Kuzma Galitsky Army General Yakov Kreizer General Michał Rola-Żymierski Nikita Khrushchev mentioned that one of the reasons he wrote his autobiography, Khrushchev Remembers is that he felt hurt at not being awarded this medal. As a general in the war he was eligible, but as a deposed leader he was ignored. Great Patriotic War Orders and medals of the Soviet Union Badges and Decorations of the Soviet Union Legal Library of the Soviet Union
Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
The Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on December 26, 1967 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the fiftieth anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Armed Forces. Its statute was amended on three separate occasions, by decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of February 22, 1968. of December 19, 1969, of July 18, 1980. The Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was awarded to marshals, admirals and warrant officers, sergeants and sailors in the service on February 23, 1968 as part of the Soviet Army, troops of the Ministry for Public Order of the USSR, the troops of the Committee for Public Safety of the USSR, the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of February 22, 1968 added as recipients: former members of the Red Guards, soldiers who took part in the fighting to protect the Soviet homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, as well as all those who were awarded Orders or medals of the USSR "For Valour", Ushakov, "For Military Merit", "For Distinction in Protection of the State Border of the USSR", Nakhimov, "For Labour Valour" or "For Labour" during active duty.
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of December 19, 1969 added as recipients: partisans and guerrillas of the Civil War and of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945. The medal was awarded on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR by commanders of military units and institutions. For retirees, by republican, regional, district and district military commissariats; each medal came with an attestation of award, this attestation came in the form of a small 8 cm by 11 cm cardboard booklet bearing the award's name, the recipient's particulars and an official stamp and signature on the inside. The Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other medals of the USSR, it was located after the Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR". If worn in the presence or awards of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence; the Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was a 37mm in diameter circular gilded brass medal.
On the obverse in the background, a laurel and oak wreath around the entire circumference of the medal with rays extending outwards from the center. In the center, a red enamelled five pointed star, its points extending to the edge of the medal, at its center, a 19mm in diameter circular relief medallion bearing the left profile busts of two Soviet soldiers, the nearer helmeted, the other wearing a Budenovka. Inscribed in relief along the medallion’s inner circumference, at left the year "1918", at right "1968". On the reverse in the top half, the relief outline of a five-pointed star with at its center, a hammer and a plough; the Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount covered by a 24mm wide silk moiré turquoise ribbon with a central 2mm white stripe bordered by two 2mm red stripes themselves bordered by 1mm white stripes. All individuals listed below are recipients of the Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR".
Colonel General Boris Vsevolodovich Gromov Army General Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev People's Artist of the USSR Nikolay Aleksandrovich Annenkov Army General Yury Nikolayevich Baluyevsky Admiral of the Fleet Vladimir Ivanovich Kuroyedov Army General Ivan Ivanovich Fedyuninsky Admiral of the Fleet Vladimir Afanasyevich Kasatonov Major Natalya Fyodorovna Meklin Army General Yakov Grigorevich Kreizer Rear Admiral Aksel Ivanovich Berg Lieutenant Colonel Vasily Maximovich Afonin Army General Kuzma Nikitovich Galitsky Red Army Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Legal Library of the USSR
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the