An epitaph is a short text honoring a deceased person. Speaking, it refers to text, inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, but it may be used in a figurative sense; some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in poem verse. Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, the career, of the deceased with a common expression of love or respect—for example, "beloved father of..."—but others are more ambitious. From the Renaissance to the 19th century in Western culture, epitaphs for notable people became lengthy and pompous descriptions of their family origins, career and immediate family in Latin. Notably, the Laudatio Turiae, the longest known Ancient Roman epitaph, exceeds all of these at 180 lines; some aphorisms. One approach of many epitaphs is to warn them about their own mortality. A wry trick of others is to request the reader to get off their resting place, inasmuch as the reader would have to be standing on the ground above the coffin to read the inscription.
Some record achievements. Nearly all note name, year or date of birth, date of death. Many list family members and the relationship of the deceased to them. Heroes and Kings your distance keep. — Alexander PopeWe must know. We will know. — David Hilbert Looking into the portals of eternity teaches thatThe brotherhood of man is inspired by God’s word. -- George WashingtonHe never killed a man. — Clay Allison Here lies One whose Name was writ in Water — John KeatsCast a cold eyeOn life, on death. Horseman, pass by! — W. B. YeatsUndefeated — Hans-Joachim MarseilleAnd the beat goes on. — Sonny BonoSleep after toyle, port after stormie seas,Ease after warre, death after life, does please. — Joseph Conrad Oh God — Mahatma GandhiThat's all folks! — Mel BlancI've stopped getting dumber. — Paul ErdősHomo sum! the adventurer — D. H. LawrenceGo tell the Spartans, stranger passing by that here, obedient to their law, we lie. -- Simonides's epigram at ThermopylaeI told you. — Spike MilliganHere sleeps at peace a Hampshire GrenadierWho caught his early death by drinking cold small beer.
Soldiers, be wise at his untimely fall, And when you're hot, drink none at all. — Thomas Thetcher tombstone epitaph in Winchester CathedralTo save your world you asked this man to die:Would this man, could he see you now, ask why? — Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier, written by W. H. AudenThere is borne an empty hearsecovered over for such as appear not. Heroes have the whole earth for their tomb. — Unknown Soldier's epitaph, Athens. -- Virginia WoolfGood frend for Iesvs sake forebeare. Bleste be man spares thes stones,And cvrst be he moves my bones.: Good friend for Jesus' sake forbear, To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones. — William Shakespeare In a more figurative sense, the term may be used for music composed in memory of the deceased. Igor Stravinsky composed in 1958 Epitaphium for flute and harp. In 1967 Krzysztof Meyer called his Symphony No. 2 for choir and orchestra Epitaphium Stanisław Wiechowicz in memoriam. Jeffrey Lewis composed Epitaphium – Children of the Sun for narrator, chamber choir, flute and percussion.
Bronius Kutavičius composed in 1998 Epitaphium temporum pereunti. Valentin Silvestrov composed in 1999 Epitaph L. B. for viola and piano. In 2007 Graham Waterhouse composed Epitaphium for string trio as a tribute to the memory of his father William Waterhouse; the South African poet Gert Vlok Nel wrote an untitled song, which appeared on his first music album'Beaufort-Wes se Beautiful Woorde' as'Epitaph', because his producer Eckard Potgieter told him that the song sounded like an epitaph. David Bowie's final album, released in 2016, is seen as his musical epitaph, with singles "Blackstar" and "Lazarus" singled out. In the late 1990s, a unique epitaph was flown to the moon along with the ashes of geologist and planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker. At the suggestion of colleague Carolyn Porco, Shoemaker's ashes were launched aboard the Lunar Prospector spacecraft on January 6, 1998; the ashes were accompanied by a laser-engraved epitaph on a small piece of foil. The spacecraft, along with the ashes and epitaph, crashed on command into the south polar region of the moon on July 31, 1999.
Chronogram Death poem Epigraph Epitaph Epitaphios logos Hero stone Seikilos epitaph Epitaph Records Vidor, Gian Marco. Satisfying the mind and inflaming the heart: emotions and funerary epigraphy in nineteenth-centu
Segni is an Italian town and comune located in Lazio. The city is situated on a hilltop in the Lepini Mountains, overlooks the valley of the Sacco River. According to ancient Roman sources, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh king of Rome, established a Roman colony at the town known as Signia. Additional colonists were sent there in 495 BC; the ancient architectural remains at the site date from the Republican period. These include a circuit of fortification walls built using polygonal masonry; the walls incorporated a system of gates, including the Porta Saracena, covered by a large monolithic architrave. Atop the ancient acropolis of Segni sits the podium of the temple of Juno Moneta, which now supports a Medieval church of Saint Peter. Segni was a refuge for various popes with Pope Eugene III erecting a palace in the middle of the twelfth century; the Counts of Marsi, hereditary enemies of the Orsini, obtained Segni in the twelfth century. The family called de' Conti produced many cardinals.
In 1558 Segni was sacked by the forces of the Duke of Alba in the war against Pope Paul IV. Politician Giulio Andreotti was born in Segni in 1919. Co-cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, built in the early 17th century on the former temple of St. Bruno; the bell tower is from the 11th century. The interior has a painting by Francesco Cozza; the polygonal masonry fortification walls of the settlement are well preserved. The ancient acropolis of Segni is marked by the former site of the temple of Juno Moneta; the acropolis has been the site of renewed fieldwork undertaken by the British School at Rome. Mykines, Greece This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Segni". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II, born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471. Paul was born in a nephew of Pope Eugenius IV through his mother. Through his father he was a member of the noble Barbo family, his adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope. His consequent promotion was rapid, he boasted. After having been lay abbot of Santa Maria in Sylvis since 1441, in 1445 he succeeded Giuliano Cesarini as archpriest of the Vatican Basilica. Platina reported that Pius II suggested he should have been called Maria Pietissima, as "when he could not obtain what he aimed at by praying and requesting, he would join tears to his petitions to make them the sooner believed." Some historians have suggested the nickname may have been an allusion either to Paul's propensity to enjoy dressing up in sumptuous ecclesiastical finery, or a lack of masculinity reflecting possible homosexuality. He was elected to succeed Pope Pius II by the accessus in the first ballot of the papal conclave of 1464 with a majority of fourteen of the nineteen cardinals present.
Beforehand, to secure to the cardinals a greater share of power than they had enjoyed under Pius II, a capitulation was subscribed by all except Ludovico Trevisan. It bound the future Pope to continue the Turkish war, but he was not to journey outside Rome without the consent of a majority of the cardinals, nor to leave Italy without the consent of all; the maximum number of cardinals was limited to twenty-four, any new Pope was to be limited to only one cardinal-nephew. All creations of new cardinals and advancements to certain important benefices were to be made only with the consent of the College of Cardinals. Upon taking office, Paul II was to convene an ecumenical council within three years, but these terms of subscription were modified by Paul II at his own discretion, this action lost him the confidence of the College of Cardinals. The justification for setting aside the capitulations, seen to be under way by the Duke of Milan's ambassador as early as 21 September, lay in connecting any abridgement of the Pope's absolute monarchy in the Papal States with a consequent abridgement of his sole authority in spiritual matters.
From his coronation, Paul withdrew and became inaccessible: audiences were only granted at night and good friends waited a fortnight to see him. His suspiciousness was attested, he wore rouge in public. The story of Cardinal Ammanati that he meant to take the name Formosus II, but was persuaded not to, is more repeated than the story that he was dissuaded from Marcus, being Venetian and the Cardinal of San Marco, because it was the war-cry of Venice, he had a papal tiara made for his own use studded with "diamonds, emeralds, large pearls, every kind of precious gem". He built the Palazzo San Marco and lived there as pope, amassing a great collection of art and antiquities. A sore point was his abuse of the practice of creating cardinals in pectore, without publishing their names. Eager to raise new cardinals to increase the number who were devoted to his interests, but restricted by the terms of the capitulation, which gave the College a voice in the creation of new members, in the winter of 1464–65 Paul created two secret cardinals both of whom died before their names could be published.
In his fourth year as Pope, he created eight new cardinals on 18 September 1467. Five were candidates pressed by kings, placating James II of Cyprus, Edward IV of England, Louis XI of France, Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Ferdinand I of Naples. Two further cardinal-nephews were added on 21 November 1468. In a sign of his increasing secretiveness and paranoia, he added two more cardinals secretly at the same consistory, four more at the beginning of 1471, expecting to reveal them only in his testament. Tensions with the College of Cardinals came to the fore when in 1466, attempting to eliminate redundant offices, Paul II proceeded to annul the College of Abbreviators, whose function it was to formulate papal documents. Bartolomeo Platina, one of these, wrote a threatening letter to the Pope, was imprisoned, but discharged. However, in February 1468, Platina was again imprisoned on the charge of having participated in a conspiracy against the Pope, was tortured along with other abbreviators, such as Filip Callimachus, who fled to Poland in 1478, all of whom had been accused of pagan views.
Not unaccountably, Platina, in his Vitae pontificum, set forth an unfavorable delineation of the character of Paul II. Though Platina's writing after the conflict would tarnish the legacy of Paul II, the conflict would prove to have a greater effect on the intellectual environment of Rome. Peter Partner explains, "Probably its most important result was to convince men of letters that cultural conformity would be enforced in Rome." More tangibly, after the crackdown of Paul II, the Roman Academy took on a more religious flavour, turning in part to theology as a means of legitimizing its pursuits. Pope Paul rejected King George of Poděbrady of Bohemia because he upheld the conventions of the Council of Basel in favor of the Utr
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, in all likelihood independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier. The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, just before his death in 1543, was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making a pioneering contribution to the Scientific Revolution. Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region, part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. A polyglot and polymath, he obtained a doctorate in canon law and was a mathematician, physician, classics scholar, governor and economist. In 1517 he derived a quantity theory of money—a key concept in economics—and in 1519 he formulated an economic principle that came to be called Gresham's law. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Thorn, in the province of Royal Prussia, in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant. Nicolaus was the youngest of four children, his brother Andreas became an Augustinian canon at Frombork. His sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a Benedictine nun and, in her final years, prioress of a convent in Chełmno, his sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life. Copernicus never married and is not known to have had children, but from at least 1531 until 1539 his relations with Anna Schilling, a live-in housekeeper, were seen as scandalous by two bishops of Warmia who urged him over the years to break off relations with his "mistress". Copernicus' father's family can be traced to a village in Silesia near Nysa; the village's name has been variously spelled Kopernik, Copernic, Kopernic and today Koperniki. In the 14th century, members of the family began moving to various other Silesian cities, to the Polish capital, Kraków, to Toruń.
The father, Mikołaj the Elder the son of Jan, came from the Kraków line. Nicolaus was named after his father, who appears in records for the first time as a well-to-do merchant who dealt in copper, selling it in Danzig, he moved from Kraków to Toruń around 1458. Toruń, situated on the Vistula River, was at that time embroiled in the Thirteen Years' War, in which the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation, an alliance of Prussian cities and clergy, fought the Teutonic Order over control of the region. In this war, Hanseatic cities like Danzig and Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus's hometown, chose to support the Polish King, Casimir IV Jagiellon, who promised to respect the cities' traditional vast independence, which the Teutonic Order had challenged. Nicolaus' father was engaged in the politics of the day and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order. In 1454 he mediated negotiations between Poland's Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki and the Prussian cities for repayment of war loans.
In the Second Peace of Thorn, the Teutonic Order formally relinquished all claims to its western province, which as Royal Prussia remained a region of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland until the First and Second Partitions of Poland. Copernicus's father married Barbara Watzenrode, the astronomer's mother, between 1461 and 1464, he died about 1483. Nicolaus' mother, Barbara Watzenrode, was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń patrician and city councillor, Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, Katarzyna, mentioned in other sources as Katarzyna Rüdiger gente Modlibóg; the Modlibógs were a prominent Polish family, well known in Poland's history since 1271. The Watzenrode family, like the Kopernik family, had come from Silesia from near Świdnica, after 1360 had settled in Toruń, they soon became one of most influential patrician families. Through the Watzenrodes' extensive family relationships by marriage, Copernicus was related to wealthy families of Toruń, Gdańsk and Elbląg, to prominent Polish noble families of Prussia: the Czapskis, Działyńskis, Konopackis and Kościeleckis.
Lucas and Katherine had three children: Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, who would become Bishop of Warmia and Copernicus's patron. Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, a wealthy merchant and in 1439–62 president of the judicial bench, was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights. In 1453 he was the delegate from Toruń at the Grudziądz conference that planned the uprising against them. During the ensuing Thirteen Years' War, he supported the Prussian cities' war effort with substantial monetary subsidies, with political activity in Toruń and Danzig, by fighting in battles at Łasin and Malbork, he died in 1462. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, the astronomer's maternal uncle and patron, was educated at the University of Kraków and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna, he was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order, its Grand Master once referred to him as "the devil incarn
San Gimignano is a small walled medieval hill town in the province of Siena, north-central Italy. Known as the Town of Fine Towers, San Gimignano is famous for its medieval architecture, unique in the preservation of about a dozen of its tower houses, with its hilltop setting and encircling walls, form "an unforgettable skyline". Within the walls, the well-preserved buildings include notable examples of both Romanesque and Gothic architecture, with outstanding examples of secular buildings as well as churches; the Palazzo Comunale, the Collegiate Church and Church of Sant' Agostino contain frescos, including cycles dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. The "Historic Centre of San Gimignano" is a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the town is known for saffron, the Golden Ham, its white wine, Vernaccia di San Gimignano, produced from the ancient variety of Vernaccia grape, grown on the sandstone hillsides of the area. In the 3rd century BC a small Etruscan village stood on the site of San Gimignano.
Chroniclers Lupi and Pecori relate that during the Catiline conspiracy against the Roman Republic in the 1st century, two patrician brothers and Silvio, fled Rome for Valdelsa and built two castles and Silvia. The name of Silvia was changed to San Gimignano in 450 AD after Bishop Geminianus, the Saint of Modena, intervened to spare the castle from destruction by the followers of Attila the Hun; as a result, a church was dedicated to the saint, in the 6th and 7th centuries a walled village grew up around it, subsequently called the "Castle of San Gimignano" or Castle of the Forest because of the extensive woodland surrounding it. From 929 the town was ruled by the bishops of Volterra. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance era, it was a stopping point for Catholic pilgrims on their way to Rome and the Vatican, as it sits on the medieval Via Francigena; the city's development was improved by the trade of agricultural products from the fertile neighbouring hills, in particular saffron, used in both cooking and dyeing cloth and Vernaccia wine, said to inspire popes and poets.
In 1199, the city made itself independent of the bishops of Volterra and established a podestà, set about enriching the commune with churches and public buildings. However, the peace of the town was disturbed for the next two centuries by conflict between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, family rivalries within San Gimignano; this resulted in competing families building tower houses of higher and higher heights. Towards the end of the Medieval period, there were 72 tower houses in number, up to 70 metres tall; the rivalry was restrained when the local council ordained that no tower was to be taller than that adjacent to the Palazzo Comunale. While the official patron is Saint Geminianus, the town honours Saint Fina, known as Seraphina and Serafina, born in San Gimignano 1238 and whose feast day is 12 March; the Chapel of Santa Fina in the Collegiate Church houses her shrine and frescos by Ghirlandaio. The house said to be her home still stands in the town. On 8 May 1300, San Gimignano hosted Dante Alighieri in his role as ambassador of the Guelph League in Tuscany.
The city flourished until 1348, when it was struck by the Black Death that affected all of Europe, about half the townsfolk died. The town submitted to the rule of Florence; some Gothic palazzi were built in the Florentine style, many of the towers were reduced to the height of the houses. There was little subsequent development, San Gimignano remained preserved in its medieval state until the 19th century, when its status as a touristic and artistic resort began to be recognised; the city is on the ridge of a hill with its main axis being north/south. It is encircled by three walls and has at its highest point, to the west, the ruins of a fortress dismantled in the 16th century. There are eight entrances into the city, set into the second wall, which dates from the 12th and 13th centuries; the main gates are Porta San Giovanni on the ridge extending south, Porta San Matteo to the north west and Porta S. Jacopo to the north east; the main streets are Via San Via San Giovanni, which cross the city from north to south.
At the heart of the town are four squares: the Piazza Duomo, on which stands the Collegiate Church. To the north of the town is another significant square, Piazza Agostino, on which stands the Church of Sant' Agostino; the locations of the Collegiate Church and Sant' Agostino's and their piazzas divide the town into two regions. The town of San Gimignano has many examples of Gothic architecture; as well as churches and medieval fortifications, there are examples of Romanesque secular and domestic architecture which may be distinguished from each other by their round and pointed arches, respectively. A particular feature, typical of the region of Siena is that the arches of openings are depressed, with doorways having a second low arch set beneath a semi-circular or pointed arch. Both Romanesque and Gothic windows sometimes have a bifurcate form, with two openings divided by a stone mullion under a single arch; this Piazza, entered from Via San Giovanni, is the main square of the town. It is triangular in shape and is surrounded by medieval houses of different dates, among them some fine examples of Romanesque and Gothic palazzos.
At the centre of the piazza stands a well, the main source of water for the town's residents. The structure dates from 1346. Although much of it has been renewed in the late 20th century, parts of the paving date from the 13th century; this piazza is to the north of Piazza della Cist