In percussion music, a rudiment is one of a number of small patterns which form the foundation for more extended and complex drum patterns. The term "rudiment" in this context means not only "basic", but fundamental. While any level of drumming may, in some sense, be broken down by analysis into a series of component rudiments, the term "drum rudiment" is most associated with various forms of field drumming known as rudimental drumming. Rudimental drumming has something of a flexible definition within drumming societies devoted to that form of drumming. For example, the longest running website on rudimental drumming defines it as "the study of coordination," whereas the Percussive Arts Society defines rudimental drumming as a particular method for learning the drums—beginning with rudiments, building up speed and complexity through practicing those rudiments; the origin of snare drum rudiments can be traced back to Swiss mercenaries armed with long polearms. The use of pikes in close formation required a great deal of coordination.
The sound of the tabor was used to set the tempo and communicate commands with distinct drumming patterns. These drumming patterns became the basis of the snare drum rudiments; the first written rudiment goes back to the year 1612 in Switzerland. The cradle of rudimental drumming is said to be France, where professional drummers became part of the king's honour guard in the 17th and 18th centuries; the craft was improved during the reign of Napoleon I. Le Rigodon is one of the cornerstones of modern rudimental drumming. There have been many attempts to formalize a standard list of snare drum rudiments. American rudimental manuals start prescribing rudimental exercises at least as far back as 1810 with David Hazeltine's book. Charles Stewart Ashworth was the first person to label them as "Rudiments" in 1812. Several more manuals of note were printed between 1812 and 1870, including those by Rumrille and Holton and Emmitt, Col. H. C. Hart, Gardiner Strube. John Phillip Sousa addressed the topic in 1886 along with Sanford Moeller in 1925.
The National Association of Rudimental Drummers, an organization established to promote rudimental drumming, organized a list of 13 essential rudiments, a second set of 13 to form the standard NARD 26 in 1933. This was based on Strube’s 25 rudiments from 1870, with a single addition. In the 20th century there were several notable variations and extensions of rudimental drumming from teachers like Charles Wilcoxon and Alan Dawson, whose "Rudimental Ritual" was popular at Berkley School of Music in the 1970s. In 1984, the Percussive Arts Society reorganized, reinterpreted, the NARD 26 and added another 14 to form the current 40 International Snare Drum Rudiments; the International Association of Traditional Drummers is working to once again promote the 1933 NARD 26 list of rudiments. Today there are four main rudimental drumming cultures: Swiss Basler Trommeln, Scotch Pipe Drumming, Anglo-American Ancient Drumming, American Modern Drumming. Other organized rudimental cultures include the French, Dutch and Swiss systems.
There is occasional mention of a possible distinct historic Spanish culture, though its actual difference from nearby French drumming is not discussed. Single stroke A stroke performs a single percussive note. There are four basic single strokes. Double stroke A double stroke consists of two single strokes played by the same hand. Diddle A diddle is a double stroke played at the current prevailing speed of the piece. For example, if a sixteenth-note passage is being played any diddles in that passage would consist of sixteenth notes. Paradiddle A paradiddle consists of two single strokes followed by a double stroke, i.e. RLRR or LRLL; when multiple paradiddles are played in succession, the first note always alternates between right and left. Therefore, a single paradiddle is used to switch the "lead hand" in drumming music. Drag A drag is a double stroke played at twice the speed of their context in which they are placed. For example, if a sixteenth-note passage is being played any drags in that passage would consist of thirty-second notes.
Drags can be played as grace notes. When played as grace notes on timpani, the drag becomes three single strokes. Flam A flam consists of two single strokes played by alternating hands; the first stroke is a quieter grace note followed by a louder primary stroke on the opposite hand. The two notes are played simultaneously, are intended to sound like a single, broader note; the temporal distance between the grace note and the primary note can vary depending on the style and context of the piece being played. Roll Drum rolls are various techniques employed to produce a sustained, continuous sound. Rudiments according to the Percussive Arts Society. There may be as many as 1000 distinct rudiments worldwide, but these 40 are the current American standards, referred to as “international” because they mix rudiments traditionally used in Anglo-American drumming with several drawn from the Swiss Basel drumming tradition, they were compiled by a committee led by Jay Wanamaker in 1984. The single-stroke roll consists of alternating sticking of indeterminate length.
There are 10 official variants of the double-stroke roll. The double stroke open roll The five stroke roll The seven stroke
A guitar solo is a melodic passage, instrumental section, or entire piece of music written for a classical guitar, electric guitar or an acoustic guitar. In the 20th and 21st century traditional music and popular music such as blues, jazz, jazz fusion and metal guitar solos contain virtuoso techniques and varying degrees of improvisation. Guitar solos on classical guitar, which are written in musical notation, are used in classical music forms such as chamber music and concertos. Guitar solos range from unaccompanied works for a single guitar to compositions with accompaniment from a few other instruments or a large ensemble; the accompaniment musicians for a guitar solo can range from a small ensemble such as a jazz quartet or a rock band, to a large ensemble such as an orchestra or big band. Unaccompanied acoustic guitar music is found in folk and classical music dating as far back as the instrument has existed, the use of an acoustic guitar as a solo voice within an ensemble dates back at least to the Baroque concerto.
The classical guitar is an acoustical wooden guitar with six strings nylon, as opposed to the metal strings used in acoustic and electric guitars. Classical guitar is played by plucking individual strings with the fingernails or the fingertips. A classical guitar solo concert is called a recital; the most important composer who did not write for the guitar but whose music is played on it is Johann Sebastian Bach, whose baroque lute works have proved adaptable to the instrument. Of music written for guitar, the earliest important composers are from the classical period and include Fernando Sor and Mauro Giuliani, both of whom wrote in a style influenced by Viennese classicism. In the 19th century guitar composers such as Johann Kaspar Mertz were influenced by the dominance of the piano. Not until the end of the nineteenth century did the guitar begin to establish its own unique identity. Francisco Tárrega was central to this, sometimes incorporating stylized aspects of flamenco's Moorish influences into his romantic miniatures.
This was part of late 19th century mainstream European musical nationalism. Albéniz and Granados were central to this movement; some classical guitarists play concertos, which are solos written for performance with the accompaniment of an orchestra. Not many classical guitar concertos have been written, which may be laid to the imbalance between the volume of multi-instrumental orchestra as compared to a single guitar; some guitar concertos are nowadays wide known and popular Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez and Fantasía para un gentilhombre. Composers who wrote well known guitar concertos are: Antonio Vivaldi, Mauro Giuliani, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Manuel Ponce, Leo Brouwer and Lennox Berkeley. In the 2000s, contemporary composers are writing guitar concertos. Composers of the Renaissance period who wrote for four course guitar include Alonso Mudarra, Miguel de Fuenllana, Adrian Le Roy and Guillaume de Morlaye; some well known composers of the baroque guitar were Gaspar Sanz, Robert de Visée and Francesco Corbetta.
From 1780 to 1850, the guitar had numerous composers and performers including: Filippo Gragnani, Antoine de Lhoyer, Ferdinando Carulli, Francesco Molino, Fernando Sor, Mauro Giuliani, Niccolò Paganini, Dionisio Aguado, Luigi Legnani, Matteo Carcassi, Napoléon Coste and Johann Kaspar Mertz. Beginning in the 1920s, guitar soloist Andrés Segovia popularized the guitar with tours and early phonograph recordings. Modern classical guitar solo performers who are known for playing modern repertoire include Leo Brouwer, John Schneider, Reinbert Evers, Maria Kämmerling, Siegfried Behrend, David Starobin, Mats Scheidegger, John Williams, Magnus Andersson. Though guitar solos are used in a wide range of genres, the term "guitar solo" refers to electric guitar solos played in blues and in rock. Unlike acoustic guitars like the classical guitar or steel-string guitar, the electric guitar is played through a guitar amplifier to make the instrument loud enough. Guitar amplifiers have preamplifier and tone controls, in some cases, overdrive controls that modify the tone.
The use of a guitar solo as an instrumental interlude was developed by blues musicians such as John Lee Hooker, Muddy Waters, T-Bone Walker, jazz like Charlie Christian. Ernest Tubb's 1940 honky tonk classic, Walking the Floor over You was the first "hit" recording to feature and highlight a solo by a standard electric guitar–though earlier hits featured electric lap steel guitars. Blues master Lonnie Johnson had recorded at least one electric guitar solo, but his innovation was neither much noted nor influential. Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, J
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
In music, a drum cadence or street beat is a work played by the percussion section of a modern marching band. It is stylistically descended from early military marches, related to military cadences, as both are a means of providing a beat while marching; each instrument will have a part that mimics a specific drum or drums on a drum set to create a sound similar to a drum beat. According to Hiro Songsblog a drum cadence is, "'a drumline piece played in a parading marching band between or in place of full-band pieces'. Cadences, are also:'a chant, sung by military personnel while parading or marching'."Cadences employ the four basic drum strokes and directly include drum rudiments. They have a wide range of difficulty, from simple accent patterns to complex rhythms including hybrid rudiments, are played by every modern drum line. Cadences are important from a performance standpoint, as a good drum cadence can make the band stand out from the rest in competition. Field shows are preceded by the band marching to the beat of the cadence.
Marching percussion consists of at least snare drums, tenor drums and bass drums, may include timpani. Cadence Military drum wikt:drum cadence Maroni, Joe; the Drum Cadence Book. ISBN 978-0-7866-3391-3. "How to Write a Drum Cadence", wikiHow.com
Scratching, sometimes referred to as scrubbing, is a DJ and turntablist technique of moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable to produce percussive or rhythmic sounds. A crossfader on a DJ mixer may be used to fade between two records simultaneously. While scratching is most associated with hip hop music, where it emerged in the mid-1970s, from the 1990s it has been used in some styles of rap rock, rap metal and nu metal. Within hip hop culture, scratching is one of the measures of a DJ's skills. DJs compete in scratching competitions at the DMC World DJ Championship and IDA, vinyl scratching as an element of hip hop pioneered the idea of making the sound an integral and rhythmic part of music instead of an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is related to "scrubbing" when the reels of an open reel-to
A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion. Drum machines produce unique sounds. Most modern drum machines allow users to program their own rhythms. Drum machines may play prerecorded samples. Drum machines have had a lasting impact on popular music; the Roland TR-808, introduced in 1980 influenced the development of dance and hip hop music. The first drum machine to use samples of real drum kits, the Linn LM-1, was introduced in 1980 and adopted by rock and pop artists including Peter Gabriel, Fleetwood Mac, Yellow Magic Orchestra and Stevie Wonder. In the late 1990s, software emulations began to overtake the popularity of physical drum machines. Rhythmicon In 1930–32, the spectacularly innovative and hard-to-use Rhythmicon was developed by Léon Theremin at the request of Henry Cowell, who wanted an instrument which could play compositions with multiple rhythmic patterns, based on the overtone series, that were far too hard to perform on existing keyboard instruments.
The invention could produce sixteen different rhythms, each associated with a particular pitch, either individually or in any combination, including en masse, if desired. Received with considerable interest when it was publicly introduced in 1932, the Rhythmicon was soon set aside by Cowell and was forgotten for decades; the next generation of rhythm machines played only pre-programmed rhythms such as mambo, tango, or bossa nova Chamberlin Rhythmate In 1957, Harry Chamberlin, an engineer from Iowa, created the Chamberlin Rhythmate, which allowed users to select between 14 tape loops of drum kits and percussion instruments performing various beats. Like the Chamberlin keyboard, the Rhythmate was intended for family singalongs. Around 100 units were sold. First commercial product – Wurlitzer Sideman In 1959, Wurlitzer released the Sideman, which generates sounds mechanically by a rotating disc to a music box. A slider controls the tempo. Sounds can be triggered individually through buttons on a control panel.
The Sideman was a success and drew criticism from musicians' unions, which ruled that it could only be used in cocktail lounges if the keyboardist was paid the wages of three musicians. Wurlitzer ceased production of the Sideman in 1969. Raymond Scott In 1960, Raymond Scott constructed the Rhythm Synthesizer and, in 1963, a drum machine called Bandito the Bongo Artist. Scott's machines were used for recording his album Soothing Sounds for Baby series. First transistorized drum machines – Seeburg/Gulbransen During the 1960s, implementation of rhythm machines were evolved into solid-state from early electro-mechanical with vacuum tubes, size were reduced to desktop size from earlier floor type. In the early 1960s, a home organ manufacturer, Gulbransen cooperated with an automatic musical equipment manufacturer Seeburg Corporation, released early compact rhythm machines Rhythm Prince, although, at that time, these size were still as large as small guitar amp head, due to the use of bulky electro-mechanical pattern generators.
In 1964, Seeburg invented a compact electronic rhythm pattern generator using "diode matrix", transistorized electronic rhythm machine with pre-programmed patterns, Select-A-Rhythm, was released. As the result of its robustness and enough compact size, these rhythm machines were installed on the electronic organ as accompaniment of organists, spread widely. Keio-Giken, Nippon Columbia, Ace Tone In the early 1960s, a nightclub owner in Tokyo, Tsutomu Katoh was consulted from a notable accordion player, Tadashi Osanai, about the rhythm machine he used for accompaniment in club, Wurlitzer Side Man. Osanai, a graduate of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of Tokyo, convinced Katoh to finance his efforts to build better one. In 1963, their new company Keio-Giken released their first rhythm machine, Donca-Matic DA-20 using the vacuum tube circuits for sounds and mechanical-wheel for rhythm patterns, it was a floor-type machine with built-in speaker, featuring a keyboard for the manual play, in addition to the multiple automatic rhythm patterns.
Its price was comparable with the average annual income of Japanese at that time. Their effort was focused on the improvement of reliability and performance, along with the size reduction and the cost down. Unstable vacuum tube circuit was replaced with reliable transistor circuit on Donca-Matic DC-11 in mid-1960s, in 1966, bulky mechanical-wheel was replaced with compact transistor circuit on Donca-Matic DE-20 and DE-11. In 1967, Mini Pops MP-2 was developed as an option of Yamaha Electone, Mini Pops was established as a series of the compact desktop rhythm machine. In the United States, Mini Pops MP-3, MP-7, etc. were sold under Univox brand by the distributor at that time, Unicord Corporation. In 1965, Nippon Columbia filed a patent for an automatic rhythm instrument, it described it as an "automatic rhythm player, simple but capable of electronically producing various rhythms in the characteristic tones of a drum, a piccolo and so on." It has some similarities to Seeburg's earlier 1964 patent.
In 1967, Ace Tone founder Ikutaro Kakehashi developed the preset rhythm-pattern generator using diode matrix circuit, which has some similarities to the earlier Seeburg and Nippon Columbia patents. Kakehashi's pate
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat