The Porte Saint-Denis is a Parisian monument located in the 10th arrondissement, at the site of one of the gates of the Wall of Charles V, one of Paris former city walls. It is located at the crossing of the Rue Saint-Denis continued by the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Denis, with the Boulevard de Bonne-Nouvelle, the Porte Saint-Denis was originally a gateway through the Wall of Charles V that was built between 1356 and 1383 to protect the Right Bank of Paris. The medieval fortification had two gates and was surmounted with four towers, additional portcullises defended the outer gate along with a drawbridge and rock-cut ditch. In the 1670s, the walls of Charles V were entirely demolished when Paris spread beyond the confines of its medieval boundaries. Work began in 1672 and was paid for by the city of Paris, a monument defining the official art of its epoque, the Porte Saint-Denis provided the subject of the engraved frontispiece to Blondels influential Cours darchitecture,1698. The Porte Saint-Denis was the first of four arches to be built in Paris.
The three others are the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Porte Saint-Martin, and Arc de Triomphe, the Porte Saint-Denis is a triumphal arch inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome. The monument is 24.65 m high,25 m wide, the arch itself is 15.35 m high in the center and 8 m across. The main arch is flanked by obelisks applied to the face bearing sculptural groups of trophies of arms. The entablature bears the gilded bronze inscription LUDOVICO MAGNO, To Louis the Great, two smaller pedestrian walkways were built through the obelisk pedestals but they have now been closed. The arch is decorated with a variety of sculptures and friezes Porte Saint-Martin Insecula - Porte Saint-Denis
Beauvais archaic English, Beeway, Boway, is a city and commune in northern France. It serves as the capital of the Oise département, in the Hauts-de-France region, Beauvais is located approximately 75 kilometres from Paris. The residents of the city are called Beauvaisiens, together with its suburbs and satellite towns, the metropolitan area of Beauvais has a population of 103,885. Beauvais was known to the Romans by the Gallo-Roman name of Caesaromagus, the post-Renaissance Latin rendering is Bellovacum from the Belgic tribe the Bellovaci, whose capital it was. In the ninth century it became a countship, which about 1013 passed to the bishops of Beauvais, who became peers of France from the twelfth century. At the coronations of kings the Bishop of Beauvais wore the royal mantle and went, with the Bishop of Langres and its name is Gaulish for place where judgements are made, from *bratu-spantion. Some say that Bratuspantium is Beauvais, others theorize that it is Vendeuil-Caply or Bailleul sur Thérain.
From 1004 to 1037, the Count of Beauvais was Odo II, in a charter dated 1056/1060, Eudo of Brittany granted land in pago Belvacensi to the Abbey of Angers Saint-Aubin. In 1346 the town had to defend itself against the English, the hoard, which contained a variety of rare and extremely rare Anglo-Norman pennies and foreign coins, was reputed to have been found in or near Paris. Beauvais was extensively damaged during World War I and again in World War II, much of the older part of the city was all but destroyed, and the cathedral badly damaged before being liberated by British forces on 30 August 1944. Beauvais lies at the foot of wooded hills on the bank of the Thérain at its confluence with the Avelon. Its ancient ramparts have been destroyed, and it is now surrounded by boulevards, in addition, there are spacious promenades in the north-east of the town. The average annual temperature is 9. 9°C, the annual average of 1669 hours. Hills Bray are provided to the precipitation of Beauvais, the precipitation is 669 mm on average per year, while it is 800 mm on average per year in Bray.
However, the frequency of rainfall is high, the average number of days per year above the precipitation of a 1 mm is 116 days, or every third day. The fog is present, it is estimated at about 55 days a year. The department is affected by 41 days of average wind year, the citys cathedral, dedicated to Saint Peter, in some respects the most daring achievement of Gothic architecture, consists only of a transept and quire with apse and seven apse-chapels. The vaulting in the interior exceeds 46 m or 150 feet in height, the cathedral underwent a major repair and restoration process in 2008
Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France. It is one of the chef-lieus of the arrondissement of Somme and it was the capital of Ponthieu. Its inhabitants are called the Abbevillois, Abbeville is located on the Somme River,20 km from its modern mouth in the English Channel. The majority of the town is located on the east bank of the Somme and it is located at the head of the Abbeville Canal, and is 45 km northwest of Amiens and approximately 200 kilometres from Paris. It is 10 kilometres as the flies from the Bay of Somme. In the medieval period, it was the lowest crossing point on the Somme, just halfway between Rouen and Lille, it is the historical capital of the County of Ponthieu and maritime Picardy. This place is considered by some to be the origin of Abbeville, because it was the location of the first château of the Counts of Ponthieu and it is assumed that this place could have been the location of the farm of Abbatisvilla, dependent upon the Abbey of Saint-Riquier.
The suburbs of La Bouvaque and Thuison are located to the north of the city, the municipal park of La Bouvaque, bordered by the Boulevard de la République, consists of the La Bouvaque pond and Collart meadows, former settling ponds of the Béghin-Say sugar factory. It was in Thuison that the Carthusian monastery of Saint-Honoré was founded in 1301 by William of Mâcon and this was a property of the Order of the Temple, sold to the latter by Gérard de Villars, the last master of the province of France. The sale was confirmed by Hugues de Pairaud, visitor of France, the suburb of Saint Gilles Rouvroy is to the west, and the origin of the name comes from Rouvray indicates the presence of an oak wood or a remarkable oak. Mautort, beside Rouvroy, is a stronghold located between Cambron and Abbeville. It is at the origin of the name of de Mautort, surviving in the name of the Tillette de Mautort family or, for example. The name tort is attested in Old French with the sense of détour, Menchecourt, in the north-west, is known for its sugar factory and for its football club.
Abbeville is served by trains on the line between Boulogne-sur-Mer and Amiens and between Calais and Paris, Abbeville was the southern terminus of the Réseau des Bains de Mer, the line to Dompierre-sur-Authie opened on 19 June 1892 and closed on 10 March 1947. Abbeville is located just near the A16 autoroute, and is about 1 hour 50 minutes by car from Paris, Abbeville has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the ocean. The summers and winters are temperate and rainy, days of snow are fairly common, the highest temperature was 37.8 °C on 1 July 1952 and the record low is −0.8 °C, which occurred during a particularly cold spell on 17 January 1985. In 2012, the commune had 24,237 inhabitants, the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. The population of the commune is relatively old, the rate of persons over 60 years of age is higher than the national rate and the departmental rate
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Jonathan Sumption, Lord Sumption
Jonathan Philip Chadwick Sumption, Lord Sumption OBE FSA FRHistS, is a British judge and medieval historian. Exceptionally, he was raised to the Supreme Court bench directly from the practising bar and he is well known for his role as a barrister in many legal cases. Lord Sumption has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and his parents were Anthony Sumption, a decorated Royal Naval officer and barrister, and Hilda Hedigan, their marriage was dissolved in 1979. Sumption was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford and he graduated from Oxford University in 1970, receiving a BA degree in History with first class honours. He became a fellow of Magdalen College teaching and writing books on medieval history and he was called to the bar at Inner Temple in 1975 and subsequently pursued a successful legal practice in commercial law. In the late 1970s Sumption was a contributor to The Sunday Telegraph. Sumption was appointed Queens Counsel in 1986 at the young age of 38.
He has served as a deputy High Court judge in the Chancery Division, and a judge of the Court of Appeal of Jersey and he has been a member of the Judicial Appointments Commission as well as a Governor of the Royal Academy of Music. Until his appointment to the Supreme Court, he was joint head of Brick Court Chambers, on 4 May 2011 it was announced that Sumption would take a seat on the Supreme Court at a date. Upon his subsequent swearing-in on 11 January 2012, he was granted, by Royal Sign Manual, Sumption had been appointed to the Privy Council on 14 December 2011 in anticipation of his joining the Court, whose Justices double as members of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Sumption is the first person appointed to the Supreme Court without previously serving as a judge since its inception in 2009. There were only five such appointments to the Courts predecessor, the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, two were Scots lawyers, Lord Macmillan in 1930 and Lord Reid in 1948, the others were, Lord Macnaghten, Lord Carson and Lord Radcliffe.
The Guardian once described him as being a member of the million-a-year club, in a letter to The Guardian in 2001, he compared his puny £1.6 million a year to the vastly larger amounts that comparable individuals in business and entertainment are paid. The Government had money and reputation at stake, the case examined some of the actions of the government, especially of former Transport Secretary Stephen Byers. Byers became the only former Cabinet Minister to be cross-examined in the High Court in relation to his actions in modern times, the UK Government won the case. And interprets it with imaginative and intelligent sympathy and is elegantly written, what is most impressive about this work, apart from the authors mastery of his material and his deployment of it, is his political intelligence. Volume I was first published in 1990, volume II was published in 1999. Volume IV appeared in 2015, the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Agincourt, Sumption has been praised for a clipped and polished prose style, which he credits to his unwillingness to employ cliché
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Rue Saint-Denis (Paris)
Rue Saint-Denis is one of the oldest streets in Paris. Its route was first laid out in the 1st century by the Romans, from the Middle Ages to the present day, the street has become notorious as a place of prostitution. Its name derives from it being the route to Saint-Denis. The street extends as far as the 1st arrondissement and Rue de Rivoli to the south and as far as the 2nd arrondissement and it runs parallel to the boulevard de Sébastopol. During the French Revolution, it was known as the rue de Franciade, the street was one of the centres of the June Rebellion of 1832, immortalised in Victor Hugos novel Les Misérables, and which is referred to in the book as the Epic of the Rue Saint-Denis. The neighborhood around the rue Saint-Denis is now all made up of sex shops. The street contains some shops and restaurants, as well as the church of Saint-Leu-Saint-Gilles, a bank. The Frog and Rosbif Brew Pub is located here, one of only a small number of cask conditioned beer producers in France. N°92, Église Saint-Leu-Saint-Gilles n°142, House built in 1732 by Jacques-Richard Cochois for Claude Aubry, attached to it is the fontaine Greneta, rebuilt at the same time as the house, but whose original dates back to at least 1502.
N°s 224-226, Maison des Dames de Saint-Chaumont, established in 1685 in a hôtel de Saint-Chaumond, the nuns had constructed 1734-1735 by Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne a lodge which has been conserved, a building of exceptional quality decorated by Nicolas Pineau. It is the survivor of the many pious or charitable establishments built along rue Saint-Denis. Its simple entrance is next to boulevard de Sébastopol and a garden extends between the building and the street, in the corner of rue de Tracy could be found the covents chapel, built in 1782 by Pierre Convers in the ancient style but now lost. At the end of rue Saint-Denis, at the intersection of the grands Boulevards, Rue Saint-Denis is extended from there out into what was medieval Pariss faubourg by the Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis Raid November 18th,2015
History of France
The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language, over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire, in the stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VIs attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its holder, Edward III of England. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine.
The war ended with a Valois victory in 1453, victory in the Hundred Years War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into an absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century, French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, The Sun King, builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers.
France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, the Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, and coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established, France slowly recovered economically, and enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its very low fertility rate. Long wars in Indochina and Algeria drained French resources and ended in political defeat, in the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments, since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO.
It played a role in the unification process after 1945 that led to the European Union