Meat is animal flesh, eaten as food. Humans have killed animals for meat since prehistoric times; the advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, rabbits and cattle. This led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses. Meat is composed of water and fat, it is edible raw, but is eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Meat is important in economy and culture though its mass production and consumption has been determined to pose risks for human health and the environment. Many religions have rules about which meat may not be eaten. Vegetarians may abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat, environmental effects of meat production or nutritional effects of consumption; the word meat comes from the Old English word mete. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which mean'food'.
The word mete exists in Old Frisian to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets and dierfied. Most meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may describe other edible tissues such as offal. Meat is sometimes used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, other seafood, poultry, or other animals. In the context of food, meat can refer to "the edible part of something as distinguished from its covering", for example, coconut meat. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of the earliest humans. Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer; the domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period, allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.
Animals that are now principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations: Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture as early as the 8th millennium BCE. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BCE. Today, more than 200 sheep-breeds exist. Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BCE, several breeds were established by 2500 BCE. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus and Bos taurus indicus, both descended from the now-extinct aurochs; the breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for work or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BCE in modern-day Hungary and in Troy. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.
Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products. Other animals have been raised or hunted for their flesh; the type of meat consumed varies much between different cultures, changes over time, depending on factors such as tradition and the availability of the animals. The amount and kind of meat consumed varies by income, both between countries and within a given country. Horses are eaten in France, Italy and Japan, among other countries. Horses and other large mammals such as reindeer were hunted during the late Paleolithic in western Europe. Dogs are consumed in South Korea and Vietnam. Dogs are occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Dog meat has been consumed in various parts of the world, such as Hawaii, Japan and Mexico. Cats are consumed in Southern China and sometimes in Northern Italy. Guinea pigs are raised for their flesh in the Andes. Whales and dolphins are hunted for their flesh, in Japan, Siberia, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and by two small communities in Indonesia.
Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to speed artificial selection by breeding animals to acquire the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of United Kingdom beef and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, due to both selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery. Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now becoming available. Though it is a old industry, meat production continues to be shaped by the evolving demands of customers; the trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. More animals not exploited for their meat are now being farmed the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.
Examples are the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel, as well as non-
Swordfish known as broadbills in some countries, are large migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, lose all teeth and scales by adulthood; these fish are found in tropical and temperate parts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, can be found from near the surface to a depth of 550 m. They reach 3 m in length, the maximum reported is 4.55 m in length and 650 kg in weight. They are the sole member of Xiphiidae; the swordfish is named after its flat bill, which resembles a sword. The species name, Xiphias gladius, derives from Greek ξιφίας, itself from ξίφος and from Latin gladius; this makes it superficially similar to other billfish such as marlin, but upon examination, their physiology is quite different and they are members of different families. They reach 3 m in length, the maximum reported is 4.55 m in length and 650 kg in weight. The International Game Fish Association's all-tackle angling record for a swordfish was a 536 kg specimen taken off Chile in 1953.
Females are larger than males, Pacific swordfish reach a greater size than northwest Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish. They reach maturity at 4–5 years of age and the maximum age is believed to be at least 9 years; the oldest swordfish found in a recent study were 12-year-old male. Swordfish ages are derived, with difficulty, from annual rings on fin rays rather than otoliths, since their otoliths are small in size. Swordfish are ectothermic animals. Temperatures of 10 to 15 °C above the surrounding water temperature have been measured; the heating of the eyes improves their vision, improves their ability to catch prey. Of the 25 000+ fish species, only 22 are known to have a mechanism to conserve heat; these include the swordfish, marlin and some sharks. Contrary to popular belief, the "sword" is not used to spear, but instead may be used to slash at its prey to injure the prey animal, to make for an easier catch; the swordfish relies on its great speed and agility in the water to catch its prey.
It is undoubtedly among the fastest fish, but the basis for the quoted speed of 97 km/h is unreliable. Swordfish prefer water temperatures between 18 and 22 °C, but have the widest tolerance among billfish, can be found from 5 to 27 °C; this migratory species moves towards colder regions to feed during the summer. Swordfish feed daily, most at night, when they rise to surface and near-surface waters in search of smaller fish. During the day, they occur to depths of 550 m and have exceptionally been recorded as deep as 2,878 m. Adults feed on a wide range of pelagic fish, such as mackerel, silver hake, rockfish and lanternfishes, but they take demersal fish and crustaceans. In the northwestern Atlantic, a survey based on the stomach content of 168 individuals found 82% had eaten squid and 53% had eaten fish, including gadids, butterfish and sand lance. Large prey are slashed with the sword, while small are swallowed whole. Swordfish are not schooling fish, they swim alone or in loose aggregations, separated by as much as 10 m from a neighboring swordfish.
They are found basking at the surface, airing their first dorsal fin. Boaters report this to be a beautiful sight, as is the powerful jumping for which the species is known; this jumping called breaching, may be an effort to dislodge pests, such as remoras or lampreys. 50 species of parasites have been documented in swordfish. In addition to remoras and cookiecutter sharks, this includes a wide range of invertebrates, such as tapeworms and copepods. A comparison of the parasites of swordfish in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean indicated that some parasites Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as biological tags and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. Adult swordfish have few natural predators. Among marine mammals, killer whales sometimes prey on adult swordfish; the shortfin mako, an exceptionally fast species of shark, sometimes take on swordfish. Juvenile swordfish are far more vulnerable to predation, are eaten by a wide range of predatory fish.
In the North Pacific, batch spawning occurs in water warmer than 24 °C during the spring and summer, year-round in the equatorial Pacific. In the North Atlantic, spawning is known from the Sargasso Sea, in water warmer than 23 °C and less than 75 m deep. Spawning occurs from November to February in the South Atlantic off southern Brazil. Spawning is other warm regions of the west Atlantic. Large females can carry more eggs than small females, between 1 million to 29 million eggs have been recorded; the pelagic eggs measure 1.6–1.8 mm in diameter and 2.5 days after fertilization, the embryonic development occurs. The surface-living and unique-looking larvae are 4 mm long at hatching; the bill is evident. Swordfish were harvested by a variety of methods at small scale (notably harpoon
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers. These birds are most members of the superorder Galloanserae the order Galliformes. Poultry includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game; the word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago; this may have been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity. Domesticated chickens may have been used for cockfighting at first and quail kept for their songs, but soon it was realised how useful it was having a captive-bred source of food. Selective breeding for fast growth, egg-laying ability, conformation and docility took place over the centuries, modern breeds look different from their wild ancestors.
Although some birds are still kept in small flocks in extensive systems, most birds available in the market today are reared in intensive commercial enterprises. Together with pig meat, poultry is one of the two most eaten types of meat globally, with over 70% of the meat supply in 2012 between them. All poultry meat should be properly handled and sufficiently cooked in order to reduce the risk of food poisoning; the word "poultry" comes from the West & English "pultrie", from Old French pouletrie, from pouletier, poultry dealer, from poulet, pullet. The word "pullet" itself comes from Middle English pulet, from Old French polet, both from Latin pullus, a young fowl, young animal or chicken; the word "fowl" is of Germanic origin. "Poultry" is a term used for any kind of domesticated bird, captive-raised for its utility, traditionally the word has been used to refer to wildfowl and waterfowl but not to cagebirds such as songbirds and parrots. "Poultry" can be defined as domestic fowls, including chickens, turkeys and ducks, raised for the production of meat or eggs and the word is used for the flesh of these birds used as food.
The Encyclopædia Britannica lists the same bird groups but includes guinea fowl and squabs. In R. D. Crawford's Poultry breeding and genetics, squabs are omitted but Japanese quail and common pheasant are added to the list, the latter being bred in captivity and released into the wild. In his 1848 classic book on poultry and Domestic Poultry: Their History, Management, Edmund Dixon included chapters on the peafowl, guinea fowl, mute swan, various types of geese, the muscovy duck, other ducks and all types of chickens including bantams. In colloquial speech, the term "fowl" is used near-synonymously with "domesticated chicken", or with "poultry" or just "bird", many languages do not distinguish between "poultry" and "fowl". Both words are used for the flesh of these birds. Poultry can be distinguished from "game", defined as wild birds or mammals hunted for food or sport, a word used to describe the flesh of these when eaten. Chickens are medium-sized, chunky birds with an upright stance and characterised by fleshy red combs and wattles on their heads.
Males, known as cocks, are larger, more boldly coloured, have more exaggerated plumage than females. Chickens are gregarious, ground-dwelling birds that in their natural surroundings search among the leaf litter for seeds and other small animals, they fly except as a result of perceived danger, preferring to run into the undergrowth if approached. Today's domestic chicken is descended from the wild red junglefowl of Asia, with some additional input from grey junglefowl. Domestication is believed to have taken place between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, what are thought to be fossilized chicken bones have been found in northeastern China dated to around 5,400 BC. Archaeologists believe domestication was for the purpose of cockfighting, the male bird being a doughty fighter. By 4,000 years ago, chickens seem to have reached the Indus Valley and 250 years they arrived in Egypt, they were regarded as symbols of fertility. The Romans used them in divination, the Egyptians made a breakthrough when they learned the difficult technique of artificial incubation.
Since the keeping of chickens has spread around the world for the production of food with the domestic fowl being a valuable source of both eggs and meat. Since their domestication, a large number of breeds of chickens have been established, but with the exception of the white Leghorn, most commercial birds are of hybrid origin. In about 1800, chickens began to be kept on a larger scale, modern high-output poultry farms were present in the United Kingdom from around 1920 and became established in the United States soon after the Second World War. By the mid-20th century, the poultry meat-producing industry was of greater importance than the egg-laying industry. Poultry breeding has produced strains to fulfil different needs. Male birds are unwanted in the egg-laying industry and can b
A dish in gastronomy is a specific food preparation, a "distinct article or variety of food," ready to eat, or be served. A dish may be eaten out of hand. Instructions for preparing a dish are called recipes; some dishes, for example vanilla ice cream with fudge sauce have their own recipes printed in cookbooks, as they are made by combining two ready to eat foods. Many dishes have specific names. Many are named for particular places, sometimes because of a specific association with that place like Boston baked beans or bistecca alla fiorentina. Sometimes not: poached eggs Florentine ends up meaning "with spinach"; some are named for particular individuals to honor them including Brillat-Savarin cheese named for the 18th-century French gourmet and political figure Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, or because the dish was first prepared for them such as Chaliapin steak made by the order of the Russian opera singer Feodor Chaliapin in 1934 in Japan, or they named it for themselves because they invented the dish, or because the dish was invented in their kitchen.
Because of the many stories that have been told about the names of different dishes, it is hard to know where the names came from. Entrée Food presentation Garnish Famous Food Dishes and How they Got Their Names
A beef tenderloin, known as an eye fillet in Australasia, filet in France, fillet in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is cut from the loin of beef. As with all quadrupeds, the tenderloin refers to the psoas major muscle ventral to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, near the kidneys; the tenderloin is an oblong shape spanning two primal cuts: the sirloin. The tenderloin sits beneath the ribs, next to the backbone, it has two ends: the butt and the "tail". The smaller, pointed end—the "tail"—starts a little past the ribs, growing in thickness until it ends in the "sirloin" primal cut, closer to the butt of the cow; this muscle does little work, so it is the tenderest part of the beef. Whole tenderloins are sold as either "unpeeled", "peeled", or as PSMOs, short for peeled, silver skin removed, side muscle left on. While the most expensive option pound-for-pound, PSMOs offer considerable savings over other tenderloin options as they require little handling by the chef, since the fat and trimmings have been removed.
Since it is the tenderest part of the animal, beef dishes requiring exceptionally tender meat, such as steak tartare, are ideally made from the tenderloin. The three main "cuts" of the tenderloin are the butt, the center-cut, the tail; the butt end is suitable for carpaccio, as the eye can be quite large. The center-cut is suitable for portion-controlled steaks, as the diameter of the eye remains consistent; the center-cut can yield the traditional filet mignon or tenderloin steak, as well as the Chateaubriand steak and beef Wellington. The tail, unsuitable for steaks due to size inconsistency, can be used in recipes where small pieces of a tender cut are called for, such as beef Stroganoff
John Dory, St Pierre or Peter's Fish, refers to fish of the genus Zeus Zeus faber, of widespread distribution. It is an edible demersal coastal marine fish with a laterally compressed olive-yellow body which has a large dark spot, long spines on the dorsal fin; the dark spot is used to flash an ` evil eye'. Its large eyes at the front of the head provide it with binocular vision and depth perception, which are important for predators; the John Dory's eye spot on the side of its body confuses prey, which are scooped up in its big mouth. In New Zealand, Māori know it as kuparu, on the East Coast of the North Island, they gave some to Captain James Cook on his first voyage to New Zealand in 1769. Several casks of them were pickled. Various doubtful explanations are given of the origin of the name, it may be an arbitrary or jocular variation of dory, or an allusion to John Dory, the hero of an old ballad. Others suggest that "John" derives from yellow; the novel An Antarctic Mystery by Jules Verne gives another account, which has some popularity but is fanciful: "The legendary etymology of this piscatorial designation is Janitore, the'door-keeper,' in allusion to St. Peter, who brought a fish said to be of that species, to Jesus at his command."
Other known names for the John Dory are the "St. Pierre", or "Peter's Fish" explaining why dories were referred to as "Peter Boats", Saint Peter being the patron saint of fishermen. A related legend says. In the north coast of Spain, it is known as San Martiño; the John Dory grows to 3 kg in weight. It has 4 spines on its anal fin, it has sharp scales that run around the body. The fish has a dark spot on its side, its eyes are near the top of its head. It is a poor swimmer; the John Dory catches prey by stalking it extending its jaw forward in a tube-like structure to suck the fish in with some water. The water flows out through the gills; the John Dory is a piscivore. It eats squid and cuttlefish, their main predators are certain sharks, such as the dusky shark, other large bony fish. John Dory are coastal fish, found on the coasts of Africa, South East Asia, New Zealand, the coasts of Japan, on the coasts of Europe, they live near the seabed. They are solitary; when John Dories are 3 or 4 years of age, they are ready to reproduce.
This happens around the end of winter. They are substrate scatterers, which means that they release sperm and eggs into the water to fertilize. Typical lifespan is about 12 years in the wild; the cookery writer Eliza Acton observes in her 1845 book, Modern Cookery for Private Families, that John Dory "though of uninviting appearance, is considered by some persons as the most delicious fish that appears at table". She recommends baking it "very gently", avoiding drying it out in the oven; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. Article on the British Sea Fishing forum: http://britishseafishing.co.uk/john-dory/
A fish fillet, from the French word filet /filɛ/ meaning a thread or strip, is the flesh of a fish, cut or sliced away from the bone by cutting lengthwise along one side of the fish parallel to the backbone. In preparation for filleting, any scales on the fish should be removed; the contents of the stomach need careful detaching from the fillet. Because fish fillets do not contain the larger bones running along the vertebrae, they are said to be "boneless". However, some species, such as the common carp, have smaller intramuscular bones called pins within the fillet; the skin present on one side may not be stripped from the fillet. Butterfly fillets can be produced by cutting the fillets on each side in such a way that they are held together by the flesh and skin of the belly. Fish fillets can be contrasted with fish steaks, which are cut perpendicular to the spine and include the larger bones. Fish fillets comprise the flesh of the fish, the skeletal muscles and fat as opposed to the bones and viscera.
Fillets are obtained by slicing the fish parallel to the spine, rather than perpendicular to the spine as is the case with steaks. The remaining bones with the attached flesh is called the "frame", is used to make fish stock; as opposed to whole fish or fish steaks, fillets do not contain the fish's backbone. Special cut fillets are taken from solid large blocks. Fillets may have skin on. A fletch is a large boneless fillet of swordfish or tuna. There are several ways to cut a fish fillet: Cutlet: obtained by slicing from behind the head of the fish, round the belly and tapering towards the tail; the fish is turned and the process repeated on the other side to produce a double fillet Single: more complex than the cutlet, produces two separate fillets, one from each side of the fish. "J" Cut: produced in the same way as a single fillet but the pin bones are removed by cutting a "J" shape from the fillet Boneless Fish Fish fillet processor Green, Aliza The Fishmonger's Apprentice: The Expert's Guide to Selecting and Cooking a World of Seafood, Taught by the Masters Quarry Books.
ISBN 9781592536535. Murray J and Burt JR The Composition of Fish Torry Advisory Note 38, FAO, Descaling YouTube Filletting YouTube Removing the stomach YouTube Removing small bones from the fillet YouTube Free Filleting Tutorials Fillet Fish Australia