Houston County, Minnesota
Houston County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 19,027, its county seat is Caledonia. Houston County is included in WI-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the area covered by today's Houston County was first organized as St. Croix County, of the Wisconsin Territory, in 1839. On October 27, 1849, part of that county was partitioned off to create Wabashaw County of the Minnesota Territory. On February 23, 1854, the territorial legislature authorized the partitioning of sections of Wabashaw to create Fillmore County and Houston County. An election on April 4, 1854, allowed the county government to be completed; the county was named for Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and a US senator from Texas. The village of Houston was the first county seat. A land speculator made an effort to move the seat to Caledonia, in 1855 the county board moved the county records to Caledonia, which became the de facto seat, the legal seat after several county votes.
In 1855 the records were stored in the cabin of Commissioner Samuel McPhail. A two-story building was built in Caledonia in 1867, several referenda made Caledonia the county seat by 1874. From that point on, Caledonia prospered and Houston declined; the only other area of prominence was La Crescent, which benefited from its connection to La Crosse, Wisconsin. Houston County is at Minnesota's southeast corner, its eastern border abuts Wisconsin, its southern border abuts Iowa. The Mississippi flows south-southeast along its eastern border; the Root River flows east through the northern part of the county. Pine Creek flows east-southeast through the northeastern part of the county to discharge into the Mississippi, while Crooked Creek flows east across the southern part of the county to discharge into the Mississippi; the county's terrain consists of low rolling hills on its western end, transitioning to hills carved with drainages toward the east. The central and western portion of the county is a plateau with its highest point at 1,273' ASL, near its southwest corner.
The county has a total area of 569 square miles, of which 552 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. The county is in the Driftless Zone, marked by the absence of glacial drift and presence of bedrock cut by streams into steep hills; the plateau that surrounds Caledonia includes flat, fertile farm land and hilly, verdant pasture land. The Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge runs along the county's eastern border. Four lakes in that Refuge fall within the county: Beaver County Valley State Park Mound Prairie Scientific and Natural Area Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 19,718 people, 7,633 households, 5,411 families in the county; the population density was 35.7/sqmi. There were 8,168 housing units at an average density of 14.8/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 98.47% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races.
0.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.1% were of German, 29.6% Norwegian and 7.5% Irish ancestry. There were 7,633 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.05. The county population contained 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,680, the median income for a family was $49,196. Males had a median income of $32,557 versus $22,158 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,826.
About 4.2% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. Houston County Airport Houston County voters have tended to vote Republican in the past few decades. In 67% of national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Houston County, Minnesota Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge History of Houston County Houston County Houston County Health and Demographic Data KNEI 103.5 FM-Real Country
Minnesota State Highway 30
Minnesota State Highway 30 is a highway in southwest and southeast Minnesota, which runs from South Dakota Highway 34 at the South Dakota state line near Airlie, west of Pipestone, continues to its eastern terminus at its intersection with Minnesota Highway 43 in Rushford. Highway 30 is 266 miles in length. State Highway 30 serves as an east–west route between Pipestone, Slayton, St. James, Stewartville and Rushford. Highway 30 parallels U. S. Highway 14 and Interstate Highway 90 throughout its route; the Pipestone National Monument is located north of Highway 30 in Pipestone. Lake Shetek State Park is located near Highway 30 in Murray County on the shore of Lake Shetek; the park is located north of the town of Currie and northeast of Slayton. Highway 30 passes through the Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest in Olmsted and Fillmore counties. State Highway 30 was established in 1933 running from Highway 15 to Rushford, it replaced former State Highway 41 from Blooming Prairie to Hayfield.
The road was gravel at this time except where it overlapped other highways. By 1946, the road was still unpaved except for short sections near some towns; the first extended paving was done from Cummingsville to Rushford in 1948 and 1949. The remainder of the highway was paved throughout the 1950s. In 1955, the highway was re-routed east of Chatfield to overlap with Highway 74. In 1961, Highway 30 was extended westward, along the route of what had been State Highway 47; this extension was paved except for the section between U. S. 71 and the Cottonwood-Watonwan county line. Highway 47 was established November 2, 1920 from Pipestone to Slayton, it was extended west to the South Dakota state line and east to Highway 4 north of St. James in 1933; the entire highway was gravel at this time. In 1939, it was realigned to take a direct route to Darfur from U. S. 71, bypassing Comfrey. By 1940, the roadway was paved from the state line to Westbrook. Paving from Westbrook to U. S. 71 was performed in 1950 and 1951, through Watonwan County in 1955.
In the late 1970s, Highway 30's overlap with Highway 60 was upgraded to a four-lane expressway. There are plans to reroute the highway into the City of Rochester to better serve the Rochester International Airport and improve conditions on U. S. 63. Highway 30 at The Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Millard Fillmore was the 13th president of the United States, the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House. A former U. S. Representative from New York, Fillmore was elected the nation's 12th vice president in 1848, succeeded to the presidency in July 1850 upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, he was instrumental in getting the Compromise of 1850 passed, a bargain that led to a brief truce in the battle over slavery. He failed to win the Whig nomination for president in 1852. Fillmore was born into poverty in the Finger Lakes area of New York state—his parents were tenant farmers during his formative years. Though he had little formal schooling, he rose from poverty through diligent study and became a successful attorney, he became prominent in the Buffalo area as an attorney and politician, was elected to the New York Assembly in 1828, to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1832, he belonged to the Anti-Masonic Party, but became a Whig as the party formed in the mid-1830s.
Through his career, Fillmore declared slavery an evil, but one beyond the powers of the federal government, whereas Seward was not only hostile to slavery, he argued that the federal government had a role to play in ending it. Fillmore was an unsuccessful candidate for Speaker of the House when the Whigs took control of the chamber in 1841, but was made Ways and Means Committee chairman. Defeated in bids for the Whig nomination for vice president in 1844, for New York governor the same year, Fillmore was elected Comptroller of New York in 1847, the first to hold that post by direct election; as vice president, Fillmore was ignored by Taylor in the dispensing of patronage in New York, on which Taylor consulted Weed and Seward. In his capacity as President of the Senate however, he presided over angry debates in the Senate as Congress decided whether to allow slavery in the Mexican Cession. Fillmore supported Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill. Upon becoming president in July 1850, Fillmore dismissed Taylor's cabinet and carried out his own policy priorities.
He began by exerting pressure on Congress to pass the Compromise, highlighting how it gave legislative victories to both North and South – the five-bill package was approved and enacted into law that September. The Fugitive Slave Act, expediting the return of escaped slaves to those who claimed ownership, was a controversial part of the Compromise, Fillmore felt himself duty-bound to enforce it, though it damaged his popularity and the Whig Party, torn North from South. In foreign policy, Fillmore supported U. S. Navy expeditions to open trade in Japan, opposed French designs on Hawaii, was embarrassed by Narciso López's filibuster expeditions to Cuba, he sought election to a full term in 1852, but was passed over by the Whigs in favor of Winfield Scott. As the Whig Party broke up after Fillmore's presidency, many in Fillmore's conservative wing joined the Know Nothings, forming the American Party. In his 1856 candidacy as that party's nominee, Fillmore had little to say about immigration, focusing instead on the preservation of the Union, won only Maryland.
In retirement, Fillmore was active in many civic endeavors—he helped in founding the University of Buffalo and served as its first chancellor. During the American Civil War, Fillmore denounced secession and agreed that the Union must be maintained by force if necessary, but was critical of the war policies of Abraham Lincoln. After peace was restored, he supported the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson. Though he is obscure today, Fillmore has been praised by some, for his foreign policy, criticized by others, for his enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act and his association with the Know Nothings. Historians and scholars have ranked Fillmore as one of the worst presidents, debate continues on to this day concerning whether Fillmore escalated the civil war by signing the Compromise of 1850. Millard Fillmore was born January 7, 1800 in a log cabin, on a farm in what is now Moravia, Cayuga County, in the Finger Lakes region of New York, his parents were Phoebe and Nathaniel Fillmore—he was the second of eight children and the oldest son.
Nathaniel Fillmore was the son of Nathaniel Fillmore Sr. a native of Franklin, Connecticut who became one of the earliest settlers of Bennington when it was founded in the territory called the New Hampshire Grants. Nathaniel Fillmore and Phoebe Millard moved from Vermont in 1799, seeking better opportunities than were available on Nathaniel's stony farm, but the title to their Cayuga County land proved defective, the Fillmore family moved to nearby Sempronius, where they leased land as tenant farmers, Nathaniel taught school. Historian Tyler Anbinder described Fillmore's childhood as, "...one of hard work, frequent privation, no formal schooling". Over time Nathaniel became more successful in Sempronius, though during Millard’s formative years the family endured severe poverty. Nathaniel became sufficiently regarded that he was chosen to serve in local offices including justice of the peace. In hopes his oldest son would learn a trade, he convinced Millard at age 14 not to enlist for the War of 1812 and apprenticed him to cloth maker Benjamin Hungerford in Sparta.
Fillmore was relegated to menial labor. His father placed him in the same trade at a mill in New Hope. Seeking to better him
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Winneshiek County, Iowa
Winneshiek County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,056; the county seat is Decorah. A rural and agricultural county, Winneshiek County has a rich cultural history from Czech, English, German and Norwegian immigrants that have settled within its boundaries; the county was settled in 1848 in present-day Bloomfield Township and in Washington Township. It was organized in 1847, named after a chief of the Winnebago tribe. In 1980, Winneshiek County reported a population of 21,842. Like much of Iowa during the 1980s it witnessed a population loss, dropping to 20,847 according to the 1990 United States Census. However, during the 1990s the county experienced some mild growth and was able to rise above the 21,000 mark once again; as of 2010, the Winneshiek County government had a total of staff. Like all Iowa counties, Winneshiek is governed by an elected partisan Board of Supervisors. Winneshiek County's Board of Supervisors has five members elected by single-member districts of equal population.
Other elected officials are the county attorney, auditor and treasurer. The offices for the supervisors and county officers are located in the County Courthouse at the county seat. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 690 square miles, of which 690 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 52 Iowa Highway 9 Iowa Highway 24 Iowa Highway 139 Iowa Highway 150 Fillmore County, Minnesota Houston County, Minnesota Allamakee County Fayette County Chickasaw County Howard County Clayton County The 2010 census recorded a population of 21,056 in the county, with a population density of 30.5332/sq mi. There were 8,721 housing units, of which 7,997 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,310 people, 7,734 households, 5,189 families residing in the county. The population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 8,208 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.85% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races.
0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.3% were of German, 31.7% Norwegian, 5.5% Irish and 5.1% Czech ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 7,734 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 16.7% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,908, the median income for a family was $45,966. Males had a median income of $29,278 versus $21,240 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,047. About 5.1% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Burr Oak Bluffton Festina Frankville Highlandville Kendalville Conover The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Winneshiek County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Winneshiek County, Iowa Winneshiek County - Official County Government site Winneshiek County Health and Demographic Data 1913 History of Winneshiek County Official Winneshiek County Fair site
Minnesota State Highway 43
Minnesota State Highway 43 is a highway in southeast Minnesota, which runs from its intersection with State Highway 44 in Mabel and continues north to its northern terminus at the Wisconsin state line at Winona, where it becomes Wisconsin Highway 54 upon crossing the Mississippi River. Highway 43 is 45 miles in length. State Highway 43 serves as a north–south route between Mabel and Winona in southeast Minnesota; the route crosses the Root River in Fillmore County. Highway 43 passes through the Richard J. Dorer State Forest; the northern terminus of Highway 43 is at the Mississippi River at Winona, where the route becomes Wisconsin Highway 54 upon crossing the Main Channel and North Channel bridges over the river to Wisconsin. State Highway 43 was authorized in 1920 between Winona; the remainder of the route between Rushford and Mabel was authorized in 1933. Highway 43 was paved from Wilson to Winona by 1929; the only gravel section remaining by 1940 was south of Rushford. The route was paved by 1953.
A major project in the 1980s to rebuild Highway 43 from Interstate 90 to Winona as an expressway ran out of money. Only one carriageway was paved. There is still visible bridges east of the roadway in this section. In response to the I-35W Bridge collapse in Minneapolis on August 1, 2007, all Minnesota bridges were ordered to be inspected. During an inspection, "gusset plate corrosion issues" were discovered in the Main Channel Bridge, which crosses the Mississippi River between Winona, MN and nearby Fountain City, WI; the Main Channel Bridge was closed to traffic on June 3, 2008. MnDOT made a statement this was due to gusset plate corrosion issues similar to those that caused the I-35W Bridge to collapse; the Main Channel Bridge reopened to car traffic on June 14, 2008. Commercial vehicles were still directed to find alternate routes across the river; the bridge was scheduled for replacement in 2017, moved up to 2014