The Breeders' Cup World Championships is an annual series of Grade I Thoroughbred horse races, operated by Breeders' Cup Limited, a company formed in 1982. From its inception in 1984 through 2006, it was a single-day event. All sites have been in the United States, except in 1996, when the races were at the Woodbine Racetrack in Canada; the attendance at the Breeders' Cup varies, depending on the capacity of the host track. Santa Anita Park set the highest two-day attendance figure of 118,484 in 2016; the lowest two-day attendance was 69,584 in 2007 at Monmouth Park. The attendance only trails the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes and the Kentucky Oaks. With the addition of three races for 2008, a total of $25.5 million was awarded over the two days, up from $23 million in 2007. With the subsequent removal of two races, the purses for the remaining thirteen races totaled $24.5 million in 2014, plus awards for foal and stallion nominators. Prior to the 2016 running, the total purses were raised from $26 million to $28 million.
The purse of the Classic was raised from $5 million to $6 million, the purse of the Longines Turf was increased from $3 million to $4 million. In 2018, total prizes and awards were increased to over $30 million after another race, the Juvenile Turf Sprint, was added and the purse for the Sprint was increased to $2 million; each Breeders' Cup race presents four Breeders' Cup trophies to the connections of the winner and a garland of flowers draped over the withers of the winning horse. Many Breeders' Cup winners will go on to win the Eclipse Award in their respective division. For example, of the eleven flat racehorse categories, seven of the Eclipse winners in 2015 had won a Breeders' Cup race, while three others were in the money. In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, three Breeders' Cup races are ranked among the top Grade 1 races in the world: the Classic, the Turf and the Mile; the Distaff is ranked second among the top Grade 1 races for mares. The event was created as a year-end championship for North American Thoroughbred racing, attracts top horses from other parts of the world Europe.
The idea for the Breeders' Cup was proposed at the 1982 awards luncheon for the Kentucky Derby Festival by pet food heir John R. Gaines, a leading Thoroughbred owner and breeder who wanted to clean up the sport's image; the Cup was faced with much skepticism in the racing community, however with the vocal support of legendary trainer John Nerud and others, the Breeders' Cup was carried out, subsequently experienced tremendous popularity domestically and abroad. The prize money is supported by nomination fees paid by breeders for stallions and the resultant foals. In North America, participating stud farms pay an annual nomination fee for a given stallions, equal to the stallion's advertised stud fee, plus an additional amount if the stallion has more than 50 foals in a given year; the cost to nominate a European stallion is 50% of their stud fee, while the nomination fee for a South American stallion is 25% of their stud fee. In North America, the breeders of the resultant foals must pay a one-time nomination fee by October 15 of the year of birth.
The races are operated by Breeders' Cup Limited, a company formed in 1982. The first event was in 1984. From its inception in 1984 through 2006, it was a single-day event. All sites have been in the United States, except in 1996, when the races were at the Woodbine Racetrack in Canada. In 2006 Greg Avioli began serving as interim President and CEO of the Breeders' Cup, he became the official CEO in April 2007. "This is an exciting time for the Breeders' Cup," said Avioli. "We will continue to focus on growing the international market for our championships, creating a successful two-day event and promoting the Breeders' Cup brand with both our television and sponsorship partners." In 2007, the event was expanded from one to two days and in 2008, the first day was devoted to female horses and the overall purse increased to over $25 million, making it what the New York Post called "the richest turf festival in the world." Before the Breeders' Cup expanded to two days, it was considered to be the richest day in sports.
Beginning in 2008, the second day of the Breeders' Cup became the second-richest. In 2008, a total of $17 million was awarded on that day, down from $20 million in 2007; the richest single day in sports is now Dubai World Cup Night. It features six races with a combined purse of $21 million in 2008. In 2008, the Breeders' Cup Marathon was added but was dropped in April 2014. 2008 marked the first time most of the races were run on an artificial surface, instead of the traditional dirt. On August 11, 2009 the Breeders' Cup announced that it would use the standard colored saddle towel system starting with the 2009 event; the new color-coded system replaces the standard purple saddle towels, used since 1985. The first Breeders' Cup in 1984 used yellow saddle towels. On October 22, 2009, the Breeders' Cup announced it had signed simulcasting and licensing agreements with Betfair, a company which in turn had purchased the horse-racing network TVG in January of that year; the agreement brought in Betfair's customer base of over 2.5 million, many of whom had legal access to common-pool betting.
Betfair handled common-pool wagering at the organization's November 2
A weanling is an animal that has just been weaned. The term is used to refer to a type of young horse, a foal, weaned between six months and a year. Once it is a year old, the horse is referred to as a yearling; the word is sometimes used to describe young cattle and pigs, but "weaner" is more common in the United States. Lyons and Jennifer J. Denison. Bringing Up Baby. Primedia Enthusiast Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-929164-12-2. Describes methods of training a young horse from birth until it is old enough to ride
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
A mare is an adult female horse or other equine. In most cases, a mare is a female horse over the age of three, a filly is a female horse three and younger. In Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old; the word can be used for other female equine animals mules and zebras, but a female donkey is called a "jenny". A broodmare is a mare used for breeding. A horse's female parent is known as its dam. An uncastrated adult male horse is called a castrated male is a gelding; the term "horse" is used to designate only a male horse. Mares carry their young for 11 months from conception to birth. Just one young is born; when a domesticated mare foals, she nurses the foal for at least four to six months before it is weaned, though mares in the wild may allow a foal to nurse for up to a year. The estrous cycle known as "season" or "heat" of a mare occurs every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn; as the days shorten, most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period.
The reproductive cycle in a mare is controlled by the photoperiod, the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen. As the days shorten, the mare returns to the anestrus period. Anestrus prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive. However, for most competitive purposes, foals are given an official "birthday" of January 1, many breeders want foals to be born as early in the year as possible. Therefore, many breeding farms begin to put mares "under lights" in late winter in order to bring them out of anestrus early and allow conception to occur in February or March. One exception to this general rule is the field of endurance riding, which requires horses to be 60 true calendar months old before competing at longer distances. Fillies are sexually mature by age two and are sometimes bred at that age, but should not be bred until they themselves have stopped growing by age four or five.
A healthy, well-managed mare can produce a foal every year into her twenties, though not all breeders will breed a mare every year. In addition, many mares are kept for riding and so are not bred annually, as a mare in late pregnancy or nursing a foal is not able to perform at as athletic a standard as one, neither pregnant nor lactating. In addition, some mares become anxious when separated from their foals temporarily, thus are difficult to manage under saddle until their foals are weaned. Mares are considered easier to handle than stallions. However, geldings have little to no hormone-driven behavior patterns at all, thus sometimes they are preferred to both mares and stallions. Mares have a notorious, if undeserved, reputation for being "marish," meaning that they can be cranky or unwilling when they come into season. While a few mares may be somewhat more distractible or irritable when in heat, they are far less distracted than a stallion at any time. Solid training minimizes hormonal behavior.
For competitive purposes, mares are sometimes placed on hormone therapies, such as the drug Regumate, to help control hormonally based behavior. Some riders use various herbal remedies, most of which have not been extensively tested for effectiveness. In relation to maternal behaviour, the formation of the bond between a mare and her foal "occurs during the first few hours post-partum, but that of the foal to the mare takes place over a period of days". Mares and geldings can be pastured together. However, mares may be a bit more territorial than geldings though they are far less territorial than stallions. Sex-segregating herds may make for less infighting if kept in close quarters. However, studies have shown that when a "lead mare" or "boss mare" is in charge of a herd, all remaining animals rest for longer periods and seem more at ease than do those in herds led by a gelding. In wild herds, a "boss mare" or "lead mare" leads the band to grazing, to water, away from danger, she drinks first, decides when the herd will move and to where.
The herd stallion brings up the rear and acts as a defender of the herd against predators and other stallions. Mares are used in every equestrian sport and compete with stallions and geldings in most events, though some competitions may offer classes open only to one sex of horse or another in breeding or "in-hand" conformation classes. In horse racing and fillies have their own races and only a small percentage compete against male horses. However, a few fillies and mares have won classic horse races against colts, including the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, the Belmont Stakes, the Melbourne Cup and the Breeders' Cup Classic. Mares are used as dairy animals in some cultures by the nomads and nomadic peoples of Central Asia. Fermented mare's milk, known as kumis, is the national drink of Kyrgyzstan; some mares of draft horse breeding, are kept in North America for the production of their urine. Pregnant mares' urine is the source of the active ingredient in the hormonal drug Premarin.
Until the invention of castration and later where there was less cultural acceptance of the practice, mares were less difficult to manage than stallions and thus preferred for most ordinary work. The Bedouin nomads of the Arabian peninsula preferred mares on their raids, because stallions would nic
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
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