1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram
Talpa Network is the company in which John de Mol Jr. has transferred all of its media activities. Besides John de Mol, who as majority shareholder owns 80% of the company, Rabo Participaties owns a 20% stake in the media company; the holding company has amongst the 538 group with radio station Radio 538. Talpa Media part of Talpa Holding, has been sold to ITV plc and is a separate business unit within ITV Studios; the Talpa Holding is a large company that consists of, among other things, radio and print activities. A joint venture with the Telegraaf Media Groep, established on 1 October 2016. Before Talpa Radio, the 538 Groep was founded on 1 January 2012; the joint venture includes the radio stations Radio 538, Sky Radio, Radio Veronica, Radio 10 and thematic channels. Additionally, the television channel TV 538. In December 2017 Talpa bought all shares of the Telegraaf Media Groep making Talpa the sole owner of Talpa Radio. SBS 6 Net 5 Veronica SBS 9 This business unit within Talpa Holding is responsible for cross-media rollout of various program concepts.
It is responsible for setting up stand-alone services such as dating community Mundo, Radio Digitaal and Fuel for Travel. Talpa Digital develops learn concepts in five main groups: sports, news and leisure; because wherever possible Talpa Holding owns the rights to its contents it may develop directly in front digital applications. Additionally, advertisers at an early stage in the development of formats involved; the director of Talpa Digital is Edwin Tromp. Before Edwin Tromp was working at Talpa Holding, he was responsible at Endemol Interactive and general manager at internet company Lost Boys. Talpa Music engages in the international and national production of music, the exploitation of copyrights, music publishing and licensing of image and sound carriers, developing artists and their image, advice on music industry and the exploitation of music in the area of internet applications. On an international level Talpa Music works with composers among others Burt Bacharach, Tom Waits, Bill Withers, Maxi Jazz and Lil John.
Talpa Radio. This division included Noordzee FM, Radio 10 Gold and the Danish radio station Radio 100FM. All these stations have been sold to other companies. Fuel for Travel - Was a digital content store at Schiphol Airport. For a certain fee, it was possible to download TV programmes and audiobooks. Mundo was an independent dating site, but offered the possibility to get in contact with members of other dating sites. Skoeps.nl - In October 2006 Talpa Holding, together with PCM Uitgevers, launched the news-in-picture Skoeps.nl website. Aim of this website was to offer user-generated content. Should user-generated content be sold to other news media profits would be shared with the creator. Operations were terminated on 5 May 2008. On 27 June 2007, it was announced that the television channel Tien would be taken over by RTL Nederland; the reason for the sale was traced back to disappointing ratings and huge financial losses. Radio station Radio 538 went to RTL; the business Talpa TV started in late 2004 and began its broadcasts on 13 August 2005 under the same name Talpa.
Talpa was from 13 August 2005 to see every day from 18:00 on the channel, filled during the day by the children's channel Nickelodeon. From Saturday, 16 December 2006 the station was broadcasting 24 hours a day; that was a long cherished wish of Talpa-founder John de Mol fulfilled. The station distinguished itself from the competition by allowing existence more than 80% of its interpretation of Dutch products. In addition, managed Talpa Content the majority of its program rights. On 27 June 2007 the channel stopped due to disappointing ratings. Tien was available on television, but in addition it was possible to see Tien via the Internet and mobile phones. Tien had the rights of all of its programs and was able through multiple distribution channels offering its programs. There was the Tien. TV website a feature. Radio Digitaal was in 2006 the first Dutch commercial online radio platform on the internet, alongside Radio 538 and Radio 10 Gold, continuous eight stations were to listen to different music formats.
The stations are: 24/7 dance, NonStop 40, Power FM, Love Radio, Flashback Radio, Hits 4 Kids, Real rock radio, Après-Ski Radio, Comedy Radio and JFK. Radio Noordzee Nationaal, 538 jumpstyle radio, Radio 10 Gold 90's, Radio 10 Gold 80's and Radio 10 Gold 60's/70's are added and 24/7 dance was replaced by 538 dance department; the activities of Radio Digitaal ceased on 31 December 2008. Some underlying Internet radio stations are housed in respective. Radio 538, respectively. Radio 10 Gold; the newly launched Radio Noordzee Nationaal that had obtained cable distribution again since 1 July 2008, was stopped on 31 December 2008 as part of Radio Digitaal. On www.radiodigitaal.nl were heard to programs on Radio 538: Radio 538 538 Juize 538 Dance Department 538 Nonstop 40 53L8 538 Party 538 HitzoneAnd from Radio 10 Gold: Radio 10 Gold 60's & 70's hits 80's hits 90's hits Radio 10 Gold Disco ClassicsAnd Manpower Radio@Work. In Belgium Talpa was active with 4FM. 4FM received a frequency package in Flanders after Belgian equivalent of Zero Base.
As a result, the station will air its coverage increased resulting in increased listening figures. 4FM is working with the other ` national' commercial station in Flanders. This station, owned by the VMMa, took over 4FM in May 2007
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
Ziggo is the largest cable operator in the Netherlands, providing digital cable television and telephone service to both residential and commercial customers. The company is the result of the merger between Multikabel, @Home, Casema and launched on 16 May 2008. Followed by a merger with UPC Nederland in the first quarter of 2015, at that time the second largest cable company in the Netherlands, it kept the brand name Ziggo. Its main competitors are CanalDigitaal. Most of the share capital was up to 2012 held by holding companies of two private equity firms: Cinven and Warburg Pincus. On 21 March 2012, Ziggo was listed on the NYSE Euronext stock exchange and incorporated into the midcap equity AMX index. Additionally, there are options traded on the Ziggo share. Cinven and Warburg Pincus started to reduce their stake in Ziggo and exited Ziggo in April 2013. In March 2013 Liberty Global acquired a 12.65% stake in Ziggo. This grew to 15 % in 28.5 % in July. On 27 January 2014 Liberty Global announced that it would be acquiring all remaining shares in Ziggo for € 10 billion.
The takeover was subject to regulatory approval and was expected to close by the second quarter of 2014, when Ziggo was expected to merge with UPC Nederland. In May 2014 the European Commission announced opening an in-depth investigation to assess whether the proposed acquisition of Ziggo by Liberty Global is in line with the EU Merger Regulation; the opening of an in-depth inquiry does not prejudge the outcome of the investigation. In November 2014 Liberty Global took over Ziggo. In December 2014 the shares of Ziggo N. V. were delisted from Euronext Amsterdam as Ziggo was converted into the Dutch private limited company Ziggo Holding B. V. On 5 January 2015, Ziggo started to harmonize its cable network with the UPC Nederland cable network; the name UPC was phased out in favor of Ziggo on 13 April 2015. On 15 February 2016, British telecommunications company Vodafone announced the merger of their Dutch operations Vodafone Netherlands with Liberty Global, the owner of Ziggo; the deal was closed on 31 December, creating a new parent company for both Ziggo and Vodafone, called VodafoneZiggo, with a 50/50 joint ownership by Liberty Global and Vodafone.
In 2014 the Ziggo cable network passed 7.140 million homes in the Netherlands. As of December 2017, Ziggo has 3.916 million cable television subscribers. The digital television signal is transmitted in the DVB-C standard; the high-definition channels are encoded in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and most standard-definition channels are encoded in MPEG-4. Only the FTC standard-definition channels are still encoded in MPEG-2. Customers can buy or rent a certified set-top box or Integrated Digital Television with embedded CA. Additionally customers can buy any television or set-top box with a DVB-C tuner for the free-to-cable basic subscription and optionally included by CI+ support with a Ziggo compatible conditional-access module for supplemental packages. At the moment Ziggo uses both Irdeto conditional access system. Prior to 2018, Ziggo offered an analogue television signal. In 2018, it began to phase out the analogue signal. Ziggo provides about 200 television channels and more than 100 radio channels, DVR service, video-on-demand content, catch-up TV from public television broadcasters and commercial television stations and interactive television.
About 40 TV channels and 40 radio channels are transmitted in clear, while most premium channels are transmitted encrypted. Basic service is called Kabel TV and consists of about 40 digital television channels, as well as 40 digital and analogue radio channels, it consists of some of the main networks of neighbouring countries. Additional TV and radio channels are available through "TV Standard", "Movies & Series XL" and premium packages; every additional package comes with Stingray Music which offers 35 additional radio channels, as well as interactive video on demand services. Ziggo offers about 55 HD channels including National Geographic HD, Discovery HD & History HD. Including premium film and sport services such as Film1 HD, Fox Sports HD and Ziggo Sport Totaal HD; the rest are part of basic service. On 4 July 2009 the Dutch public broadcaster NPO started simulcasting NPO 1, NPO 2, NPO 3 in 1080i high-definition; these public HD channels are part of basic service. Ziggo GO is an online television service from Ziggo.
The service allows users to watch live TV and on demand video content from a PC, laptop and mobile phone. It is possible to stream live TV on Chromecast and Apple TV; the service was introduced by UPC in 2012. It was named Horizon TV app or Horizon GO; the service was renamed by Ziggo GO on 9 November 2016. HBO 1/2/3 closed on 31 December 2016 in The Netherlands. Since all HBO content is available on Ziggo GO; as of December 2017, Ziggo has 3.240 million Internet access subscribers. The EuroDOCSIS 3.0 standard is used to offer Internet access with download speeds of up to 500 Mbit/s. As of December 2017, Ziggo has 2.551 million subscribers to their land-line telephone services. It offered a virtual mobile phone service. Ziggo Mobile stopped offering new subscriptions in April 2017, existing customers were migrated to Vodafone Netherlands in September 2017; as of December 2017, 64.7% of subscribers have a triple play subscription: a cable television and telephone service bundle. Digital television in the Netherlands Internet in the Netherlands List of cable companies in the Netherlands Television in the Netherlands Vodafone Netherlands XMO Ziggo Dome Ziggo Sport Official website Ziggo Corporate website List of channels on Ziggo Ziggo Gebruikersforum Ziggo GO
KPN is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company. KPN is based in Rotterdam, Netherlands; the company was called Koninklijke PTT Nederland, prior to that Staatsbedrijf der Posterijen, Telegrafie en Telefonie or PTT and was the publicly owned fixed-line operator of the Netherlands. KPN took on its present form on 1 January 1989. Before the spin-off of TPG, the company controlled the national Dutch postal services; the Dutch government progressively privatized KPN beginning in 1994, reducing its stake to 6.4% in 2005, completed the process in 2006, giving up its golden share veto rights. In 2001 KPN tried to merge with the Belgian telco Belgacom, it did not succeed because of the objections of the Belgian government. In 2001, Spanish Telefonica expressed an interest in buying KPN; the Japanese mobile telephone company NTT DoCoMo holds a 2% stake in KPN Mobile NV. From 2002 until 2007 KPN Mobile provided i-mode services on its mobile phone networks. I-mode as introduced by KPN's E-Plus in Germany in March 2002 and by KPN Mobile The Netherlands in April 2002 was the first mobile Internet service in Europe.
KPN owned KPNQwest, a telecommunications company owned by KPN and the American Qwest Communications International. The company was set to bring together the state-of-the-art fibre-optic networks of the two partners and the Internet services expertise and customer base of EUnet International; the company collapsed in a bankruptcy in 2002. KPN has operational synergies through joint ventures with TDC and Swisscom. In 2007 KPN acquired Getronics N. V. a worldwide ICT services company with more than 22,000 employees, doubled its former size. KPN is still divesting parts of Getronics, they sold a Dutch department of Getronics named Business Application Services to CapGemini for about €250,000,000. In August 2013, América Móvil offered to take over the remaining 70% stake of the Dutch telecommunications company for 7.2 billion Euros. América Móvil owns close to 30% of KPN; the Dutch Government has issued a warning on this proposed takeover of KPN by Mexican Billionaire Carlos Slim, as part of his ambition to expand his telecom empire.
The plans ended when the "Stichting Preferente Aandelen B KPN" exercised a call option to gain ~50% of the total shares, in order to put up a temporary protection wall against the hostile takeover. As of 2018, main share holders are: América Móvil 16.08% Franklin Mutual Series Funds 4.99% BlackRock 3.83% Norges Bank 2.91%Stichting Preferente Aandelen B KPN is a foundation which "was established to promote the interests of KPN, KPN its related companies and all stakeholders, including influences the continuity, independence or identity of KPN in conflict with the interests and threaten to keep much as possible." The foundation exercised a call option to gain 50% of the KPN shares in order to protect KPN against a hostile takeover. This stock was withdrawn on a special shareholder meeting held on 10 January 2014, as per the request of the foundation in November 2013. In the Netherlands, KPN has 6.3 million fixed-line telephone customers. Its mobile division, KPN Mobile, has more than 33 million subscribers in the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain under different brand names.
Through its ownership of several European Internet service providers, KPN provides Internet access to 2.1 million customers, it offers business network services and data transport throughout Western Europe. KPN operates a mobile services network for 3G and 4G technologies, it offers LTE-Advanced in limited locations on the 1800 MHz band, whereas the majority of KPN's 4G network operates in the 8/900 MHz bands, which will allow theoretic download speeds up to 200MBit/sec. Along with the completion of the 4G network, KPN is upgrading the 2G and 3G networks and capacity, using Huawei Single-RAN technology. Most of KPN's operations are in the Dutch telecommunication market. In the 2000s and early 2010s, KPN had multiple subsidiaries in European countries such as Belgium and France. Most of these international operations were sold off in the 2010s. In the Dutch telephone market, KPN is the owner of the fixed telephone operations network and is the market leader in mobile network operator under its own brand name and as a mobile virtual network operator under the brand names Telfort and Ortel Mobile.
In the Internet market, KPN provides Internet service under its own brand name and under the brand names Telfort and XS4ALL. Defunct subsidiary providers include Planet Internet, Het Net, Speedlinq, HCCNet, Demon Netherlands. In 2004, KPN started offering digital terrestrial television in the Netherlands as part of its multi-play services via its subsidiary KPN Digitenne. Since 1 May 2006, KPN offers Interactive Television, an IPTV service based on their DSL service, with the ability to receive Video On Demand and replay your missed TV episodes besides regular TV programming. KPN Retail is a Dutch subsidiary. In Belgium, KPN owned mobile provider Base. In 2015, it was sold to Telenet, a Belgian cable broadband service provider. In 2007 KPN purchased the Belgian fixed telephone and broadband operations of the Tele2-Versatel joint venture; these were sold again in December 2009 to Mobistar. In 2009, KPN bought a 33.3% share in MVNO Mobile Vikings, sold to Medialaan in 2015. In Germany, KPN owned mobile provider E-Plus, Germany's third largest mobile phone network.
E-Plus was sold to Telefónica Germany
NPO 2 Extra
NPO 2 Extra is a 24-hour public television channel from the NPO, devoted to documentaries and culture. Most programmes are supplied by NTR, AVROTROS, BNNVARA, KRO-NCRV, EO and VPRO. Topics covered include art, dance, literature and classical music. On 26 March 2018 NPO Cultura was renamed by NPO 2 Extra. Official Website NPO 2 Extra
RTL Z is a Dutch business and financial news television channel. It displays economic changes and the stock exchange news in a banner at the bottom of the screen in the daytime. In the evenings the programming consists of documentaries. RTL Z started on 6 June 2001 as a joint venture between Holland Media Groep and Belgian Business Television. Belgian Business Television broadcasts Kanaal Z in Belgium. In 2002, Holland Media Groep took over the programme in its entirety, it was broadcast on RTL 5 during daytime followed by RTL 7 between 12 August 2005 and 7 September 2015. The channel launched as a 24-hours channel on 7 September 2015. RTL Z Website