Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject to another, or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. The word analogy can refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in solving, as well as decision making, memory, emotion, explanation. It lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places and people, for example, in face perception and it has been argued that analogy is the core of cognition. Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, metaphors, similes and parables, phrases like and so on, and the like, as if, and the very word like rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in language and common sense but in science, philosophy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy, Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers and lawyers.
The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, in ancient Greek the word αναλογια originally meant proportionality, in the mathematical sense, and it was indeed sometimes translated to Latin as proportio. From there analogy was understood as identity of relation between any two ordered pairs, whether of mathematical nature or not, kants Critique of Judgment held to this notion. Kant argued that there can be exactly the same relation between two different objects. The same notion of analogy was used in the US-based SAT tests, for example, Hand is to palm as foot is to ____. This relation is not apparent in some definitions of palm and sole, where the former is defined as the inner surface of the hand. Analogy and abstraction are different cognitive processes, and analogy is often an easier one and this analogy is not comparing all the properties between a hand and a foot, but rather comparing the relationship between a hand and its palm to a foot and its sole. While a hand and a foot have many dissimilarities, the focuses on their similarity in having an inner surface. A computer algorithm has achieved human-level performance on multiple-choice analogy questions from the SAT test, the algorithm measures the similarity of relations between pairs of words by statistical analysis of a large collection of text.
It answers SAT questions by selecting the choice with the highest relational similarity, Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle actually used a wider notion of analogy. They saw analogy as a shared abstraction, analogous objects did not share necessarily a relation, but an idea, a pattern, a regularity, an attribute, an effect or a philosophy. These authors accepted that comparisons and images could be used as arguments, analogies should make those abstractions easier to understand and give confidence to the ones using them
Thumb|A2016 Nikon D810 A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies, the camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without physical contact. The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means dark chamber and is the Latin name of the device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura, the functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is a device which creates a single image of an object or scene. All cameras use the basic design, light enters an enclosed box through a converging lens/convex lens. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light can enter the camera, a display, often a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession.
When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved, the forerunner to the photographic camera was the camera obscura. The oldest known record of this principle is a description by Han Chinese philosopher Mozi, Mozi correctly asserted that the camera obscura image is inverted because light travels in straight lines from its source. In the 11th century Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham s wrote very influential essays about experiments with light through an opening in a darkened room. The use of a lens in the opening of a wall or closed window shutter of a room to project images used as a drawing aid has been traced back to circa 1550. Since the late 17th century portable camera obscura devices in tents, before the development of the photographic camera, it had been known for hundreds of years that some substances, such as silver salts, darkened when exposed to sunlight. The first person to use this chemistry to create images was Thomas Wedgwood, to create images, Wedgwood placed items, such as leaves and insect wings, on ceramic pots coated with silver nitrate, and exposed the set-up to light.
These images werent permanent, however, as Wedgwood didnt employ a fixing mechanism and he ultimately failed at his goal of using the process to create fixed images created by a camera obscura. The first permanent photograph of an image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles. Niépce had been experimenting with ways to fix the images of a camera obscura since 1816, the photograph Niépce succeeded in creating shows the view from his window
Gottfried Wilhelm Billy Bitzer was a pioneering American cinematographer notable for his close association with D. W. Griffith. He admired and learned the art of motion photography from Kinetoscope inventor W. K. L. Dickson, who directed the early Biograph shorts on which Bitzer cut his teeth, until 1903, Bitzer was employed by Biograph primarily as a documentary photographer, and from 1903 onward primarily as the photographer of narrative films, as these gained popularity. In 1908 Bitzer entered into his first collaboration with Griffith, during this time he pioneered the field of matte photography and made use of innovative lighting techniques and iris shots. Bitzer provided assistance during Griffiths directorial debut, 1908s The Adventures of Dollie, in 1910, he photographed Griffiths silent short, In Old California, in the Los Angeles village of Hollywoodland, qualifying Bitzer as, Hollywoods first Director of Photography. The apex of Bitzer and Griffiths collaboration came with The Birth of a Nation, a film funded in part by Bitzers life savings, and the epic Intolerance.
For all his innovation, Bitzer did not survive the transition to sound. His autobiography, Billy Bitzer, His Story, was published posthumously in 1973, in 2003, a survey conducted by the International Cinematographers Guild named him one of the ten most influential cinematographers in history. Bitzer, it is said, developed techniques that set the standard for all future motion pictures. 2 A. M. G. W. Bitzer, Billy Bitzer, His Story, ISBN 978-0-374-11294-3 David W. Menefee, Sweet Memories, Bitzer at the Internet Movie Database
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, playback and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary greatly in the resolution of the display and refresh rate, video can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, tapes, DVDs, computer files etc. Video was originally exclusively a live technology, charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the electrical impulses. Video recorders were sold for $50,000 in 1956, prices gradually dropped over the years, in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder decks and tapes into the consumer market. The use of techniques in video created digital video, which allowed higher quality and, eventually. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape, the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards specify 29.97 frames, film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video.
The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of an image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive, analog display devices reproduce each frame in the same way, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats, abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence, when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Deinterlacing cannot, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material, aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements.
All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height, the screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4,3, or about 1.33,1. High definition televisions use a ratio of 16,9. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375,1. Therefore, a 720 by 480 pixel NTSC DV image displayes with the 4,3 aspect ratio if the pixels are thin, the popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical video
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
A close-up or closeup in filmmaking, television production, still photography and the comic strip medium is a type of shot, which tightly frames a person or an object. Close-ups are one of the shots used regularly with medium shots. Close-ups display the most detail, but they do not include the broader scene, moving in to a close-up or away from a close-up is a common type of zooming. Most early filmmakers—such as Thomas Edison and Louis Lumière and Georges Méliès—tended not to use close-ups and preferred to frame their subjects in long shots, film historians disagree as to which filmmaker first used a close-up. In 1901, James Williamson, working in Hove, made perhaps the most extreme close-up of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. D. W. Griffith, who pioneered screen cinematographic techniques, for example, one of Griffiths short films, The Lonedale Operator, makes significant use of a close-up of a wrench that a character pretends is a gun.
Lillian Gish remarked on Griffiths pioneering use of the close-up, The people in the front office got very upset and they came down and said, The public doesn’t pay for the head or the arms or the shoulders of the actor. Let’s give them their money’s worth. ’ Griffith stood very close to them and said, ‘Can you see my feet. ’ When they said no, he replied, I am using what the eyes can see. Close-ups are used in ways and for many reasons. They are often employed as cutaways from a distant shot to show detail, such as characters emotions. Close cuts to characters faces are used far more often in television than in movies, for a director to deliberately avoid close-ups may create in the audience an emotional distance from the subject matter. Close-ups are used for distinguishing main characters, major characters are often given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups, there is a long-standing stereotype of insecure actors desiring a close-up at every opportunity and counting the number of close-ups they received.
Close-up shots do not show the subject in the context of its surroundings. If overused, they may leave viewers uncertain as to what they are seeing, Close-ups are rarely done with wide-angle lenses, because perspective causes objects in the center of the picture to be unnaturally enlarged. Certain times, different directors will use wide-angle lenses, because they can convey the message of confusion, there are various degrees of close-up depending on how tight the shot is. The terminology varies between countries and even different companies, but in general these are, Medium Close Up, usually covers the subjects head and shoulders. Close Up, A certain feature, such as someones head, extreme Close Up, The shot is so tight that only a detail of the subject, such as someones eyes, can be seen
In filmmaking and video production, a shot is a series of frames, that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. Film shots are an aspect of a movie where angles and cuts are used to further express emotion, ideas. The term shot can refer to two different parts of the process, In production, a shot is the moment that the camera starts rolling until the moment it stops. In film editing, a shot is the footage or sequence between two edits or cuts. The term shot derives from the days of film production when cameras were hand-cranked. That is, a cameraman would shoot film the way someone would shoot bullets from a machine gun, shots can be categorized in a number of ways. Field size differs from framing in that within professional environments where prime lenses are dominant, its more common in photography and cinematography to determine an images field size by only changing two out of the two factors. The field size greatly affects the power of a shot. There are a number of standardized sizes, the names of which are commonly derived from varying camera-subject distances while not changing the lens.
The four basic kinds of field sizes are, the shot, the full shot, the medium shot. There are other variants, such as the close up. Cutting between shots taken at different times or from different perspectives is known as editing, and is one of the central arts of filmmaking. The length of shots is an important consideration that can affect a film. The purpose of editing any given scene is to create a representation of the way the scene might be perceived by the story teller. Shots with a duration can make a scene seem more relaxed and slower paced whereas shots with a shorter duration can make a scene seem urgent. The average shot length of a film is one of its cinemetrical measures, shots with extremely long durations are difficult to do because any error in the shot would force the filmmaker to restart from scratch, and are thus only occasionally used. Orson Welless Touch of Evil opens with a long tracking crane shot, béla Tarr is known for using very long takes consistently in his films. Joss Whedons feature film Serenity introduces the characters with a long take
Film editing is a creative and technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the process of working with film. The film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots, Film editing is often referred to as the invisible art because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not aware of the editors work. On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, the job of an editor is not simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates, or edit dialogue scenes. Editors usually play a role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteurist film directors edit their own films, for example, Akira Kurosawa, Bahram Beyzai, with the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture, sound and visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process, usually under the direction of the picture editor and director.
However, digital systems have increasingly put these responsibilities on the picture editor and it is common, especially on lower budget films, for the editor to cut in music, mock up visual effects, and add sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are replaced with more refined final elements by the sound, music. Early films were films that were one long, static. Motion in the shot was all that was necessary to amuse an audience, there was no story and no editing. Each film ran as long as there was film in the camera, in the first shot, an elderly couple is outside an art exhibition having lunch and follow other people inside through the door. The second shot shows what they do inside, one of the first films to use this technique, Georges Mélièss The Four Troublesome Heads from 1898, was produced with Pauls camera. There is a cut to close shot of the hands on the girls foot shown inside a circular mask. Even more remarkable was James Williamsons Attack on a China Mission Station, an armed party of British sailors arrived and defeat the Boxers and rescue the missionarys family.
The film used the first reverse angle cut in film history, James Williamson concentrated on making films taking action from one place shown in one shot to the next shown in another shot in films like Stop Thief. and Fire. Made in 1901, and many others and he experimented with the close-up, and made perhaps the most extreme one of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. These two filmmakers of the Brighton School pioneered the editing of the film, they tinted their work with color, by 1900, their films were extended scenes of up to 5 minutes long
A letter is a grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing, such as the Greek alphabet and its descendants. Letters appear in abjads and abugidas, letters broadly denote phonemes in the spoken form of the language, although there is rarely a consistent exact correspondence between letters and phonemes. Written signs in writing systems are best called syllabograms or logograms. Letter, borrowed from Old French lettre, entered Middle English around AD1200, letter derives from Latin littera, which may have derived, via Etruscan, from the Greek διφθέρα. The Middle English plural lettres could refer to an epistle or written document, use of the singular letter to refer to a written document emerged in the 14th century. As symbols that denote segmental speech, letters are associated with phonetics, in a purely phonemic alphabet, a single phoneme is denoted by a single letter, but in history and practice letters often denote more than one phoneme. A pair of letters designating a single phoneme is called a digraph, examples of digraphs in English include ch, sh and th.
A phoneme can be represented by three letters, called a trigraph, an example is the combination sch in German. A letter may be associated more than one phoneme. As an example of positional effects, the Spanish letter c is pronounced before a, o, or u, letters have specific names associated with them. These names may differ with language and history, Z, for example, is usually called zed in all English-speaking countries except the U. S. where it is named zee. Letters, as elements of alphabets, have prescribed orders and this may generally be known as alphabetical order though collation is the science devoted to the complex task of ordering and sorting of letters and words in different languages. In Spanish, for instance, ñ is a letter being sorted after n. In English, n and ñ are sorted alike, letters may have numerical value. This is true of Roman numerals and the letters of other writing systems, in English, Arabic numerals are typically used instead of letters. Letters may be used as words, the words a and I are the most common English letter-words.
Sometimes O is used for Oh in poetic situations, in extremely informal cases of writing individual letters may replace words, e. g. u may be used instead of you in English, when the letter name is pronounced as a homophone of the word. Nearly all alphabets in the world today either descend directly from development or were inspired by its design
Classical Hollywood cinema
For centuries the only visual standard of narrative storytelling was the theatre. Since the first narrative films in the 1890s, filmmakers sought to capture the power, most of these filmmakers started as directors on the late 19th century stage, and likewise most film actors had roots in vaudeville or theatrical melodramas. Early film-makers largely failed to both the limitations and the freedom of the new medium. Visually, early films had adapted little from the stage. Regardless of any merit they had in the proscenium, these narrative films lost both their power and their realism on the cinematic frame and vaudeville only emphasized the artificiality of film, and likewise stagy visuals on film appeared two-dimensional and static. Before the visual style which would become known as classical continuity, scenes were filmed in full shot and used carefully choreographed staging to portray plot, cutting was extremely limited, and mostly consisted of close-ups of writing on objects for their legibility.
By the early 1910s, film-making was beginning to fulfill its artistic potential, films worldwide began to noticeably adopt visual and narrative elements which would be found in classical Hollywood cinema. In the world generally and America specifically, the influence of Griffith on film-making was unmatched, equally influential were his actors in adapting their performances to the new medium. Lillian Gish, the star of The Mothering Heart, is noted for her influence on screen performance techniques. D. W. Griffiths 1915 epic The Birth of a Nation was groundbreaking for film as a means of storytelling — a masterpiece of narrative with numerous innovative visual techniques. The film initiated so many advances in American cinema that it was rendered obsolete within a few years, though 1913 was a global landmark for film-making,1917 was primarily an American one. The era of classical Hollywood cinema is distinguished by a narrative, the narrative and visual style of classical Hollywood style would further develop after the transition to sound-film production.
The primary changes in American film-making came from the industry itself. This mode of production, with its star system bankrolled by several key studios, had preceded sound by several years. By mid-1920 most of the prominent American directors and actors, who had worked independently since the early 10s, the beginning of the sound era itself is ambiguously defined. Some begin the start of the era with The Jazz Singer. Others begin the era at 1929, when the silent age had definitively ended, for instance, Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart always worked on MGM films, Alfred Newman worked at Twentieth Century Fox for twenty years, Cecil B. DeMilles films were almost all made at Paramount Pictures, director Henry Kings films were made for Twentieth Century Fox
Lillian Diana Gish was an American actress of the screen and stage, as well as a director and writer whose film acting career spanned 75 years, from 1912 in silent film shorts to 1987. Gish was called the First Lady of American Cinema, and she is credited with pioneering fundamental film performing techniques and she did considerable television work from the early 1950s into the 1980s and closed her career playing opposite Bette Davis in the 1987 film The Whales of August. In her years Gish became an advocate for the appreciation and preservation of silent film. Gish is widely considered to be the greatest actress of the silent era, despite being better known for her film work, Gish was an accomplished stage actress, and she was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1972. Gish was born in Springfield, Ohio, to Mary Robinson McConnell and she had a younger sister, who became a popular movie star. The first several generations of Gishes were Dunkard ministers and her great-great-grandfather fought in the American Revolutionary War and is buried in a cemetery in Pennsylvania for such soldiers.
Letters between Gish and a Pennsylvania college professor indicate that her knowledge of her background was limited. Gishs father was an unreliable alcoholic, when he left the family, her mother took up acting to support them. The family moved to East St. Louis, where lived for several years with Lillians aunt and uncle, Henry. Their mother opened the Majestic Candy Kitchen, and the girls helped sell popcorn and candy to patrons of the old Majestic Theater, the girls attended St. Henrys School, where they acted in school plays. The girls were living with their aunt Emily in Massillon, Lillian traveled to Shawnee, where Jamess brother Alfred Grant Gish and his wife, lived. Her father, who by was institutionalized in the Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane in Norman and he was able to travel the 35 miles to Shawnee and the two got reacquainted. She stayed with her aunt and uncle and attended Shawnee High School there and she wrote to her sister Dorothy that she was thinking of staying and finishing high school and going to college, but she missed her family.
Her father died in Norman, January 9,1912, when the theater next to the candy store burned down, the family moved to New York, where the girls became good friends with a next-door neighbor, Gladys Smith. Gladys was an actress who did some work for director D. W. Griffith. When Lillian and Dorothy were old enough, they joined the theatre and they took modeling jobs, with Lillian posing for artist Victor Maurel in exchange for voice lessons. In 1912, their friend Mary Pickford introduced the sisters to Griffith, Lillian Gish would soon become one of Americas best-loved actresses. Although she was already 19, she gave her age as 16 to the studio, Gish made her stage debut in 1902, at The Little Red School House in Rising Sun, Ohio