A standee is a large self-standing display promoting a movie, product or event. They are made of foam-board, may range from large self-standing posters to elaborate three-dimensional display devices with moving parts and lights. Standees are displayed in theater lobbies or music stores in advance of film or music releases. In the movie business, the more bookings a theater makes in advance for a given film, the more it is to place standees in its lobby because of self-interest to spur consumer interest in its future screen offerings. Standees are called lobby stands in the film industry. In recent years, theaters look to on-site advertising from non-movie companies as a revenue source, which creates occasional friction with film distributors; when standees for Paramount's Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life incorporated a promotion for the 2003 movie's tie-in promotion with Jeep automobiles, large theater circuit Regal Cinemas sought payments from Jeep for the exposure in its theaters.
Paramount shifted bookings from 47 Regal theaters to other cinemas that erected the Tomb Raider/Jeep standees without payments from Jeep. While standees have been available only in large quantities, recent advances in digital photography and print-on-demand technology have made them available to the public. Several companies now offer these items as party decorations, gag gifts and memorial items for the deceased. Standees can now be purchased as one-off custom products, bringing them to the average consumer as well as large corporations and venues
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
Eragon is the first book in the Inheritance Cycle by Christopher Paolini. Paolini, born in 1983, wrote the novel while still in his teens. After writing the first draft for a year, Paolini spent a second year rewriting and fleshing out the story and characters, his parents in 2001 decided to self-publish Eragon. By chance, the book was discovered by Carl Hiaasen; the re-published version was released on August 26, 2003. The book tells the story of a farm boy named Eragon. Not knowing the stone's origin or worth, he attempts to use it as payment to a butcher. A dragon he names Saphira hatches from the stone, an egg; when the evil King Galbatorix finds out the general location of the egg he sends the Ra'zac to acquire it. By that time Saphira had been growing for a while and takes Eragon to the Spine after Ra'zac appear in their village, Carvahall. Eragon and Saphira are forced to flee from their hometown, with a storyteller called Brom, decide to search for the Varden, a group of rebels who want the downfall of Galbatorix.
Eragon was the third-best-selling children's hardback book of 2003, the second-best-selling paperback of 2005. It placed on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks and was adapted as a feature film of the same name, released on December 15, 2006. Christopher Paolini started reading fantasy books. At the age of 14, as a hobby, he started writing the first novel in a series of four books, but he could not get beyond a few pages because he had "no idea" where he was going, he began reading everything he could about the "art of writing", plotted the whole Inheritance Cycle book series. After a month of planning out the series, he started writing the draft of Eragon by hand, it was finished a year and Paolini began writing the "real" version of the book. After another year of editing, Paolini's parents saw the final manuscript, they saw its potential and decided to publish the book through their small, home-based publishing company, Paolini International. Paolini created the cover art for this edition of Eragon.
He drew the maps inside the book. Paolini and his family toured across the United States promoting the book, he gave over 135 talks at bookshops and schools, many with Paolini dressed up in a medieval costume. Paolini said he "would stand behind a table in my costume talking all day without a break – and would sell maybe forty books in eight hours if I did well, it was a stressful experience. I couldn't have gone on for much longer." In the summer of 2002, American novelist Carl Hiaasen was on vacation in one of the cities that Paolini gave a talk in. While there, Hiaasen's stepson bought a copy of Eragon that he "immediately loved", he showed it to Hiaasen, who brought the book to the attention of the publishing house Alfred A. Knopf. Michelle Frey, executive editor at Knopf, contacted Paolini and his family to ask if they were interested in having Knopf publish Eragon; the answer was yes, after another round of editing, Knopf published Eragon in August 2003, with a new cover, drawn by John Jude Palencar.
Paolini cites old myths, folk tales, medieval stories, the epic poem Beowulf, authors J. R. R. Tolkien and Eric Rücker Eddison as his biggest influences in writing. Other literary influences include David Eddings, Andre Norton, Brian Jacques, Anne McCaffrey, Raymond E. Feist, Mervyn Peake, Ursula K. Le Guin, Frank Herbert, Philip Pullman, Garth Nix; the ancient language used by the elves in Eragon is based "almost entirely" on Old Norse, Anglo Saxon, Russian myth. Paolini commented: " did a god-awful amount of research into the subject when I was composing it. I found that it gave the world a much richer feel, a much older feel, using these words, around for centuries and centuries. I had a lot of fun with that." Picking the right names for the characters and places was a process that could take "days, weeks, or years". Paolini said: "if I have difficulty choosing the correct moniker, I use a placeholder name until a replacement suggests itself." He added that he was "really lucky" with the name Eragon, "because it's just dragon with one letter changed."
Paolini commented that he thought of both parts of the name "Eragon" - "era" and "gone" - as if the name itself changes the era in which the character lives. He thought the name fit the book but some of the other names caused him "real headaches"; the landscape in Eragon is based on the "wild territory" of Montana. He said in an interview: "I go hiking a lot, oftentimes when I'm in the forest or in the mountains, sitting down and seeing some of those little details makes the difference between having an okay description and having a unique description." Paolini said that Paradise Valley, Montana is "one of the main sources" of his inspiration for the landscape in the book. Paolini "roughed out" the main history of the land before he wrote the book, but he did not draw a map of it until it became important to see where Eragon was traveling, he started to get history and plot ideas from seeing the landscape depicted. Paolini chose to have Eragon mature throughout the book because, "for one thing, it's one of the archetypal fantasy elements".
He thought Eragon's growth and maturation throughout the book "sort of mirrored my own growing abilities as a writer and as a person, too. So it was a personal choice for that book." Er
A film studio is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, handled by the production company. The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. There are independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; the largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City, in India. In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, asked circus and dramatic actors to perform for the camera, he distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, fairgrounds. The first film serial, What Happened to Mary, was released by the Edison company in 1912; the pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser.
The company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917 distributing them around the world. In the early 1900s, companies started moving to California. Although electric lights were by widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film; some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in Downtown Los Angeles. Early movie producers relocated to Southern California to escape Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled all the patents relevant to movie production at the time; the first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, opened in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. In the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies settled in the Los Angeles area in places such as Culver City and what would soon become known as Studio City in the San Fernando Valley; the Big 5 By the mid-1920s, the evolution of a handful of American production companies into wealthy motion picture industry conglomerates that owned their own studios, distribution divisions, theaters, contracted with performers and other filmmaking personnel, led to the sometimes confusing equation of "studio" with "production company" in industry slang.
Five large companies, 20th Century Fox, RKO Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer came to be known as the "Big Five," the "majors," or "the Studios" in trade publications such as Variety, their management structures and practices collectively came to be known as the "studio system." The Little 3 Although they owned few or no theaters to guarantee sales of their films, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists fell under these rubrics, making a total of eight recognized "major studios". United Artists, although its controlling partners owned not one but two production studios during the Golden Age, had an often-tenuous hold on the title of "major" and operated as a backer and distributor of independently produced films. Smaller studios operated with "the majors." These included operations such as Republic Pictures, active from 1935, which produced films that matched the scale and ambition of the larger studio, Monogram Pictures, which specialized in series and genre releases.
Together with smaller outfits such as PRC TKO and Grand National, the minor studios filled the demand for B movies and are sometimes collectively referred to as Poverty Row. The Big Five's ownership of movie theaters was opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Walter Wanger. In 1948, the federal government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court, which ruled that the vertically integrated structure of the movie industry constituted an illegal monopoly; this decision, reached after twelve years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system and Hollywood's "Golden Age". By the 1950s, the physical components of a typical major film studio had become standardized. Since a major film studio has been housed inside a physically secure compound with a high wall, which protects filmmaking operations from unwanted interference from paparazzi and crazed fans of leading movie stars. Movement in and out of the studio is limited to specific gates, where visitors must stop at a boom barrier and explain the purpose of their visit to a security guard.
Studio premises feature multiple sound stages along with an outside backlot, as well as offices for studio executives and production companies. There is a studio "commissary", the traditional term in the film industry for what other industries call a company cafeteria. Early nitrate film was notoriously flammable, sets were and are still flammable, why film studios built in the early-to-mid 20th century have water towers to facilitate firefighting. Halfway through the 1950s, with television proving to be a lucrative enterprise not destined to disappear any time soon—as many in the film industry had once hoped—movie studios were being used to produce programming for the burgeoning medium; some midsize film companies, such as Republic Pictures sold their studios to TV production concerns, which were bought by larger studios, such as the American Broadcasting Company, purchased by The Walt Disney Company i
20/20 (U.S. TV program)
20/20 is an American television newsmagazine, broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978. Created by ABC News executive Roone Arledge, the program was designed to CBS's 60 Minutes in that it features in-depth story packages, although it focuses more on human interest stories than international and political subjects; the program's name derives from the "20/20" measurement of visual acuity. The hour-long program has been a staple on Friday evenings for much of the time since it moved to that timeslot from Thursdays in September 1987, though special editions of the program air on other nights. Starting in the fall of 2018, the show shifted formats to a weekly 2 hour host-less docu series of former famous scandals, with no formal announcement of the change; the anchors on the premiere telecast of 20/20 were renowned Esquire magazine editor Harold Hayes, who served as the program's senior producer, famed Time art critic Robert Hughes. The programs's debut received harsh reviews. In his autobiography Roone: A Memoir, Roone Arledge recalled that the most embarrassing part of that initial program was the Claymation segments featuring caricatures representing then-President Jimmy Carter and Walter Cronkite.
As a result of the scathing reviews and drastic changes were made: Hayes and Hughes were fired, a semi-retired Hugh Downs was recruited to take on the role of sole host on the following week's program. Featured in the premiere telecast of 20/20, the opening sequence consisted of a pair of eyeglasses, whose lenses showed colored bars, which are seen in the SMPTE test pattern; the eyeglasses were keyed over a yellow background, rotated to its rear position to reveal the 20/20 studio. Under Downs as host, 20/20 changed into a more standard yet unique newsmagazine and received kinder reviews from critics; the program was launched as a summer replacement series. Emmy-award winning producer, Bernard I. Cohen began his career with ABC evening news in 1964. From 1979 to 1992, he was a lead Producer at 20/20 and helped solidify the program's top Nielsen Ratings. Ratings were very good during the summer months during its eight years on Thursday nights despite competition from Knots Landing on CBS and Hill Street Blues on NBC.
It was around this time that the program started using the Brock Brower-written signoff line "We're in touch, so you be in touch" to end each program, which continues to be used to now. Barbara Walters joined the program in 1979 in a role something less than a co-anchor and soon became a regular special contributor in the fall of 1981. In 1984, she became Hugh Downs's equal, thus reuniting a duo which had anchored together on NBC's Today from 1964 to 1971; the team would remain together on-air for the next 15 years. In the fall of 1987, 20/20 was moved to Fridays at 10:00 p.m. Eastern, it aired in that same Friday time slot until the fall of 2001, when ABC replaced the program with the scripted family drama series Once and Again, only for 20/20 to return to the lineup again four months later. While the program moved to the 8:00 p.m. timeslot on October 12, 2007, it reverted to its usual time two weeks later. In 1997, a second weekly edition of 20/20 made its debut on Thursday evenings. For a time from 1998 to 2000, ABC News chose to consolidate its newsmagazine programs by combining 20/20 and Primetime Live into a singular brand under the 20/20 name and format in order to compete with Dateline NBC, which itself ran for four nights a week at the time.
At its peak, 20/20 ran on Mondays and Sundays, in addition to its longtime Friday timeslot. In 2000, ABC reinstated Primetime under the title Primetime Thursday, spun off 20/20 Downtown as a separate newsmagazine titled Downtown. By early 2002, 20/20 once again was airing only in its original Friday timeslot. On March 3, 1999, Monica Lewinsky, the former White House intern, infamously revealed to have been involved in an affair with then-President Bill Clinton a few years earlier, was interviewed by Barbara Walters on the program. After Downs' retirement in 1999, Walters became the solo anchor of 20/20; this lasted until John Miller was hired as a permanent co-host of the program in 2002. For a few months in early 2003, Barbara Walters temporarily anchored solo again. However, in May of that year, John Stossel – an investigative correspo
Major film studio
A major film studio is a production and distribution company that releases a substantial number of films annually and commands a significant share of box office revenue in a given market. In the American and international markets, the major film studios simply known as the majors, are regarded as the five diversified media conglomerates whose various film production and distribution subsidiaries collectively command 80–85% of U. S. box office revenue. The term may be applied more to the primary motion picture business subsidiary of each respective conglomerate; the "Big Five" majors are all film studios active since Hollywood's Golden Age. Two of them – Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. Pictures – were members of the "Big Five", but the other three – Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, Walt Disney Pictures – did not gain their market shares until much later; the former two were part of the "Little Three" in the next tier down, the latter one was an independent production company during the Golden Age.
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and RKO were the other two Golden Age "Big Five" majors, that exist today only as a mini-major and a small independent company. United Artists was a distribution company for several independent producers during the Golden Age began producing films, grew to major status merged with MGM; until 2019, 20th Century Fox served as a sixth member, when the industry was referred to as the "Big Six" since the 1980s. While the main studios of the Big Five are located within 15 miles of each other, Disney is the only studio, owned by the same conglomerate since its founding and was the sole member whose parent entity is still located near Los Angeles on Disney's studio lot and in the same building, until 2019, when the company acquired 20th Century Fox. Whereas the five others were owned by many different companies years ago and now report to conglomerates that are located elsewhere in Dallas, New York City and Tokyo. Paramount is the only one still based in Hollywood with Columbia being in Culver City.
Both Disney and Warner Bros. are located in Burbank and Universal is in the unincorporated area of Universal City. Most of today's Big Five control subsidiaries with their own distribution networks that concentrate on arthouse pictures or genre films; the five major studios are contrasted with smaller production and/or distribution companies, which are known as independents or "indies". The leading independent producer/distributors such as Lionsgate, STX Entertainment are sometimes referred to as "mini-majors". From 1998 through 2005, DreamWorks SKG commanded a large enough market share to arguably qualify it as a seventh major, despite its small output. In 2006, DreamWorks was acquired by Paramount's corporate parent. In late 2008, DreamWorks once again became an independent production company; the Big Five major studios are today backers and distributors of films whose actual production is handled by independent companies – either long-running entities or ones created for and dedicated to the making of a specific film.
The specialty divisions simply acquire distribution rights to pictures in which the studio has had no prior involvement. While the majors still do a modicum of true production, their activities are focused more in the areas of development, financing and merchandising; those business functions are still performed in or near Los Angeles though the runaway production phenomenon means that most films are now or shot on location at places outside Los Angeles. Since the dawn of filmmaking, the U. S. major film studios have dominated the global film industry. U. S. studios have benefited from a strong first-mover advantage in that they were the first to industrialize filmmaking and master the art of mass-producing and distributing high-quality films with broad cross-cultural appeal. Today, the Big Five majors distribute hundreds of films every year into all significant international markets, it is rare, if not impossible, for a film to reach a broad international audience on multiple continents and in multiple languages without being picked up by one of the majors for distribution.
Past majors include: RKO Pictures defunct several times revived as independent studio. United Artists acquired by MGM in 1981. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Acquired by Ted Turner in 1986 sold the studio back to Kirk Kerkorian that year and kept the pre-May 1986 library. Became a mini-major studio up on the sale. 20th Century Fox became a part of Walt Disney Studios when The Walt Disney Company bought 21st Century Fox for $71.3 billion on March 20, 2019. Mini-major studios are the larger film production companies that are smaller than the major studios and attempt to compete directly with them. Past mini-majors include: Castle Rock Entertainment - purchased in 1993 by T