A film school is any educational institution dedicated to teaching aspects of filmmaking, including such subjects as film production, film theory, digital media production, screenwriting. Film history courses and hands-on technical training are incorporated into most film school curricula. Technical training may include instruction in the use and operation of cameras, lighting equipment, film or video editing equipment and software, other relevant equipment. Film schools may include courses and training in such subjects as television production, audio engineering, animation; the formal teaching of film began with theory rather than practical technical training starting soon after the development of the filmmaking process in the 1890s. Early film theorists were more interested in writing essays on film theory than in teaching students in a classroom environment; the Moscow Film School was founded in 1919 with Russian filmmakers including Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Lev Kuleshov serving as faculty to disseminate their distinct viewpoints on the purpose of film.
Those seeking to learn the technical craft of filmmaking in the early days of cinema were self-taught engineers or still photographers who experimented with new film technology. With the rise of commercial filmmaking in the 1920s, most notably the Hollywood studio system, those seeking to learn the technical skills of filmmaking most started at the bottom of a hierarchical system and apprenticed under a more experienced person to learn the trade. Filmmakers such as Alfred Hitchcock and David Lean started in this way, beginning as a title card designer and clapperboard assistant in the early 1920s; the USC School of Cinematic Arts was founded in the midst of this Hollywood system in 1929, continues to be recognized as one of the most prestigious film schools in the world. The University of Southern California was the first university in the country to offer a Bachelor of Arts degree in film; the tradition of apprenticing up through a hierarchical system continues to this day within film studios and in television in many technical positions such as gaffers, camera operators, into post-production with editing and color correction.
Independent lower budget filmmaking in the post-war period using portable 16mm film cameras allowed filmmakers like John Cassavetes in the United States, along with members of the French New Wave and Italian Neorealism in Europe, to circumvent the classical system. The notion of a granting a four-year college degree in film grew more popular in the 1960s with the founding of prestigious film departments like the New York University Tisch School of the Arts, Walt Disney founded California Institute of the Arts, the University of Texas department of Radio-Television-Film and the Columbia University School of the Arts. Over the years competition for admissions to these programs has increased with many undergraduate programs accepting less than 10% of applicants, with more stringent selection for graduate programs. In the 1990s and 2000s, the increased difficulties in getting into and the financial costs of attending these programs have caused many to spend their money self-financing their own features or attending a shorter trade school program for around the same costs.
Film trade schools however offer more than technical knowledge, cost more than a degree from a public university without providing the security of a four-year college degree to fall back on. A film school may be part of an existing public or private college or university, or part of a owned for-profit institution. Depending on whether the curriculum of a film school meets its state's academic requirements for the conferral of a degree, completion of studies in a film school may culminate in an undergraduate or graduate degree, or a certificate of completion; some institutions, both accredited and non-accredited, run shorter workshop and conservatory programs concurrent to longer degree courses. Not only the types of courses on offer but the content and duration of the courses differs between larger institutions and bespoke film schools. Universities offer courses ranging with the majority lasting 3 or 4 years. Conversely, films schools focus on shorter technical courses of 2 years. Many film schools still teach students how to use actual film in their productions, although the incorporation of digital media in film school curricula has risen drastically in recent years.
Some schools offer only digital filmmaking courses, eschewing instruction in the medium of film altogether. The use of digital cameras and digital media is less expensive than film cameras and film stock, allows a film school or department to offer more equipment for students with which to learn and use for their projects. In addition, digital media is used for in-class screenings. In recent years, online film schools of sorts have sprung up teaching filmmaking through articles, tutorial videos, interactive forums; the next generation of digital cinematography using the large sensors and manual features available in still DSLR cameras has lowered the barrier further towards creating inexpensive digital video that compares to 35mm film. Professionals in the film industry hold a variety of opinions on the relevance of a degree in film in relation to the ability to find work and succeed in the field; as in many professions in the arts, some feel. With respect to filmmaking, others feel that learning techniques and understanding the business is crucial to one's success as a filmmaker.
Those who argue against the necessity of film school cite the high cost of such an education as
Dieter Friedrich Uchtdorf is a German aviator, airline executive and religious leader. He is a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Called as an apostle in 2004, he served as Second Counselor to Thomas S. Monson in the church's First Presidency from 2008 until Monson's death on 2 January 2018. Uchtdorf is the sixth most senior apostle in the ranks of the church. Uchtdorf was born to ethnic Germans Karl Albert Uchtdorf and Hildegard Else Opelt in Moravská Ostrava, which at the time was in the Nazi-occupied Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; when he was a child, his family traveled through areas being bombed to move to Zwickau in eastern Germany while his father was away in the army. As a result of his grandmother's encounter with an LDS Church member in a soup line, Uchtdorf's family joined the LDS Church when he was still young; when Uchtdorf was about eleven, his father's political beliefs, incongruent with Soviet rule, earned him the label of "dissenter", thus putting their lives in danger.
They fled East Germany and resettled in U. S.-occupied West Germany. His sisters accomplished this by jumping from a moving train that happened to pass through West Germany, while Dieter and his mother climbed a mountain to avoid Russian guard checkpoints. Uchtdorf started studying mechanical engineering at age 18 but continued in business administration in Cologne and graduated from Institut pour l'Etude des Methodes de Direction de l'Entreprise in Lausanne, with an MBA, he received an honorary doctorate in international leadership from Brigham Young University during the April 2009 graduation ceremony. When Uchtdorf was conscripted into the newly formed Bundeswehr in 1959, he volunteered for the air force, at age 19, to become a fighter pilot. Due to an agreement between the West German and US governments, Uchtdorf trained as a fighter pilot in Big Spring, where he excelled, earning the coveted Commander's Trophy for being the best student pilot in his class. After earning wings from both the German and US air forces, he served for six years as a fighter pilot in West Germany, leaving in 1965 to join Lufthansa.
By 1970, at 29 years of age, Uchtdorf had reached the rank of captain with Lufthansa. He was appointed in 1975 as head of Lufthansa's new Arizona Training School, in 1980 he was made head chief pilot of cockpit crews, followed by appointment to senior vice president of flight operations in 1982, he left Lufthansa in 1996, two years after being called as an LDS Church general authority. Uchtdorf served twice as a stake president in the LDS Church, presiding over the Frankfurt Germany and the Mannheim Germany stakes. Uchtdorf was called as a general authority and member of the church's Second Quorum of the Seventy on 2 April 1994. On 7 April 1996, he was transferred to the First Quorum of Seventy. Uchtdorf became a member of the church's Presidency of the Seventy on 15 August 2002. Uchtdorf was sustained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on 2 October 2004, he was ordained an apostle on 7 October 2004 by church president Gordon B. Hinckley. Uchtdorf and David A. Bednar were called to fill the vacancies created by the July 2004 deaths of quorum members David B.
Haight and Neal A. Maxwell. Uchtdorf was the first church apostle ordained in the 21st century; as an apostle, Uchtdorf is accepted by the church as a prophet and revelator. Uchtdorf is the eleventh apostle of the LDS Church to be born outside the United States, he is the first German apostle in church history and was the first born outside of North America since the death of John A. Widtsoe in 1952. While in Slovakia on 12 May 2006, Uchtdorf offered a prayer dedicating the land "for the preaching of the gospel"—an LDS Church leadership custom observed at the time missionaries arrive in a new country. Although missionaries had been in what is now Slovakia for over a century, since the split with the Czech Republic, this dedication was specific for the new country. On 3 February 2008, Uchtdorf became the Second Counselor to Thomas S. Monson in the church's First Presidency, he is the second non-English native speaker to have served in the First Presidency. After joining the First Presidency, Uchtdorf became a naturalized US citizen.
While serving in the First Presidency, Uchtdorf dedicated the Tegucigalpa Honduras, Quetzaltenango Guatemala, Manaus Brazil, Fort Lauderdale Florida, Cordoba Argentina, Trujillo Peru, Tijuana Mexico, Fort Collins Colorado, Tucson Arizona temples. Uchtdorf has participated in the dedication of many other temples as a member of the Twelve and the First Presidency. In May 2016, Uchtdorf traveled to the Czech Republic to create the first stake in that nation. At the time of Monson's death on January 2, 2018, with the dissolution of the First Presidency, Uchtdorf returned to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, along with Monson's First Counselor, Henry B. Eyring; when the First Presidency was subsequently reorganized under new church president Russell M. Nelson, Uchtdorf was not retained as a counselor in the First Presidency and continued his service in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. While not unprecedented in church history, the last time a new church president did not retain a counselor that served in the First Presidency under his predecessor was in 1985.
Uchtdorf, who had taught as a member of the First Presidency that church members should neither seek or decline callings, that they should lift where they stand, that at the end of each assignment, subsequent changes should be graciously accepted, posted his support for the new leaders referencing hi
The following is a list of characters that first appeared in the Australian soap opera Neighbours in 2009, by order of first appearance. They were all introduced by the show's executive producer Susan Bower; the 25th season of Neighbours began airing on 19 January 2009. Robert Mammone began appearing as Phil Andrews from early February and Donna Freedman's mother Cassandra arrived that month. Former AFL player Clint Bizzell began appearing as Adam Clarke from March and Kaela Hilton joined as Melissa Evans. Sunny Lee, played by Hany Lee, arrived in April and a new generation of the Ramsay family, Kate and Sophie Ramsay, were introduced in May. June saw the birth of India Napier, the first child of the established Declan Napier and Bridget Parker. July saw the introductions of Josh Burns played by comedian, Scott Brennan. Sonya Mitchell, Jumilla Chandra and James Linden all arrived in August. Teenager, Robin Hester began appearing from September as did Saffron Jankievicz. Mia Zannis arrived in November.
Phil Andrews, played by Robert Mammone, made his first on-screen appearance on 9 February 2009. Phil finds Zeke Kinski. Phil convinces Zeke that he is his father and Zeke, suffering from a Fugue state, believes him. Whilst researching a story, Elle Robinson and Lucas Fitzgerald find a drawing of Zeke at an artist's stall. After talking to the artist and taking the drawing and Lucas go to the Andrews farm to wait for Phil. Phil denies knowing the boy in the drawing and he hastily leaves in his truck, leaving Elle and Lucas behind. Elle and Lucas decide to break into Phil's house and they discover a boy's bedroom and one of Zeke's T-shirts. Elle takes the T-shirt, but decides to return it; when she returns to put it back, she is shocked to find. Elle goes to Susan Kennedy, they go to a lock-up belonging to a friend of Phil's and he explains that Phil had lost his wife and son, Trent, in a car accident. When they speak to Phil he insists he knows nothing about Zeke. Once they leave, Phil makes a call to his dead son Trent, telling him to come home.
Zeke finds some newspaper cuttings about the deaths of Phil's wife and son and becomes confused. Phil tells him. Susan and Karl Kennedy are stunned to find Zeke alive. Zeke insists that his name is Trent and that he was fine with Phil, the police are called and Phil is arrested. Zeke struggles with his return to Erinsborough and his friends take him to the lock-up, where he realises that Phil had lied to him; as he was about to leave, Phil apologises for what he had done to Zeke. Zeke is angry with him, but he shook Phil's hand and thanks him for saving his life. Cassandra Freedman, played by Tottie Goldsmith, is the mother of Donna and Simon Freedman, she made her first on-screen appearance on 10 February 2009. Cassandra has been described as a troublesome Femme fatale, manipulative and selfish. Adam Clarke, played by Clint Bizzell, made his first screen appearance on 30 March 2009. Bizzell's casting was announced on 23 March 2009, although he joined the serial in late 2008 to film his five-week guest role.
Bizzell's character, Adam, is an AFL champion, who "initially appears to be a good bloke". However, when Adam befriends Ringo Brown, he leads him astray. Adam plays for the Portside Falcons football club and he has become a notorious figure with the press. Adam befriends new player Ringo Brown and he starts manipulating him. During the team's presentation, Adam invites Ringo back to his house for a party. Adam tells Ringo that he should ditch them. During a night out, Ringo is told. At Adam's house, he is told to wait in the bathroom; when he comes out and finds everyone in the early hours of the morning, Adam tells him that he had passed the test. Ringo realises that he is running late for school and Adam offers him a lift in his car, which he lets Ringo drive, they are pulled over by the police. Adam charms his teacher. Ringo breaks the rookie sprint record at the club and Adam decides to hire a room at Lassiter's Hotel and throws a party. Declan Napier receives complaints about the noise from the room and he throws Adam and everyone else out.
Ringo stays to clean up. Adam encourages Ringo to quit school to concentrate on his football career. Adam suggests that they go and choose a car for Ringo and during the ride, Adam loses control of his car and crashes into an Easter display. Adam tells Ringo to take the blame for the accident and he does; the press get hold of Adam assures Ringo that everything will be fine. Zeke Kinski broadcasts the details on his radio show. Adam and Ringo's Nathan Black reprimands Adam and sacks Ringo. Melissa Evans, played by Kaela Hilton, made her first screen appearance on 2 April 2009. Melissa was introduced as the manager of the local radio station PirateNet; when Zeke Kinski returns to Erinsborough following the rafting accident, he finds a new interest when he starts listening to the radio station, PirateNet. After requesting songs, Zeke ends up talking to Melissa about working at PirateNet. Melissa sends him the details of where to find the station and when Zeke t