International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Hvidovre is the main town in Hvidovre Municipality, Denmark. The town, a suburb of Copenhagen, is about 10 km southwest of the capitals center, Hvidovre has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In 1929, a 3, 500-year-old sword from the Bronze Age was excavated in Hvidovre, a farm, was located in the area in about 1160 when Esbern Snare gave it to Sorø Abbey that passed it on to Bishop Absalon. A church was built during the Romanesque period, the name Hvidovre, meaning White Ovre, refers to the colour of the church, which was built in white chalk, as opposed to the one in Rødovre, Red Ovre, which was built in red brick. At the turn of the 20th century, Hvidovre was still a rural community. In 1901, the still only had a population of 500. Some of the land closest to the border with Copenhagen was converted into allotments in the 1920s, at the end of World War One, Copenhagen suffered from severe housing shortage. Many of the farmers in Hvidovre saw it as an opportunity to make a profit by selling their land off in small lots.
3,226 out of the 3,899 lots that existed in Hvidovre in 1924 had been sold off since 1918. The buyers were typically workers from Copenhagen and the houses built out of Chevrolet or Ford boxes. The boxes were cheap and delivered on the site, others lived in already existing summer houses. The settlement was not legal but by 1923 accounted for 34% of the population in the municipality. In May 1945, a few days before the end of World War II, the city is well known for its football team, Hvidovre IF, where famous Danish football players such as Peter Schmeichel, Kenneth Brylle, Carsten Hallum and Michael Manniche have played. Stephan Andersen, with a past in Charlton, has played for the club and it is the birthplace of the Brøndby defender Daniel Agger and of Thomas Kahlenberg. A film-production camp Filmbyen is located in Hvidovre, which has described as a peculiar post-industrial filmmaking hub. European Film Industries, Face to Face with Hollywood
Zentropa or Zentropa Entertainments is a Danish film company started in 1992 by director Lars von Trier and producer Peter Aalbæk Jensen. Zentropa is named from the train company Zentropa in the film Europa and it has produced over 70 feature films and has become the largest film production company in Scandinavia. It owns a number of companies in Europe. Zentropa is responsible for creating a studio complex called Filmbyen. Zentropa may be best known for creating the Dogme 95 movement, leading to such acclaimed films as Idioterne and Mifunes sidste sang. It was the first mainstream film company to produce hardcore pornographic films for women, Pink Prison, HotMen CoolBoyz and it has produced hardcore sex films, Pink Prison, HotMen CoolBoyz, and All About Anna. In 1998, von Trier made history by having his company Zentropa be the worlds first mainstream film company to produce hardcore pornographic films. In July 2009, womens magazine Cosmopolitan ranked Pink Prison as No.1 in its Top Five of the best womens porn, calling it the role model for the new porn-generation
Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier is a Danish film director and screenwriter. He has a prolific and controversial career spanning almost four decades and his work is known for its genre and technical innovation, confrontational examination of existential and political issues, and treatment of subjects like mercy and mental health. His political and humanitarian work was honored in 2004 with the Cinema for Peace awareness award. Among more than 100 awards and over 200 nominations in festivals worldwide, he has received the Palme dOr, the Grand Prix, the Prix du Jury, in March 2017, Trier began filming The House that Jack Built, an English-language serial killer thriller. Trier was born in Kongens Lyngby, north of Copenhagen, the son of Inger Høst and he received his surname from Høsts husband Ulf Trier, whom he considered his biological father until 1989. The director would become famous for his honesty to journalists about his family and upbringing, as well as the impact it had on his identity, beliefs. Trier studied film theory at the University of Copenhagen and film direction at the National Film School of Denmark.
In 1984, The Element of Crime, Triers breakthrough film, received awards in seven international festivals including the Technical Grand Prize at Cannes. His next film, was shown at Cannes in the Un Certain Regard section. Trier has occasionally referred to his films as falling into thematic and stylistic trilogies and this pattern began with The Element of Crime, the first of the Europa trilogy, which illuminated the traumas of Europe both in the past and the future. It includes The Element of Crime and Europa, Von Trier directed Medea for television, which won him the Jean dArcy prize in France. It is based on a screenplay by Carl Th. Dreyer, Trier completed the Europa trilogy in 1991 with Europa, which won the Prix du Jury at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival and picked up awards at other major festivals. In 1990 he directed the video for Bakerman by Laid Back. This video was reused in 2006 by the English DJ and artist Shaun Baker in a remake of Bakerman, seeking both financial independence and total creative control over their projects, von Trier and producer Peter Aalbæk Jensen founded the film production company Zentropa Entertainment in 1992.
Named after a railway company in Europa, their most recent film at the time, Zentropa has produced many movies other than Triers own. It has produced hardcore sex films, Pink Prison, HotMen CoolBoyz, in 1995, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg presented their manifesto for a new cinematic movement, which they called Dogme 95. The Dogme 95 concept, which led to international interest in Danish film, in 2008, together with their fellow Dogme directors Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg received the European Film Award European Achievement in World Cinema. In 1996, von Trier conducted an unusual experiment in Copenhagen involving 53 actors