Kaupanger is a village situated along the northern shore of the Sognefjorden in the municipality of Sogndal in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It sits along the Norwegian National Road 5, about 12 kilometres southeast of the municipal centre of Sogndalsfjøra and about 8 kilometres northeast of the Sogndal Airport, Haukåsen. Kaupanger IL is a sports club located in Kaupanger; the 0.87-square-kilometre village has a population of 931, giving the village a population density of 1,135 inhabitants per square kilometre. Kaupanger originated as a settlement during the Viking age. Earlier, Kaupanger was known as Tingstad. Kaupang is an Old Norse term for a trading or market place so the village's name is composed of kaup- and angr, hence "buy harbor", similar to the literal translation of Copenhagen; the Kaupanger Stave Church is believed to have been built in the 12th century and it is still in existence in this village
Sogn og Fjordane
Sogn og Fjordane is a county in western Norway, bordering Møre og Romsdal, Oppland and Hordaland. The county administration is in the village of Hermansverk in Leikanger municipality; the largest town in the county is Førde. Although Sogn og Fjordane has some industry, predominantly hydroelectricity and aluminium, it is predominantly an agricultural area. Sogn og Fjordane is home to the Urnes Stave Church and the Nærøyfjord, which are both listed by UNESCO as world heritage sites; the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences has campuses in Førde. The name Sogn og Fjordane was created in 1919; the first element is the name of the region of Sogn, located in the southern part of the county. The last element is the plural definite form of fjord, which refers to the two regions in the county called Nordfjord and Sunnfjord in the northern and central parts of the county. Prior to 1919, the name of the county was Nordre Bergenhus amt which meant " northern Bergenhus amt"; the coat of arms of Sogn og Fjordane was granted on 23 September 1983.
The arms show the geographical layout of the county: three large blue fjords protruding into the white colored land. The three fjords represent the three regions of the county: Nordfjord and Sogn. Nearly all villages and towns are situated along one of these fjords and the name of the county is based on the fjords; the county is conventionally divided into three traditional districts. These are Sogn and Nordfjord. Sogn surrounds Sognefjorden from Solund on the offshore island of Sula in the North Sea to the village of Skjolden in Luster along Lustrafjorden, a branch of the Sognefjord; the total length is 204 kilometres. The middle district of Sunnfjord has two main fjords: Førdefjorden and Dalsfjorden; the northern district surrounds Nordfjorden. Sogn og Fjordane is the only county in Norway in which all municipalities have declared Nynorsk to be their official written form of the Norwegian language; the county consists of the two historic counties: Firdafylke and Sygnafylke. These both were formed in the Middle Ages under the Gulating government.
They were merged with Hordafylke and Sunnmørafylke to form the Bergenhus len in the late Middle Ages. The Bergenhus len was one of four len in Norway, it was administered from the Bergenhus Fortress in the city of Bergen. On 19 February 1662, a royal decree changed the name to Bergenhus amt; the Sunnmøre region was moved to Romsdalen amt in 1689. In 1763, the amt was divided in half creating: Nordre Bergenhus and Søndre Bergenhus. On 1 January 1919, Nordre Bergenhus amt was renamed Sogn og Fjordane fylke during a period of time when many location names in Norway were changed. A county is the chief local administrative area in Norway; the country is divided into 19 counties. A county is an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years; the Sogn og Fjordane County Municipality is the government. It is a group of 39 members. Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor. Since 2011, the Sogn og Fjordane County Municipality has been led by Åshild Kjelsnes, the county mayor, she replaced Nils R. Sandal, county mayor from 2003 until 2011.
The county has a County Governor, the representative of the King and Government of Norway. Anne Karin Hamre has been the County Governor of Sogn og Fjordane since 2011. Oddvar Flæte was county governor from 1994 until 2011; the municipalities of Sogn og Fjordane are divided among three district courts: Sogn and Nordhordland. Sogn og Fjordane is part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen. Sogn District Court: Aurland, Leikanger, Luster, Lærdal, Vik, Årdal Fjordane District Court: Askvoll, Eid, Flora, Førde, Gloppen, Hyllestad, Høyanger, Jølster, Selje, Stryn, Vågsøy Nordhordland District Court: Gulen All of the municipalities of Sogn og Fjordane except Gulen and Solund are part of the Sogn og Fjordane police district. Gulen and Solund are part of the Hordaland police district. In 1837, the counties were divided into local administrative units, each with their own governments; the number and borders of these municipalities have changed over time, at present there are 26 municipalities in Sogn og Fjordane.
The municipalities were the same as the old Church of Norway parishes. It is a rural area with a scattered population. Sogn og Fjordane includes the largest glacier in mainland Norway, Jostedalsbreen, in the Breheimen mountain range, the deepest lake, Hornindalsvatnet. There are many famous waterfalls located in the area. Ramnefjellsfossen is the tallest in Norway and third tallest in the world and Vettisfossen is one of Norway's highest waterfalls with a vertical drop of 275 metres. Both are located in the Jotunheim mountains. Cruise ships visit Sogn og Fjordane all summer because of the unique vistas of high mountains and deep blue fjords; the famous Nærøyfjord is located in the south of the county. This is a UNESCO listed fjord area. There are several archipelagos
Sogndalsfjøra is the administrative center of the municipality of Sogndal in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. It is located where the river Sogndalselvi runs out in the Sogndalsfjorden, a branch of the large Sognefjorden; the village is located about 3.5 kilometres northwest of the village of Kjørnes, about 10 kilometres northwest of the village of Kaupanger, about 31 kilometres southeast of the village of Fjærland. The village sits at the intersection of Norwegian National Road 5 and Norwegian County Road 55; the 1.99-square-kilometre village has a population of 3,547. Sogndalsfjøra is home to the association football team Sogndal Fotball; the team is in the Norwegian Premier League and plays at the Fosshaugane Campus. The area is home to major tourism industries, along with sawmills, lumber production, a slaughterhouse; the Lerum Konserves, the largest Norwegian producer of juice and jam, is located here. Sogndalsfjøra is the home of the regional police station for inner Sogn. Stedje Church is located in the village.
Media related to Sogndalsfjøra at Wikimedia Commons
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians; the Greeks who saw them used the Greek term'obeliskos' to describe them, this word passed into Latin and English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; the term stele is used for other monumental, upright and sculpted stones. Obelisks played a vital role in their religion and were prominent in the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of the temples; the word "obelisk" as used in English today is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveller, was one of the first classical writers to describe the objects. A number of ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the "Unfinished Obelisk" found hewn from its quarry at Aswan; these obelisks are now dispersed around the world, fewer than half of them remain in Egypt.
The earliest temple obelisk still in its original position is the 68-foot 120-metric-ton red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Al-Matariyyah in modern Heliopolis. The obelisk symbolized the sun god Ra, during the religious reformation of Akhenaten it was said to have been a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk, it was thought that the god existed within the structure. Benben was the mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu upon which the creator god Atum settled in the creation story of the Heliopolitan creation myth form of Ancient Egyptian religion; the Benben stone is the top stone of the Egyptian pyramid. It is related to the Obelisk, it is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun. The pyramid and obelisk's significance have been overlooked the astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and sun pillars respectively.
Around 30 B. C. after Cleopatra "the last Pharaoh" committed suicide, Rome took control of Egypt. The Ancient Romans were awestruck by the obelisks, looted the complex to the extent that they destroyed walls at the Temple of Karnak to haul out obelisks. There are now more than twice as many obelisks that were seized and shipped out by Rome as remain in Egypt. A majority were dismantled during the Roman period over 1, 700 years ago and the obelisk were sent in different locations; the largest standing and tallest Egyptian obelisk is the Lateran Obelisk in the square at the west side of the Lateran Basilica in Rome at 105.6 feet tall and a weight of 455 metric tons. Not all the Egyptian obelisks in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome of his new city Caesarea in northern Judea; this one weighs about 100 metric tons. It has been re-erected at its former site. In 335 A. D. Constantine I ordered the removal of two of Karnak's obelisks.
One was sent to Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius took the obelisk and had it set up in a hippodrome, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square, now called Istanbul. This one stood 95 feet tall and weighing 380 metric tons, its lower half reputedly once stood in Istanbul but is now lost. The Istanbul obelisk is 65 feet tall; the other was transported to Rome and is the most well-known 25 metres, 331-metric-ton obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in the world. The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site and on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica: "The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius as an outstanding event; the barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia."Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined to erect it in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built.
He had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana was given the project; the obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated. The re-erection, scheduled for 14 September, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, was watched by a large crowd, it was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Sig
Civil war era in Norway
The civil war era in Norway began in 1130 and ended in 1240. During this time in Norwegian history, some two dozen rival kings and pretenders waged wars to claim the throne. In the absence of formal laws governing claims to rule, men who had proper lineage and wanted to be king came forward and entered into peaceful, if still fraught, agreements to let one man be king, set up temporary lines of succession, take turns ruling, or share power simultaneously. In 1130, with the death of King Sigurd the Crusader, his possible half-brother, Harald Gillekrist, broke an agreement he and Sigurd had made to pass the throne to Sigurd's only son, the bastard Magnus. On bad terms before Sigurd's death, the two men and the factions loyal to them went to war. In the first decades of the civil wars, alliances shifted and centered on the person of a king or pretender. However, towards the end of the 12th century, two rival parties, the Birkebeiner and the Bagler, emerged. From this point, the civil wars were less about putting a particular "legitimate" king in power and more about ensuring and When they reconciled in 1217, a more ordered and codified governmental system freed Norway from wars to overthrow the lawful monarch.
In 1239, Duke Skule Bårdsson became the third pretender to wage war against King Håkon Håkonsson, but he was defeated in 1240, bringing more than 100 years of civil wars to an end. The unification of Norway into one kingdom is traditionally held to have been achieved by King Harald Fairhair at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in 872, but the process of unification took a long time to complete and consolidate. By the mid-11th century the process seems to have been completed. However, it was still not uncommon for several rulers to share the kingship; this seems to have been the common way of solving disputes in cases where two or more worthy candidates for the throne existed. The relationship between such co-rulers was tense, but open conflict was averted. Clear succession laws did not exist; the main criterion for being considered a worthy candidate for the throne was to be a descendant of Harald Fairhair through the male line—legitimate or illegitimate birth was not an issue. King Sigurd the Crusader had shared the kingdom with his brothers, King Øystein and King Olav, but when they both died without issue, Sigurd became sole ruler and his son, heir-apparent.
However, in the late 1120s a man called Harald Gille arrived in Norway from Ireland, claiming to be a son of King Sigurd's father, King Magnus Barefoot. King Magnus had spent some time campaigning in Ireland, Harald would thus be King Sigurd's half-brother. Harald proved his case through an ordeal of fire, the common way of settling such claims at the time, King Sigurd recognized him as his brother. However, Harald had to swear an oath that he would not claim the title of king as long as Sigurd or his son was alive; when Sigurd died in 1130, Harald broke his oath. Sigurd's son Magnus was proclaimed king, but Harald claimed the royal title, received much support. A settlement was reached whereby Harald would both be kings and co-rulers. Peace between them lasted until 1134. In 1135 Harald succeeded in capturing Magnus in Bergen. Magnus was blinded, castrated and imprisoned in a monastery, he was thereafter known as Magnus the Blind. At about the same time Sigurd Slembe, another man from Iceland, arrived claiming to be a son of Magnus Barefoot.
He claimed to have gone through an ordeal by fire in Denmark to prove his claim. Harald did not recognize him as his half-brother. In 1136 Sigurd murdered Harald in his sleep in Bergen, had himself proclaimed king. Harald's supporters would not accept him and had Harald's two infant sons, Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback, named king. Sigurd Slembe liberated Magnus the Blind from his enforced monastic life and allied himself with him; the war between Sigurd Slembe and Magnus the Blind on the one side, Harald Gille's old supporters with his young sons on the other, dragged on until 1139, when Magnus and Sigurd were defeated in Battle of Holmengrå fought near Hvaler. Magnus was killed in the battle, Sigurd was tortured to death; the power-sharing between Sigurd Munn and Inge Crouchback functioned well as long as they were both minors. In 1142, once again, a king's son arrived in Norway from west of the North Sea; this time it was a son of Harald Gille. Øystein claimed part of his father's inheritance and was given the title of king, with a third of the kingdom.
The three brothers ruled together in peace, until 1155. According to the sagas, Øystein and Sigurd Munn laid plans to depose their brother Inge and divide his share of the kingdom between them. At the urging of his mother Ingrid Ragnvaldsdotter and the influential lendmann Gregorius Dagsson, Inge decided to strike first, at a meeting among the three kings in Bergen. Sigurd Munn was killed by Inge's men before Øystein had had time to arrive in the city. Inge and Øystein reached a tenuous settlement, but conditions between them soon deteriorated into open warfare, ending with Øystein's capture and murder in Bohuslän in 1157. Whether or not Inge himself ordered the killing of his brother seems to have been disputed at the time; the followers of Inge's dead brothers, Øystein and Sigurd Munn, were not inclined to submit to Inge and instead chose a new pretender, Sigurd Munn's son, Håkon the Broadshouldered. This development has been seen as the first sign of a new stage in the civil wars: The warring parties no longer sprung up around a king or pretender but stayed together after the fall of their leader and elected a
Sogndalsfjorden is a fjord in Sogndal Municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. The 20-kilometre long fjord begins at the mouth of the river Arøyelvi, which flows out of the lake Hafslovatnet, it flows to the southwest before emptying into the large Sognefjorden at its mouth between the villages of Nornes and Fimreite. The Norwegian National Road 5 highway crosses the fjord between the villages of Sogndalsfjøra and Kjørnes; the Norwegian County Road 55 runs along the northern shore of the fjord, the entire length of the fjord. The innermost part of the fjord is known as the Barsnesfjorden. List of Norwegian fjords