Babylon 5 is an American space opera television series created by writer and producer J. Michael Straczynski, under the Babylonian Productions label, in association with Straczynski's Synthetic Worlds Ltd. and Warner Bros. Domestic Television. After the successful airing of a test pilot movie on February 22, 1993, Babylon 5: The Gathering, in May 1993 Warner Bros. commissioned the series for production as part of its Prime Time Entertainment Network. The first season premiered in the US on January 26, 1994, the series ran for the intended five seasons, costing an estimated $90 million for 110 episodes. Unlike most television shows at the time, Babylon 5 was conceived as a "novel for television", with a defined beginning and end; the series consists of a coherent five-year story arc unfolding over five seasons of 22 episodes each. Tie-in novels, comic books, short stories were developed to play a significant canonical part in the overall story; the series follows the human military staff and alien diplomats stationed on a space station, Babylon 5, built in the aftermath of several major inter-species wars as a neutral focal point for galactic diplomacy and trade.
Babylon 5 was an early example of a television series featuring story arcs which spanned episodes or whole seasons. Whereas contemporary television shows tended to confine conflicts to individual episodes, maintaining the overall status quo, each season of Babylon 5 contains plot elements which permanently change the series universe. Babylon 5 utilized multiple episodes to address the repercussions of some plot events or character decisions, episode plots would at times reference or be influenced by events from prior episodes or seasons, unusual at the time. Many races of sentient creatures are seen frequenting the station, with most episodes drawing from a core of a dozen or so species. Major plotlines included Babylon 5's embroilment in a millennia-long cyclical conflict between ancient, powerful races, inter-race wars and their aftermaths, intrigue or upheaval within particular races, including the human characters who fight to resist Earth's descent into totalitarianism. Many episodes focus on the effect of wider events on individual characters, with episodes containing themes such as personal change, subjugation, corruption and redemption.
Babylon 5, set between the years 2257 and 2262, depicts a future where Earth has a unifying Earth government and has gained the technology for faster-than-light travel. Colonies within the solar system, beyond, make up the Earth Alliance, which has established contact with other spacefaring species. Ten years before the series is set, Earth itself was nearly defeated in a war with the intellectual Minbari, only to escape destruction when the Minbari unexpectedly surrendered at the brink of victory. Among the other species are the imperialist Centauri. Several dozen less powerful species from the League of Non-Aligned Worlds have diplomatic contact with the major races, including the Drazi, Vree and pak'ma'ra. An ancient and secretive race, the Shadows, unknown to humans but documented in many other races' religious texts, malevolently influence events to bring chaos and war among the known species; the Babylon 5 space station is located in the Epsilon Eridani system, at the fifth Lagrangian point between the fictional planet Epsilon III and its moon.
It is 0.5 -- 1.0 mile in diameter. The station is the last of its line, it contains living areas which accommodate various alien species, providing differing atmospheres and gravities. Human visitors to the alien sectors are shown using breathing equipment and other measures to tolerate the conditions. Babylon 5 featured an ensemble cast which changed over the course of the show's run: Michael O'Hare as Commander Jeffrey Sinclair: The first commander of Babylon 5 assigned to be Earth's ambassador to Minbar. Bruce Boxleitner as Captain John Sheridan: Sinclair's replacement on Babylon 5 after his reassignment, a central figure of several prophecies within the Shadow war. Claudia Christian as Lt. Commander Susan Ivanova: Second in command to Babylon 5. Jerry Doyle as Michael Garibaldi: Babylon 5's Chief of Station Security. Mira Furlan as Delenn: The Minbari ambassador to Babylon 5. Born Minbari, she uses a special artifact at the start of the 2nd season to become a Minbari-human hybrid. Richard Biggs as Doctor Stephen Franklin: Babylon 5's chief medical officer.
Andrea Thompson as Talia Winters: A commercial Psi-Corps telepath that works aboard the station. Stephen Furst as Vir Cotto: Diplomatic aide to Centauri Ambassador Londo Mollari. Bill Mumy as Lennier: Diplomatic aide to Minbari Ambassador Delenn. Tracy Scoggins as Captain Elizabeth Lochley: Babylon 5's station commander following Ivanova's departure. Jason Carter as Marcus Cole: A Ranger, one of a group of covert agents who fight against the Shadows. Caitlin Brown and Mary Kay Adams as Na'Toth: Diplomatic aide to Narn Ambassador G'Kar. Robert Rusler as Warren Keffer: Commander of the Zeta Wing, one of Babylon 5's small fighter fleets. Jeff Conaway as Zack Allan (guest season 2, main
Laurence van Cott Niven is an American science fiction writer. His best-known work is Ringworld, which received Hugo, Locus and Nebula awards; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America named him the 2015 recipient of the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award. His work is hard science fiction, using big science concepts and theoretical physics, it often includes elements of detective fiction and adventure stories. His fantasy includes the series The Magic Goes Away, rational fantasy dealing with magic as a non-renewable resource. Niven was born in Los Angeles, he is a great-grandson of Edward L. Doheny, an oil tycoon who drilled the first successful well in the Los Angeles City Oil Field in 1892 and was subsequently implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal, he attended the California Institute of Technology and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in mathematics from Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas in 1962. He completed a year of graduate work in mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles.
On September 6, 1969, he married Marilyn Joyce "Fuzzy Pink" Wisowaty, a science fiction and Regency literature fan. He is an agnostic. Niven is the author of numerous science fiction short stories and novels, beginning with his 1964 story "The Coldest Place". In this story, the coldest place concerned is the dark side of Mercury, which at the time the story was written was thought to be tidally locked with the Sun. Algis Budrys said in 1968 that Niven becoming a top writer despite the New Wave was evidence that "trends are for second-raters". In addition to the Nebula award in 1970 and the Hugo and Locus awards in 1971 for Ringworld, Niven won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story for "Neutron Star" in 1967, he won the same award in 1972, for "Inconstant Moon", in 1975 for "The Hole Man". In 1976, he won the Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "The Borderland of Sol". Niven has written scripts for three science fiction television series: the original Land of the Lost series. Niven has written for the DC Comics character Green Lantern including in his stories hard science fiction concepts such as universal entropy and the redshift effect.
He has included limited psi gifts in some characters in his stories. Several of his stories predicted the black market in transplant organs. Many of Niven's stories—sometimes called the Tales of Known Space—take place in his Known Space universe, in which humanity shares the several habitable star systems nearest to the Sun with over a dozen alien species, including the aggressive feline Kzinti and the intelligent but cowardly Pierson's Puppeteers, which are central characters; the Ringworld series is part of the Tales of Known Space, Niven has shared the setting with other writers since a 1988 anthology, The Man-Kzin Wars. There have been several volumes of short novellas. Niven has written a logical fantasy series The Magic Goes Away, which utilizes an exhaustible resource called mana to power a rule-based "technological" magic; the Draco Tavern series of short stories take place in a more light-hearted science fiction universe, are told from the point of view of the proprietor of an omni-species bar.
The whimsical Svetz series consists of a collection of short stories, The Flight of the Horse, a novel, Rainbow Mars, which involve a nominal time machine sent back to retrieve long-extinct animals, but which travels, in fact, into alternative realities and brings back mythical creatures such as a Roc and a Unicorn. Much of his writing since the 1970s has been in collaboration with Jerry Pournelle and Steven Barnes, but Brenda Cooper and Edward M. Lerner. One of Niven's best known humorous works is "Man of Steel, Woman of Kleenex", in which he uses real-world physics to underline the difficulties of Superman and a human woman mating. Niven appeared in the 1980 science documentary film Target... Earth? Niven's most famous contribution to the SF genre comes from his novel Ringworld, in which he envisions a Ringworld: a band of material a million miles wide, of the same diameter as Earth's orbit, rotating around a star; the idea's genesis came from Niven's attempts to imagine a more efficient version of a Dyson sphere, which could produce the effect of surface gravity through rotation.
Given that spinning a Dyson Sphere would result in the atmosphere pooling around the equator, the Ringworld removes all the extraneous parts of the structure, leaving a spinning band landscaped on the sun-facing side, with the atmosphere and inhabitants kept in place through centrifugal force and 1,000 mi high perimeter walls. After publication of Ringworld, Dan Alderson and Ctein, two fannish friends of Niven, analyzed the structure and told Niven that the Ringworld was dynamically unstable such that if the center of rotation drifts away from the central sun, gravitational forces will not're-center' it, thus allowing the ring to contact the sun and be destroyed. Niven used this as a core plot element in the sequel novel, The Ringworld Engineers
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system. It is related to the number Ω of microscopic configurations that are consistent with the macroscopic quantities that characterize the system. Under the assumption that each microstate is probable, the entropy S is the natural logarithm of the number of microstates, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant kB. Formally, S = k B ln Ω. Macroscopic systems have a large number Ω of possible microscopic configurations. For example, the entropy of an ideal gas is proportional to the number of gas molecules N. Twenty liters of gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure has N ≈ 6×1023. At equilibrium, each of the Ω ≈ eN configurations can be regarded as random and likely; the second law of thermodynamics states. Such systems spontaneously evolve towards the state with maximum entropy. Non-isolated systems may lose entropy, provided their environment's entropy increases by at least that amount so that the total entropy increases.
Entropy is a function of the state of the system, so the change in entropy of a system is determined by its initial and final states. In the idealization that a process is reversible, the entropy does not change, while irreversible processes always increase the total entropy; because it is determined by the number of random microstates, entropy is related to the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its macroscopic specification. For this reason, it is said that entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, or of the lack of information about it; the concept of entropy plays a central role in information theory. Boltzmann's constant, therefore entropy, have dimensions of energy divided by temperature, which has a unit of joules per kelvin in the International System of Units; the entropy of a substance is given as an intensive property—either entropy per unit mass or entropy per unit amount of substance. The French mathematician Lazare Carnot proposed in his 1803 paper Fundamental Principles of Equilibrium and Movement that in any machine the accelerations and shocks of the moving parts represent losses of moment of activity.
In other words, in any natural process there exists an inherent tendency towards the dissipation of useful energy. Building on this work, in 1824 Lazare's son Sadi Carnot published Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire which posited that in all heat-engines, whenever "caloric" falls through a temperature difference, work or motive power can be produced from the actions of its fall from a hot to cold body, he made the analogy with that of. This was an early insight into the second law of thermodynamics. Carnot based his views of heat on the early 18th century "Newtonian hypothesis" that both heat and light were types of indestructible forms of matter, which are attracted and repelled by other matter, on the contemporary views of Count Rumford who showed that heat could be created by friction as when cannon bores are machined. Carnot reasoned that if the body of the working substance, such as a body of steam, is returned to its original state at the end of a complete engine cycle, that "no change occurs in the condition of the working body".
The first law of thermodynamics, deduced from the heat-friction experiments of James Joule in 1843, expresses the concept of energy, its conservation in all processes. In the 1850s and 1860s, German physicist Rudolf Clausius objected to the supposition that no change occurs in the working body, gave this "change" a mathematical interpretation by questioning the nature of the inherent loss of usable heat when work is done, e.g. heat produced by friction. Clausius described entropy as the transformation-content, i.e. dissipative energy use, of a thermodynamic system or working body of chemical species during a change of state. This was in contrast to earlier views, based on the theories of Isaac Newton, that heat was an indestructible particle that had mass. Scientists such as Ludwig Boltzmann, Josiah Willard Gibbs, James Clerk Maxwell gave entropy a statistical basis. In 1877 Boltzmann visualized a probabilistic way to measure the entropy of an ensemble of ideal gas particles, in which he defined entropy to be proportional to the natural logarithm of the number of microstates such a gas could occupy.
Henceforth, the essential problem in statistical thermodynamics, i.e. according to Erwin Schrödinger, has been to determine the distribution of a given amount of energy E over N identical systems. Carathéodory linked entropy with a mathematical definition of irreversibility, in terms of trajectories and integrability. There are two related definitions of entropy: the thermodynamic definition and the statistical mechanics definition; the classical thermodynamics definition developed first. In the classical thermodynamics viewpoint, the system is composed of large numbers of constituents and the state of the system is described by the average thermodynamic properties of those constituents.
Theodore Sturgeon was an American writer of fantasy, science fiction and horror. He was a critic, he wrote 400 reviews and more than 200 stories. Sturgeon's science fiction novel More Than Human won the 1954 International Fantasy Award as the year's best novel and the Science Fiction Writers of America ranked "Baby is Three" number five among the "Greatest Science Fiction Novellas of All Time" to 1964. Ranked by votes for all of their pre-1965 novellas, Sturgeon was second among authors, behind Robert Heinlein; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame inducted Sturgeon in 2000, its fifth class of two dead and two living writers. Sturgeon was born Edward Hamilton Waldo in Staten Island, New York in 1918, his name was changed to Theodore Sturgeon at age eleven after his mother's divorce and remarriage to William Dicky Sturgeon. He sold his first story in 1938 to the McClure Syndicate, his first genre story was "Ether Breather", published by John W. Campbell in the September 1939 issue of Astounding Science Fiction.
At first he wrote short stories for genre magazines such as Astounding and Unknown, but for general-interest publications such as Argosy Magazine. He used the pen name "E. Waldo Hunter". A few of his early stories were signed "Theodore H. Sturgeon." Sturgeon ghost-wrote The Player on the Other Side. This novel gained critical praise from critic H. R. F. Keating: " had finished writing Crime and Mystery: the 100 Best Books, in which I had included The Player on the Other Side... placing the book squarely in the Queen canon" when he learned that it had been written by Sturgeon. William DeAndrea and winner of Mystery Writers of America awards, selecting his ten favorite mystery novels for the magazine Armchair Detective, picked The Player on the Other Side as one of them, he said: "This book changed my life... and made a raving mystery fan out of me.... The book must be'one of the most skilful pastiches in the history of literature. An amazing piece of work, whomever did it'."Disliking arguments with Campbell over editorial decisions, after 1950 Sturgeon only published one story in Astounding.
Sturgeon wrote the screenplays for the Star Trek episodes "Shore Leave" and "Amok Time". The latter is known for its invention of the Vulcan mating ritual. Sturgeon is sometimes credited as having deliberately put homosexual subtext in his work, like the back-rub scene in "Shore Leave", the short story "The World Well Lost". Sturgeon wrote several episodes of Star Trek that were never produced. One of these was notable for having first introduced the Prime Directive, he wrote an episode of the Saturday morning show Land of the Lost, "The Pylon Express", in 1975. Two of Sturgeon's stories were adapted for The New Twilight Zone. One, "A Saucer of Loneliness", was dedicated to his memory. Another short story, "Yesterday was Monday", was the inspiration for The New Twilight Zone episode "A Matter of Minutes", his 1944 novella "Killdozer!" was the inspiration for the 1970s made-for-TV movie, Marvel comic book, alternative rock band of the same name. Sturgeon is well known among readers of classic science-fiction anthologies.
At the height of his popularity in the 1950s he was the most anthologized English-language author alive. Describing "To Here and the Easel" as "a stunning portrait of personality disassociation as perceived from the inside", Carl Sagan said that many of Sturgeon's works were among the "rare few science‐fiction novels combine a standard science‐fiction theme with a deep human sensitivity". John Clute wrote in The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction: "His influence upon writers like Harlan Ellison and Samuel R. Delany was seminal, in his life and work he was a powerful and liberating influence in post-WWII US sf", he is not much known by the general public, he won comparatively few awards. His best work was published before the establishment and consolidation of the leading genre awards, while his production was scarcer and weaker, he was listed as a primary influence on the much more famous Ray Bradbury. Sturgeon's original novels were all published between 1950 and 1961, the bulk of his short story work dated from the 1940s and 1950s.
Though he continued to write through 1983, his work rate dipped noticeably in the years of his life. Sturgeon lived for several years in Oregon, he died on May 8, 1985, of lung fibrosis, at Sacred Heart General Hospital in the neighboring city of Eugene. He was a member of the all-male literary banqueting club the Trap Door Spiders, which served as the basis of Isaac Asimov's fictional group of mystery solvers the Black Widowers. Sturgeon was the inspiration for the recurrent character of Kilgore Trout in the novels of Kurt Vonnegut. In 1951, Sturgeon coined what is now known as Sturgeon's Law: "Ninety percent of is crud, but ninety percent of everything is crud." This was known as Sturgeon's Revelation.
John W. Campbell
John Wood Campbell Jr. was an American science fiction writer and editor. He was editor of Astounding Science Fiction from late 1937 until his death and was part of the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Campbell wrote super-science space opera under his own name and stories under his primary pseudonym, Don A. Stuart. Campbell used the pen names Karl Van Kampen and Arthur McCann, his novella Who Goes There? was adapted as the films The Thing from Another World, The Thing, The Thing. Campbell began writing science fiction at age 18 while attending MIT, he published six short stories, one novel, six letters in the science fiction magazine Amazing Stories from 1930 to 1931. This work established Campbell's reputation as a writer of space adventure; when in 1934 he began to write stories with a different tone, he wrote as Don A. Stuart. From 1930 until the part of that decade, Campbell was prolific and successful under both names, though he stopped writing fiction shortly after he became editor of Astounding in 1937.
It is as editor of Astounding Science Fiction from late 1937 until his death for which Campbell is remembered today. As well, in 1939, Campbell started the fantasy magazine Unknown, although it was canceled after only four years. Referring to his time spent as an editor, The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction wrote: "More than any other individual, he helped to shape modern sf." Isaac Asimov called Campbell "the most powerful force in science fiction ever" and said the "first ten years of his editorship he dominated the field completely." In his capacity as an editor, Campbell published some of the earliest work, helped shape the careers, of every important sf author to debut between 1938 and 1946, including Robert A. Heinlein, Theodore Sturgeon, Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke. An strong interest in pseudoscience alienated Campbell from many of the writers whose careers he had nurtured; as well, beginning in the 1960s, Campbell's controversial essays supporting segregation, other remarks and writings surrounding slavery and race, served to distance him from many in the science fiction community.
Campbell remained an important figure in science fiction publishing up until his death. Campbell and Astounding shared one of the inaugural Hugo Awards with H. L. Gold and Galaxy at the 1953 World Science Fiction Convention. Subsequently and Astounding won the Hugo Award for Best Professional Magazine seven times. Shortly after his death in 1971, the University of Kansas science fiction program established the annual John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel and renamed after him its annual Campbell Conference; the World Science Fiction Society established the annual John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame inducted Campbell in 1996, in its inaugural class of two deceased and two living persons. John Campbell was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1910, his father was an electrical engineer. His mother, Dorothy had an identical twin who visited them and who disliked John. John was unable to tell them apart and says he was rebuffed by the person he took to be his mother.
Campbell attended the Blair Academy, a boarding school in rural Warren County, New Jersey, but did not graduate because of lack of credits for French and trigonometry. He attended, without graduating, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was befriended by the mathematician Norbert Wiener – but he failed German and MIT dismissed him. After one year at Duke University, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in physics in 1932. Campbell began writing science fiction at age 18 while attending MIT and sold his first stories quickly. From January 1930 to June 1931, Amazing Stories published six of his short stories, one novel, six letters. Campbell was editor of Astounding Science Fiction from late 1937 until his death, he stopped writing fiction. Between December 11, 1957, June 13, 1958, he hosted a weekly science fiction radio program called Exploring Tomorrow; the scripts were written by authors such as Robert Silverberg. Campbell and Dona Stewart married in 1931, they divorced in 1949 and he married Margaret Winter in 1950.
He spent most of his life in New Jersey and died of heart failure at his home in Mountainside, New Jersey. He was an atheist. Editor T. O'Conor Sloane lost Campbell's first manuscript that he accepted for Amazing Stories, entitled "Invaders of the Infinite". "When the Atoms Failed" appeared in January 1930, followed by five more during 1930. Three were part of a space opera series featuring the characters Arcot and Wade. A complete novel in the series, Islands of Space, was the cover story in the Spring 1931 Quarterly. During 1934–35 a serial novel, The Mightiest Machine, ran in Astounding Stories, edited by F. Orlin Tremaine, several stories featuring lead characters Penton and Blake appeared from late 1936 in Thrilling Wonder Stories, edited by Mort Weisinger; the early work for Amazing established Campbell's reputation as a writer of space adventure. When in 1934 he began to publish stories with a different tone he wrote as Don A. Stuart, a pseudonym derived from his wife's maiden name. From 1930 until the part of that decade, Campbell was prolific and successful under both names.
Three significant stories published under the pseudonym are "Twilight" (Astounding, Novem
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes. The act of engaging in activities in a spirit of playfulness and exploration is termed "hacking". However, the defining characteristic of a hacker is not the activities performed themselves, but the manner in which it is done and whether it is something exciting and meaningful. Activities of playful cleverness can be said to have "hack value" and therefore the term "hacks" came about, with early examples including pranks at MIT done by students to demonstrate their technical aptitude and cleverness. Therefore, the hacker culture emerged in academia in the 1960s around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Tech Model Railroad Club and MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Hacking involved entering restricted areas in a clever way without causing any major damages; some famous hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were placing of a campus police cruiser on the roof of the Great Dome and converting the Great Dome into R2-D2.
Richard Stallman explains about hackers who program: What they had in common was love of excellence and programming. They wanted to make their programs, they wanted to make them do neat things. They wanted to be able to do something in a more exciting way than anyone believed possible and show "Look how wonderful this is. I bet you didn't believe this could be done." Hackers from this subculture tend to emphatically differentiate themselves from what they pejoratively call "crackers". The Jargon File, an influential but not universally accepted compendium of hacker slang, defines hacker as "A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and stretching their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary." The Request for Comments 1392, the Internet Users' Glossary, amplifies this meaning as "A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system and computer networks in particular."As documented in the Jargon File, these hackers are disappointed by the mass media and general public's usage of the word hacker to refer to security breakers, calling them "crackers" instead.
This includes both "good" crackers who use their computer security related skills and knowledge to learn more about how systems and networks work and to help to discover and fix security holes, as well as those more "evil" crackers who use the same skills to author harmful software and illegally infiltrate secure systems with the intention of doing harm to the system. The programmer subculture of hackers, in contrast to the cracker community sees computer security related activities as contrary to the ideals of the original and true meaning of the hacker term that instead related to playful cleverness; the word "hacker" derives from the seventeenth-century word of a "lusty laborer" who harvested fields by dogged and rough swings of his hoe. Although the idea of "hacking" has existed long before the term "hacker"—with the most notable example of Lightning Ellsworth, it was not a word that the first programmers used to describe themselves. In fact, many of the first programmers were from physics backgrounds.
There was a growing awareness of a style of programming different from the cut and dried methods employed at first, but it was not until the 1960s that the term hackers began to be used to describe proficient computer programmers. Therefore, the fundamental characteristic that links all who identify themselves as hackers are ones who enjoy "…the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming and circumventing limitations of programming systems and who tries to extend their capabilities". With this definition in mind, it can be clear where the negative implications of the word "hacker" and the subculture of "hackers" came from; some common nicknames among this culture include "crackers" who are unskilled thieves who rely on luck. Others include "phreak"—which refers to a type of skilled crackers and "warez d00dz"—which is a kind of cracker that acquires reproductions of copyrighted software. Within all hackers are tiers of hackers such as the "samurai" who are hackers that hire themselves out for legal electronic locksmith work.
Furthermore, there are other hackers who are hired to test security, they are called "sneakers" or "tiger teams". Before communications between computers and computer users were as networked as they are now, there were multiple independent and parallel hacker subcultures unaware or only aware of each other's existence. All of these had certain important traits in common: Creating software and sharing it with each other Placing a high value on freedom of inquiry Hostility to secrecy Information-sharing as both an ideal and a practical strategy Upholding the right to fork Emphasis on rationality Distaste for authority Playful cleverness, taking the serious humorously and humor These sorts of subcultures were found at academic settings such as college campuses; the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the University of California and Carnegie Mellon University were well-known hotbeds of early hacker culture. They evolved in parallel, unconsciously, until the Internet, where a legendary PDP-10 machine at MIT, called