NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, and was the idea of Ohio State University coach Harold Olsen. Played mostly during March, it has one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States. The tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, and 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths, the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination bracket, which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next. Each team is seeded, or ranked, within its region from 1 to 32, after an initial four games between eight lower-ranked teams, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. The Final Four is usually played during the first weekend of April and these four teams, one from each region, compete in a pre-selected location for the national championship. The tournament has been at least partially televised since 1969, the games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, and truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness.
Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally, such as in the Philippines, as television coverage has grown, so too has the tournaments popularity. Currently, millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of all 67 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Mens Division I Basketball Championships, the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is in place, with six titles, while Duke University. The University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles, the University of Kansas and University of Louisville are tied with three championships. During that time Villanova, Michigan, UNLV, Arkansas, Connecticut, Syracuse, the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most often representing an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011, for changes during the course of its history, and to see how the tournament operated during past years, go to Format history, below.
A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during March, thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions. Of the 32 Division I all-sports conferences, all 32 currently hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference that did not conduct a tournament, through the 2015–16 season, if two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament, the committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket. The tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, the committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from
College ice hockey
College ice hockey is played in Canada and the United States, though leagues outside of North America exist. University hockey is the used for hockey primarily played at four-year institutions. The National Collegiate Athletic Association has conducted national championships for mens ice hockey since 1948, U. S. college hockey players must be deemed eligible for NCAA competition by the NCAA Eligibility Center, a process that examines a student-athletes academic qualifications and amateur status. Players who have participated in the Canadian Hockey League or any professional league are considered ineligible. Mens U. S. college hockey is a system to the National Hockey League. As of the 2010–11 season,30 percent of NHL players had U. S. college hockey experience prior to turning professional and that percentage has been maintained the past three seasons, with a record 301 NHL players coming from college hockey in 2011–12. One hundred thirty-eight colleges and universities sponsor mens ice hockey in the NCAAs three divisions, the NCAA Division I has 60 ice hockey teams as of the 2015–16 season.
The NCAA Division I Championship is a 16-team, single-elimination tournament, divided into four, the winner of each regional advances to the Frozen Four to compete for the national championship. For many years,5 teams earned automatic bids through winning conference tournament championships, with the addition of the Big Ten Hockey Conference for the 2013–14 season, the tournament now features 6 automatic qualifiers, and 10 at-large bids. In 2015–16, there were 60 schools competing in Division I, with 59 of them organized into six conferences, the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference sponsored D-I mens hockey, but dropped the sport in 2003. The Hobey Baker Memorial Award honors the top player in mens Division I hockey, the Mike Richter Award honors the top goaltender in Division I. The NCAA does not currently sponsor a championship in Division II, as there is only one conference that currently sponsors hockey, several other schools that normally compete in Division II play up to the Division I level in hockey.
The NCAA conducted a Division II national championship from 1978 to 1984, the current championship format is an 12-team, single-elimination bracket. Eighty-eight colleges and universities sponsor womens ice hockey in two divisions, National Collegiate and Division III, there are 36 teams in the National Collegiate division. The Patty Kazmaier Memorial Award is awarded annually by USA Hockey to the top player in womens Division I hockey. The most recent school to add varsity womens hockey was Merrimack, University hockey teams in Canada compete in leagues as part of U Sports, the national governing body for Canadian university athletics. U Sports sponsors both mens and womens hockey, like in the United States, teams compete in athletic conferences based on geographical locations of the schools. Unlike the NCAA, U Sports does not award players with athletic scholarships, individual conferences hold postseason tournaments, followed by the round-robin U Sports championship tournament in late March
Introduced in 2000, the competition replaced the FIBA EuroLeague, which had been run by FIBA since 1958. For Euroleague Basketball records purposes, the FIBA European Champions Cup and EuroLeague are considered to be the same competition, with the change of name being simply a re-branding. EuroLeague is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 8,184. The EuroLeague title has been won by 20 different clubs,13 of which have won the more than once. The FIBA European Champions Cup was originally established by FIBA and it operated under its umbrella from 1958 until the summer of 2000 and that was when Euroleague Basketball was created. FIBA had never trademarked the EuroLeague name, even though it had used that name for the competition since 1996. Euroleague Basketball simply appropriated the name, and since FIBA had no recourse to do anything about it, it was forced to find a new name for its championship series. Thus, the following 2000–2001 season started with 2 separate top European professional club competitions, the FIBA SuproLeague.
The rift in European professional club basketball initially showed no signs of letting up, in May 2001, Europe had two continental champions, Maccabi of the FIBA SuproLeague and Kinder Bologna of the Euroleague. The leaders of both organizations realized the need to come up with a unified competition, although only a year old, Euroleague Basketball negotiated from a position of strength and dictated proceedings. FIBA essentially had no choice but to agree to Euroleague Basketballs terms, as a result, European club competition was fully integrated under Euroleague Basketballs umbrella and teams that competed in the FIBA SuproLeague during the 2000–01 season joined it as well. In essence, the authority in European professional basketball was divided over club-country lines, FIBA stayed in charge of national team competitions, while Euroleague Basketball took over the European professional club competitions. From that point on, FIBAs Korać Cup and Saporta Cup competitions lasted only one season before folding.
In November 2015, Euroleague Basketball and IMG agreed on 10-year joint venture, both Euroleague Basketball and IMG will manage the commercial operation, and the management of all global rights covering both media and marketing. The deal was worth €630 million euros guaranteed, with projected revenues reaching €900 million euros, FIBA era, FIBA European Champions Cup, FIBA European League, FIBA EuroLeague, FIBA SuproLeague, Euroleague Basketball era, Euroleague. *There were two separate competitions during the 2000–01 season, the SuproLeague, which was organized by FIBA, and the Euroleague, which was organized by Euroleague Basketball. On 26 July 2010, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball announced a €15 million strategic agreement to sponsor the top European basketball competition across the globe, according to the agreement, starting with the 2010–11 season, the top European competition would be named Turkish Airlines Euroleague Basketball. Similarly, the EuroLeague Final Four would be named the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Final Four and this title partnership was set to run for five seasons, with the option of extending it to an additional five
Survivor (U.S. TV series)
The American series premiered on May 31,2000, on CBS. It is hosted by television personality Jeff Probst, who is an executive producer, the show maroons a group of strangers in an isolated location, where they must provide food, water and shelter for themselves. The contestants compete in challenges for rewards and immunity from elimination, the American version has been very successful. From the 2000–01 through the 2005–06 television seasons, its first eleven seasons rated amongst the top ten most watched shows, Jeff Probst won the award for Outstanding Host for a Reality or Reality-Competition Program four consecutive times after the award was introduced in 2008. In 2007, the series was included in Time magazines list of the 100 greatest TV shows of all-time, in 2013, TV Guide ranked it at #39 on its list of the 60 Best Series of All Time. The series was renewed for a 34th season, Game Changers, the series has been renewed through the 2017–18 television season. The first U. S. season of Survivor followed the general format as the Swedish series.
Sixteen or more players are split between two or more tribes, are taken to an isolated location and are forced to live off the land with meager supplies for 39 days. Once about half the players are remaining, the tribes are merged into a single tribe, most players that are voted out at this stage form the games jury. Once down to two or three people, a final Tribal Council is held where the remaining players plead their case to the jury members, the jury votes for which player should be considered the Sole Survivor and win the shows grand prize. In all seasons for the United States version, this has included a $1 million prize in addition to the Sole Survivor title, some seasons have included additional prizes, the United States version is produced by Mark Burnett and hosted by Jeff Probst. Each competition is called a season, has a unique name, the first season was broadcast as a summer replacement show in 2000. Starting with Survivor, there have two seasons aired during each U. S. television season.
In the first season, there was a 75-person crew, by season 22, the crew had grown to 325 people. There have been a total of 498 contestants that have competed on Survivors 33 seasons, the original idea of Survivor was developed by Charlie Parsons in 1994 under the name Castaway. Parsons formed Planet24 with Bob Geldof to produce the show and tried to have the BBC broadcast it, Parsons went to Swedish television and was able to find a broadcaster, ultimately producing Expedition Robinson in 1997. The show was a success, and plans for international versions were made, Mark Burnett intended to be the person to bring the show to the United States, though he recognized that the Swedish version was a bit crude and mean-spirited. Burnett retooled the concept to use better production values, based on his prior Eco-Challenge show, Burnett spent about a year trying to find a broadcaster that would take the show, retooling the concept based on feedback
STS-135 was the 135th and final mission of the American Space Shuttle program. It used the orbiter Atlantis and hardware originally processed for the STS-335 contingency mission, STS-135 launched on 8 July 2011, and landed on 21 July 2011, following a one-day mission extension. The four-person crew was the smallest of any shuttle mission since STS-6 in April 1983, the missions primary cargo was the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and a Lightweight Multi-Purpose Carrier, which were delivered to the International Space Station. The flight of Raffaello marked the time that Atlantis carried an MPLM. Although the mission was authorized, it initially had no appropriation in the NASA budget, on 20 January 2011, program managers changed STS-335 to STS-135 on the flight manifest. This allowed for training and other mission specific preparations, on 13 February 2011, program managers told their workforce that STS-135 would fly regardless of the funding situation via a continuing resolution. Until this point, there had no official references to the STS-135 mission in NASA official documentation for the general public.
The mission was included in NASAs 2011 authorization, which was signed into law on 11 October 2010, United Space Alliance signed a contract extension for the mission, along with STS-134, the contract contained six one-month options with NASA in order to support continuing operations. The U. S. federal budget approved in April 2011 called for $5.5 billion for NASAs space operations division, including the shuttle, according to NASA, the budget running through 30 September 2011 ended all concerns about funding the STS-135 mission. NASA announced the STS-335/135 crew on 14 September 2010, only four astronauts were assigned to this mission, versus the normal six or seven, because there were no other shuttles available for a rescue following the retirement of Discovery and Endeavour. If the shuttle was seriously damaged in orbit, the crew would have moved into the International Space Station and returned in Russian Soyuz capsules, one at a time, all STS-135 crew members were custom-fitted for a Russian Sokol space suit and molded Soyuz seat liner for this possibility.
The reduced crew size allowed the mission to maximize the payload carried to the ISS. It was the time that a Shuttle crew of four flew to the ISS. The last shuttle mission to fly with just four crew members occurred 28 years earlier, the bill still needed the approval of the full Senate. A draft NASA reauthorization bill considered by the House Science & Technology Committee did not provide for a shuttle mission. On 22 July 2010, during a meeting of the House Science Committee, on 5 August 2010, the Senate passed its version of the NASA reauthorization bill, just before lawmakers left for the traditional August recess. On 20 August 2010, NASA managers approved STS-135 mission planning targeting a 28 June 2011 launch, on 29 September 2010, the House of Representatives approved the Senate-passed bill on a 304–118 vote. The bill, approved by the U. S. Congress, on 11 October 2010, Obama signed the legislation into law, allowing NASA to move forward with STS-135, though without specific funding
The Plain Dealer
The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, United States. It has the largest circulation of any Ohio newspaper and was a top 20 newspaper for Sunday circulation in the United States as of March 2013, as of December 2015, The Plain Dealer had more than 250,000 daily readers and 790,000 readers on Sunday. The Plain Dealers media market, the Cleveland-Akron DMA, is one of the Top 20 markets in the United States, with a population of 3.8 million people, it is the fourth-largest market in the Midwest, and Ohios largest media market. In April 2013 The Plain Dealer announced it would reduce home delivery to four days a week and this went into effect on August 5,2013. A daily version of The Plain Dealer is available electronically as well as in print at stores and newsstands. The newspaper was established in 1842, less than 50 years after Moses Cleaveland landed on the banks of the Cuyahoga River in The Flats, the Plain Dealer Publishing Company is under the direction of Virginia Wang.
The paper employs over 700 people, the newspaper was sold on March 1,1967, to S. I. Newhouses newspaper chain, and has been under the control of the Newhouse family ever since. W. On December 18,2005, The Plain Dealer ceased publication of its weekly Sunday Magazine and it assured readers that the stories that would formerly have appeared in the Sunday Magazine would be integrated into other areas of the paper. On the morning of Wednesday, July 31,2013, nearly a third of the staff was eliminated through layoffs. Previously, in December 2012, under an agreement with the Newspaper Guild, the July round of layoffs led to accusations by the Guild that management had misled the union by cutting more employees than had been agreed upon. On August 5,2013, the Northeast Ohio Media Group launched, Northeast Ohio Media Group operates cleveland. com and Sun Newspapers and is responsible for all multimedia ad sales and marketing for The Plain Dealer, Sun News and cleveland. com. It provides content to The Plain Dealer, cleveland.
com, the Plain Dealer Publishing Company provides content and publishes in print seven days a week. The company provides production, finance, information technology and other services for the Plain Dealer Publishing Co. 1953 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning,2003 Editor & Publisher Editor of the Year Award 12-time Ohio News Photographers Association Award recipient.50 and the Sunday/Thanksgiving Day edition is $2.25 at newsstands/newsracks. The full subscription weekly price is $4.65 and these prices only apply to The Plain Dealers home delivery area, which are the Northeast Ohio counties of Cuyahoga, Geauga, Erie, Summit, Ashtabula and Lorain. The Plain Dealer is available all over the state at select newsstands, including in the capital, Columbus. The newspaper reported daily readership of 543,110 and Sunday readership of 858,376 as of October,2013. Effective August 5,2013, home delivery was reduced to four days a week, an edition on Wednesday and Sunday
StarStruck (Philippine TV series)
StarStruck is a Philippine reality talent competition created by GMA Network. It debuted on October 27,2003, and has become one of the most popular shows reality competition programs on Philippine television. The program seeks to discover new actors in the country through a series of nationwide auditions, the Filipino public votes for the outcomes of the stages through text voting and half of the results are from the judges. The audition process is long, beginning with thousands of hopefuls showcasing their talents, the competition heats-up when the hopefuls are cut down to fourteen young hopefuls and be the official contestants for a respective Season. During the finals, the finalists were eliminated one by one until three pairs remain, after two weeks, one pair will be eliminated. The remaining four advanced to the final judgment where the winners were proclaimed, in second season, the Wildcard twist was introduced. The wildcard week occurred when there were 6 finalists remained, the eliminated finalists were given a chance to come back in the competition.
The week ended resulting to Benj Pacia elimination and CJ Muere replaced Pacia in the competition, during fourth season, the said twist was again introduced that benefited Mart Escudero and Rich Asuncion who both secured a spot in the final judgment. Fourth season and fifth season, on the hand, had six finalist from season 4 and had five finalists from season 5 who advanced in the grand finals or The Final Judgment. The Final Judgment will award the finalists respective titles, there are two ultimate survivors, a male and a female, at the end of every season. The winners are determined through the average of the text and online votes plus the decision of the three members of the StarStruck Council, however, in third season, from the two ultimate survivors, there was an Ultimate Sole Survivor title that earned the winner extra prizes. In StarStruck, The Worldwide Invasion and StarStruck, the Ultimate Male Survivor, the council, give critiques of the contestants performances depending on the challenges that are being given to the contestants.
Since first season, the council had a lot of members including Joey de Leon, Joyce Bernal, Ida Henares, Louie Ignacio, Lorna Tolentino, there was a new set of council for the fifth season as the show went to a three-year hiatus. The councils members were Lolit Solis, Floy Quintos and Iza Calzado, there was a newest set of council for the sixth season as the show went to a five-year hiatus. The councils members were Joey de Leon dubbed as the Entertainment Guru, Regine Velasquez and Jennylyn Mercado, now an actress and host. While serving as a host, Dingdong Dantes sits as a council for this season, for the StarStruck Kids, the members of the council included Christopher de Leon, Janice de Belen and Aiza Seguerra. The show has been hosted by Dingdong Dantes from the first season up to the fourth season, nancy Castiglione co-hosted the show from the first season. Jolina Magdangal hosted the Kids version and eventually became Dingdong Dantes co-host since the season up to the fourth season
Where more than two competitors can play in each match, such as in a shootout poker tournament, players are removed when they can no longer play until one player remains from the group. This player moves on to the next round, some competitions are held with a pure single-elimination tournament system. Others have many phases, with the last being a final stage called playoffs. The round before the quarterfinals is sometimes called the round of sixteen, Last Sixteen, or pre-quarterfinals, earlier rounds are typically numbered counting forwards from the first round, or by the number of remaining competitors. If some competitors get a bye, the round at which they enter may be named the first round, with the matches called a preliminary round. Many Olympic single-elimination tournaments feature the bronze medal if they do not award bronze medals to both losing semifinalists. The FIFA World Cup has long featured the third place match, the number of distinct ways of arranging a single-elimination tournament is given by the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers.
Brackets are set up so that the top two seeds could not possibly meet until the round, none of the top four can meet prior to the semifinals. If no seeding is used, the tournament is called a random knockout tournament. One version of seeding is where brackets are set up so that the quarterfinal pairings would be the 1 seed vs. the 8 seed,2 vs.7,3 vs.6 and 4 vs. This may be done after each round, or only at selected intervals, in American team sports, for example, the MLS, NFL and WNBA employ this tactic, but the NBA does not. MLB does not have teams in its playoff tournament where re-seeding would make a large difference in the matchups. In international fencing competitions, it is common to have a group stage, participants are divided in groups of 6–7 fencers who play a round-robin tournament, and a ranking is calculated from the consolidated group results. Single elimination is seeded from this ranking, the single-elimination format enables a relatively large number of competitors to participate.
There are no dead matches, and no matches where one competitor has more to play for than the other, the format is less suited to games where draws are frequent. In chess, each fixture in a single-elimination tournament must be played multiple matches, because draws are common. In association football, games ending in a draw may be settled in extra time, another perceived disadvantage is that most competitors are eliminated after relatively few games. Variations such as the tournament allow competitors a single loss while remaining eligible for overall victory
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States