NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis
College ice hockey
College ice hockey is played in Canada and the United States, though leagues exist outside North America. In Canada, the term "college hockey" refers to community college and small college ice hockey that consists of a varsity conference—the Alberta Colleges Athletic Conference -- and a club league—the British Columbia Intercollegiate Hockey League. "University hockey" is the term used for hockey played at four-year institutions. In the United States, competitive "college hockey" refers to ice hockey played between colleges and universities within the governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the American Collegiate Hockey Association; the National Collegiate Athletic Association has conducted national championships for men's ice hockey since 1948, women's ice hockey since 2001. U. S. college hockey players must be deemed eligible for NCAA competition by the NCAA Eligibility Center, a process that examines a student-athlete's academic qualifications and amateur status.
Players who have participated in the Canadian Hockey League or any professional hockey league are considered ineligible. Men's U. S. college hockey is a feeder system to the National Hockey League. As of the 2010–11 season, 30 percent of NHL players had U. S. college hockey experience prior to turning professional, an increase of 35 percent from the previous 10 years. That percentage has been maintained the past three seasons, with a record 301 NHL players coming from college hockey in 2011–12. One hundred thirty-eight colleges and universities sponsor men's ice hockey in the NCAA's three divisions; the NCAA Division I has 60 ice hockey teams as of the 2015–16 season. Twenty-one schools are Division II or III athletic programs that "play up" to Division I in hockey, 16 schools that are full Division I members are in the Football Bowl Subdivision, six of which compete in the Big Ten Conference; the NCAA Division I Championship is a 16-team, single-elimination tournament, divided into four, 4-team regional tournaments.
The winner of each regional advances to the Frozen Four to compete for the national championship. For many years, 5 teams earned automatic bids through winning conference tournament championships, while 11 earned at-large berths through a selection committee. With the addition of the Big Ten Hockey Conference for the 2013–14 season, the tournament now features 6 automatic qualifiers, 10 at-large bids; the ranking system, used to determine the at-large teams is known as the Pairwise Rankings, which uses a number of ranking factors to create a scoring system for all NCAA Division I teams. In 2015–16, there were 60 schools competing in Division I, with 59 of them organized into six conferences, plus one team playing as an independent program with no conference affiliation; the conferences are: Atlantic Hockey Association Big Ten Conference ECAC Hockey Hockey East Association National Collegiate Hockey Conference Western Collegiate Hockey AssociationThe Ivy League recognizes ice hockey champions for both sexes, but it does not sponsor the sport.
The Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference sponsored D-I men's hockey, but dropped the sport in 2003. The Hobey Baker Memorial Award honors the top player in men's Division I hockey; the Mike Richter Award honors the top goaltender in Division I. The NCAA does not sponsor a championship in Division II, as there is only one conference that sponsors hockey, the Northeast-10 Conference; the NCAA conducted a Division II national championship from 1978 to 1984 and from 1993 to 1999. The 74 programs in Division III hockey are part of 9 conferences: Commonwealth Coast Conference Massachusetts State College Athletic Conference Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference New England Hockey Conference New England Small College Athletic Conference Northern Collegiate Hockey Association State University of New York Athletic Conference United Collegiate Hockey Conference Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic ConferenceThe NCAA has conducted a Division III national championship since 1984; the current championship format is a single-elimination bracket.
Eighty-eight colleges and universities sponsor women's ice hockey in two divisions: National Collegiate and Division III. There are 36 teams in the National Collegiate division. Thirty-five teams play in four conferences, with one team playing as an independent: College Hockey America ECAC Hockey Hockey East Western Collegiate Hockey AssociationThe National Collegiate championship is an 8-team, single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion; the Patty Kazmaier Memorial Award is awarded annually by USA Hockey to the top player in women's Division I hockey. The most recent school to add varsity women's hockey was Merrimack, which upgraded its women's club team to full varsity status for the 2015–16 season and joined the school's men's team in Hockey East. There are 49 teams in Division III, plus three other programs from Divisions I and II, in seven conferences: Colonial Hockey Conference ECAC West Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference New England Hockey Conference New England Small College Athletic Conference Northern Collegiate Hockey Association Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic ConferenceThe Division III championship is a 9-team, single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion.
University hockey teams in Canada compete in leagues as part of U Sports, the national governing body for Can
The EuroLeague, known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for sponsorship reasons, is the top-tier European professional basketball club competition, organized by Euroleague Basketball since 2000. Introduced in 2000, the competition replaced the FIBA EuroLeague, run by FIBA since 1958; the FIBA European Champions Cup and the EuroLeague are considered to be the same competition, with the change of name being a re-branding. The EuroLeague is one of the most popular indoor sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 8,780 for league matches in the 2017–18 season; that was the fifth-highest of any professional indoor sports league in the world, the second-highest of any professional basketball league in the world, only behind the National Basketball Association. The EuroLeague title has been won by 21 different clubs, 13 of which have won the title more than once; the most successful club in the competition is Real Madrid, with ten titles. Real Madrid are the current champions, having defeated Fenerbahçe in the 2018 final.
The FIBA European Champions Cup was established by FIBA and it operated under its umbrella from 1958 until the summer of 2000, concluding with the 1999–00 season. That was. FIBA had never trademarked the "EuroLeague" name though it had used that name for the competition since 1996. Euroleague Basketball appropriated the name, since FIBA had no legal recourse to do anything about it, it was forced to find a new name for its championship series. Thus, the following 2000–2001 season started with two separate top European professional club basketball competitions: the FIBA SuproLeague and the brand new Euroleague 2000–01 season; the rift in European professional club basketball showed no signs of letting up. Top clubs were split between the two leagues: Panathinaikos, Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv, CSKA Moscow and Efes Pilsen stayed with FIBA, while Olympiacos, Kinder Bologna, Real Madrid Teka, FC Barcelona, Paf Wennington Bologna, Benetton Treviso, AEK and Tau Cerámica joined Euroleague Basketball. In May 2001, Europe had two continental champions, Maccabi of the FIBA SuproLeague and Kinder Bologna of the Euroleague.
The leaders of both organizations realized the need to come up with a unified competition. Although only a year old, Euroleague Basketball negotiated from a position of strength and dictated proceedings. FIBA had no choice but to agree to Euroleague Basketball's terms; as a result, European club competition was integrated under Euroleague Basketball's umbrella and teams that competed in the FIBA SuproLeague during the 2000–01 season joined it as well. In essence, the authority in European professional basketball was divided over club-country lines. FIBA stayed in charge of national team competitions, while Euroleague Basketball took over the European professional club competitions. From that point on, FIBA's Korać Cup and Saporta Cup competitions lasted only one more season before folding, when Euroleague Basketball launched the ULEB Cup, now known as the EuroCup. In November 2015, Euroleague Basketball and IMG agreed on 10-year joint venture. Both Euroleague Basketball and IMG will manage the commercial operation, the management of all global rights covering both media and marketing.
The deal was worth €630 million guaranteed over 10 years, with projected revenues reaching €900 million. On 26 July 2010, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball announced a €15 million strategic agreement to sponsor the top European basketball competition across the globe. According to the agreement, starting with the 2010–11 season, the top European competition would be named Turkish Airlines Euroleague Basketball; the EuroLeague Final Four would be named the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Final Four, whereby the new league title would appear in all media accordingly. This title partnership was set to run for five seasons, with the option of extending it to an additional five. On 23 October 2013, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball agreed to extend their partnership, up until 2020. FIBA era: FIBA European Champions Cup: FIBA European League: FIBA EuroLeague: FIBA SuproLeague: Euroleague Basketball era: Euroleague:. EuroLeague:.*There were two separate competitions during the 2000–01 season.
The SuproLeague, organized by FIBA, the Euroleague, organized by Euroleague Basketball. The EuroLeague operated under a tournament system, from its inaugural 1958 season, through the 2015–16 season. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, the current European Champions Cup title holders, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with either a single game final, or a 2-game aggregate score finals. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA European League: The champions of the European national domestic leagues, the current European League title holders, along with some of the other biggest teams from the most important national domestic leagues, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA EuroLeague: The champions of th
Basketball Champions League Final Four
The Basketball Champions League Final Four is the concluding final four tournament of each season's Basketball Champions League. The tournament's full official name is FIBA Basketball Champions League Final Four; the BCL is an international professional basketball competition, contested by European basketball clubs, and, organized by the Basketball Champions League S. A. in conjunction with FIBA. The final fours are hosted by one of the final four teams; the first BCL Final Four, the 2017 Basketball Champions League Final Four, was held from 28 April to 30 April, 2017. Basketball Champions League FIBA Europe Eurobasket.com League Page Basketball Champions League Official YouTube Account
NCAA Men's Volleyball Tournament
The NCAA Men's Volleyball Tournament titled the NCAA National Collegiate Men's Volleyball Championship, is an annual competition that determines the National Collegiate Athletic Association championship in American college men's volleyball. It had been the only NCAA championship in the sport from 1970 until 2012, when the NCAA launched a Division III championship. In the past, schools from the Pacific Coast region have dominated this sport, in particular UCLA with coach Al Scates leading the program to 19 NCAA titles. However, in recent years Midwestern teams have made their presence known in men's volleyball, winning 5 of the last 7 national championships. Ohio State leads the Midwest in national championships, with 3 total national championships. Before the 2011–12 school year, men's volleyball did not have an official divisional structure; the National Collegiate Championship remains as the NCAA's top-level championship, but Division III members now have their own championship event. With the introduction of an official Division III championship, schools in that division are no longer eligible for the National Collegiate Championship.
The last exception was Rutgers–Newark, whose men's volleyball program had been a grandfathered scholarship program, could compete for the National Collegiate Championship through 2014. Rutgers–Newark completed a transition to Division III men's volleyball at the end of that season, joined the D-III Continental Volleyball Conference effective with the 2015 season. There are three general regions for men's volleyball: "West", "Midwest", "East". Four "major conferences", defined here as leagues that include full members of Division I, represent these regions; the three "traditional" major conferences are the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation, Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association, Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. In the 2018 season, the ranks of "major" conferences expanded to include the Big West Conference, the first Division I all-sports conference to sponsor men's volleyball; the other conference that sponsors men's volleyball at the National Collegiate level is Conference Carolinas, a Division II league, the first to sponsor men's volleyball as a scholarship sport.
Conference Carolinas has had an automatic berth in the National Collegiate championship since the 2014 season, the Big West received an automatic berth upon the creation of its men's volleyball league. Members of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, a separate athletics governing body whose members are smaller institutions play matches against NCAA teams; because of the historic lack of an official divisional structure in men's volleyball, all four major conferences have members that compete in Division II. Before the creation of the Division III national championship, the EIVA had several Division III members, but all of those schools now compete in D-III men's volleyball. Barring any further changes in conference membership or men's volleyball sponsorship, the Big West will become the first men's volleyball conference to consist of D-I members in the 2021 season, the first after current Big West men's volleyball affiliate UC San Diego starts its transition to Division I and becomes a full Big West member.
Through the 2013 tournament, each of the three major conferences received an automatic bid to the Final Four, with one additional at-large bid. The remaining bid was an at-large bid that could be awarded to any team in Division I or II; the best team not receiving an automatic bid received the at-large bid. Beginning with the 2014 championship, the field expanded to six teams, with the two new teams being the champion of Conference Carolinas and one extra at-large entry; the new format featured two quarterfinal matches involving the four lowest-seeded teams in the field, with the winners joining the two top seeds in the semifinals. The quarterfinals were to be played at campus sites, with the Final Four at a separate predetermined site, but it was decided instead to have the entire championship tournament at one site. With the Big West Conference adding men's volleyball for the 2018 season and qualifying for an automatic tournament berth, the championship now involves seven teams; the bottom two tournament seeds contest a "play-in" match.
The number of Division I schools sponsoring men's volleyball has fluctuated between 20 and 24 teams since 1986. No traditional D-I conferences sponsored men's volleyball until the Big West Conference added the sport for the 2018 season. Of the other three major conferences, the Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association and Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association are volleyball-specific conferences, while the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation is a multi-sport conference of schools whose primary conferences do not sponsor its ten sports. In addition to the 22 D-I schools, 25 Division II schools are competing in D-I volleyball in the current 2019 men's volleyball season: Charleston competes in the EIVA. Lindenwood, Lewis, McKendree, Quincy compete in the MIVA. Concordia–Irvine transitioning from the NAIA to NCAA Division II, joined MPSF men's volleyball in the 2018 season, it replaced California Baptist. UC San Diego competes as a single-sport Big West member; the school will add women's water polo to its Big West membership in the 2019–20 school year and become a full Big West member in 2020–21
Survivor (U.S. TV series)
Survivor is the American version of the international Survivor reality competition television franchise, itself derived from the Swedish television series Expedition Robinson created by Charlie Parsons which premiered in 1997. The American series premiered on May 31, 2000, on CBS, it is hosted by television personality Jeff Probst, an executive producer along with Mark Burnett and original creator, Parsons. The television show places a group of strangers in an isolated location, where they must provide food and shelter for themselves; the contestants compete in challenges for rewards and immunity from elimination. The contestants are progressively eliminated from the game as they are voted out by their fellow contestants, until only one remains and is given the title of "Sole Survivor" and is awarded the grand prize of US$1,000,000; the American version has been successful. From the 2000–01 through the 2005–06 television seasons, its first eleven seasons rated among the top ten most watched shows.
It is considered the leader of American reality TV because it was the first rated and profitable reality show on broadcast television in the U. S. and is considered one of the best shows of the 2000s. The series has been nominated for several Emmy Awards, including winning for Outstanding Sound Mixing in 2001, Outstanding Special Class Program in 2002, was subsequently nominated four times for Outstanding Reality-Competition Program when the category was introduced in 2003. Jeff Probst won the award for Outstanding Host for a Reality or Reality-Competition Program four consecutive times after the award was introduced in 2008. In 2007, the series was included in Time magazine's list of the 100 greatest TV shows of all-time. In 2013, TV Guide ranked it at #39 on its list of the "60 Best Series of All Time". On April 18, 2018, CBS renewed the series for a 38th season; the 37th season, Survivor: David vs. Goliath, premiered on September 26, 2018. Season 38, Survivor: Edge of Extinction, premiered on February 20, 2019.
The first U. S. season of Survivor followed the same general format as the Swedish series. Sixteen or more players, split between two or more "tribes", are taken to a remote isolated location and are forced to live off the land with meager supplies for 39 days. Frequent physical and mental challenges are used to pit the teams against each other for rewards, such as food or luxuries, or for "immunity", forcing the other tribe to attend "Tribal Council", where they must vote off one of their tribemates. Signaling the halfway point in the game, survivors from both tribes come together to live as one, making it to the'merge'. At this point, survivors will compete against each other to win Individual Immunity. Most players that are voted out after the merge form the game's "jury". Once the group gets down to three people, a final Tribal Council is held where the remaining players plead their case to the jury members; the jury votes for which player should be considered the "Sole Survivor" and win the show's grand prize.
In all seasons for the United States version, this has included a $1-million prize in addition to the Sole Survivor title. The U. S. version has introduced numerous modifications, or "twists", on the core rules in order to keep the players on their toes and to prevent players from relying on strategies that succeeded in prior seasons. These changes have included tribal switches, seasons starting with more than two tribes, the ability to exile a player from a tribe for a short time, hidden immunity idols that players can use to save themselves or others at Tribal Council, special voting powers which can be used to influence the result at Tribal Council, chance to return to regular gameplay after elimination through the "Redemption Island," "Edge of Extinction" or "The Outcast Tribe" twists, a final four fire-making challenge as of season 35; the United States version hosted by Jeff Probst. Each competition is called a season, has a unique name, lasts from 13 to 16 episodes; the first season, Survivor: Borneo, was broadcast as a summer replacement show in 2000.
Starting with Survivor: Africa, there have been two seasons aired during each U. S. television season. In the first season, there was a 75-person crew. By season 22, the crew had grown to 325 people. A total of 570 contestants have competed on Survivor's 38 seasons; the original idea of Survivor was developed by Charlie Parsons in 1994 under the name Castaway. Parsons formed Planet24 with Bob Geldof to produce the show and tried to have the BBC broadcast it, but the network turned it down. Parsons went to Swedish television and was able to find a broadcaster producing Expedition Robinson in 1997; the show was a success, plans for international versions were made. Mark Burnett intended to be the person to bring the show to the United States, though he recognized that the Swedish version was a bit crude and mean-spirited. Burnett retooled the concept to use better production values, based on his prior Eco-Challenge show, wanted to focus more on the human drama experienced while under pressure. Burnett spent about a year trying to find a broadcaster that would take the show, retooling the concept based on feedback.
On November 24, 1999, Burnett made his pitch to Les Moonves of CBS, Moonves agreed to pick up the show. The first season, Survivor: Borneo was filmed during March and April 2000, was first broadcast on May 31, 2000; the first season became a ratings success. The American version of Survivor has been shot
STS-135 was the 135th and final mission of the American Space Shuttle program. It used the orbiter Atlantis and hardware processed for the STS-335 contingency mission, not flown. STS-135 launched on 8 July 2011, landed on 21 July 2011, following a one-day mission extension; the four-person crew was the smallest of any shuttle mission since STS-6 in April 1983. The mission's primary cargo was the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and a Lightweight Multi-Purpose Carrier, which were delivered to the International Space Station; the flight of Raffaello marked the only time that Atlantis carried an MPLM. Although the mission was authorized, it had no appropriation in the NASA budget, raising questions about whether the mission would fly. On 20 January 2011, program managers changed STS-335 to STS-135 on the flight manifest; this allowed for training and other mission specific preparations. On 13 February 2011, program managers told their workforce that STS-135 would fly regardless of the funding situation via a continuing resolution.
Until this point, there had been no official references to the STS-135 mission in NASA documentation for the general public. During an address at the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16 November 2010, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said that the agency needed to fly STS-135 to the station in 2011 due to possible delays in the development of commercial rockets and spacecraft designed to transport cargo to the ISS. "We are hoping to fly a third shuttle mission in June 2011, what everybody calls the launch-on-need mission...and that's needed to the risk for the development time for commercial cargo," Bolden said. The mission was included in NASA's 2011 authorization, signed into law on 11 October 2010, but funding remained dependent on a subsequent appropriations bill. United Space Alliance signed a contract extension for the mission, along with STS-134; the federal budget approved in April 2011 called for $5.5 billion for NASA's space operations division, including the shuttle and space station programs.
According to NASA, the budget running through 30 September 2011 ended all concerns about funding the STS-135 mission. STS-135 marked the final crewed orbital launch and landing from U. S. soil until the announcement of the planned SpX-DM2 mission to launch in July 2019. The First U. S manned spaceflight since STS-135 was Flight VP-03 of VSS Unity on December 13 2018; this did not cross the Kármán line, but did cross the U. S. Definition of space of 50 mi thus being a U. S. Spaceflight. NASA announced the STS-335/135 crew on 14 September 2010. Only four astronauts were assigned to this mission, versus the normal six or seven, because there were no other shuttles available for a rescue following the retirement of Discovery and Endeavour. If the shuttle was damaged in orbit, the crew would have moved into the International Space Station and returned in Russian Soyuz capsules, one at a time, over the course of a year. All STS-135 crew members were custom-fitted for a Russian Sokol space suit and molded Soyuz seat liner for this possibility.
The reduced crew size allowed the mission to maximize the payload carried to the ISS. It was the only time that a Shuttle crew of four flew to the ISS; the last shuttle mission to fly with just four crew members occurred 28 years earlier: STS-6 on 4 April 1983 aboard Space Shuttle Challenger. With support from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, the fate of STS-135 depended on whether lawmakers could agree to fund converting the mission from launch-on-need to an actual flight. On 15 July 2010, a Senate committee passed the 2010 NASA reauthorization bill, authored by Senator Bill Nelson, to direct NASA to fly an extra space shuttle mission pending a review of safety concerns; the bill still needed the approval of the full Senate. A draft NASA reauthorization bill considered by the House Science & Technology Committee did not provide for an extra shuttle mission. On 22 July 2010, during a meeting of the House Science Committee, U. S. Rep. Suzanne Kosmas amended the House version of the bill to add an additional shuttle mission to the manifest.
On 5 August 2010, the Senate passed its version of the NASA reauthorization bill, just before lawmakers left for the traditional August recess. On 20 August 2010, NASA managers approved STS-135 mission planning targeting a 28 June 2011 launch. On 29 September 2010, the House of Representatives approved the Senate-passed bill on a 304–118 vote; the bill, approved by the U. S. Congress, went to President Barack Obama for his signature. On 11 October 2010, Obama signed the legislation into law, allowing NASA to move forward with STS-135, though without specific funding; the average cost of a shuttle mission was about $450 million. On 20 January 2011, STS-135's designation was changed from STS-335. On 14 February 2011, NASA managers announced that STS-135 would fly regardless of the funding situation in Congress. Mass:Total liftoff weight: 4,521,143 pounds Orbiter liftoff weight: 266,090 pounds Orbiter landing weight: 226,375 pounds Payload weight: 28,418 pounds Perigee: TBD Apogee: TBD Inclination: 51.6° Period: 91 minutes The mission marked: 166th NASA manned space flight 135th shuttle mission since STS-1 33rd flight of Atlantis 3rd shuttle flight in 2011 37th shuttle mission to the ISS 110th post-Challenger disaster shuttle mission 22nd post-Columbia disaster shuttle mission 100th day launch 133rd landing overall, 78th at KSC, 26th night landing, 20th night landing at KSC STS-135 delivered supplies and equipmen