Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, investment banking, etc. Financial capital or just capital/equity in finance and economics, is internal retained earnings generated by the entity or funds provided by lenders to businesses to purchase real capital equipment or services for producing new goods/services. Real capital or economic capital comprises physical goods that assist in the production of other goods and services, e.g. shovels for gravediggers, sewing machines for tailors, or machinery and tooling for factories. Financial capital refers to saved-up financial wealth that used to start or maintain a business. A financial concept of capital is adopted by most entities in preparing their financial reports. Under a financial concept of capital, such as invested money or invested purchasing power, capital is synonymous with the net assets or equity of the entity.
Under a physical concept of capital, such as operating capability, capital is regarded as the productive capacity of the entity based on, for example, units of output per day. Financial capital maintenance can be measured in either nominal monetary units or units of constant purchasing power. There are thus three concepts of capital maintenance in terms of International Financial Reporting Standards: Physical capital maintenance Financial capital maintenance in nominal monetary units Financial capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power. Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements, Financial capital is provided by lenders for a price: interest. See time value of money for a more detailed description of how financial capital may be analyzed. Furthermore, financial capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital, it is, however purchasing power in the form of money available for the production or purchasing of goods, etcetera.
Capital can be obtained by producing more than what is required and saving the surplus. Financial capital can be in the form of purchasable items such as computers or books that can contribute directly or indirectly to obtaining various other types of capital. Financial capital has been subcategorized by some academics as economic or "productive capital" necessary for operations, signaling capital which signals a company's financial strength to shareholders, regulatory capital which fulfills capital requirements. Long term – above 7 years Share Capital Mortgage loan Retained Profit Venture capital Debenture Project finance Medium term – between 2 and 7 years Term Loans Revenue-based financing Leasing Hire Purchase Short term – under 2 years Bank Overdraft Trade credit Deferred Expenses Factoring Long-term funds are bought and sold: Shares Debenture Long-term loans with a mortgage bond as security Reserve funds Euro Bonds Financial institutions can use short-term savings to lend out in the form of short-term loans: Commercial paper Credit on open account Bank overdraft Short-term loans Bills of exchange Factoring of debtors Shareholders are owners.
Shareholders may be elected as directors. Shareholders receive profit in the form of dividends. If there is no profit, the shareholder does not receive a dividend. In case of dissolution the firm's debenture holders are paid first, before shareholders. Fixed capital is money firms use to purchase assets that will remain permanently in the business and help it make a profit. Nature of business Size of business Stage of development Capital invested by the owners location of that area Firms use working capital to run their business. For example, money that they use to buy stock, pay expenses and finance credit. Size of business Stage of development Time of production Rate of stock turnover ratio Buying and selling terms Seasonal consumption Seasonal product profit level growth and expansion production cycle general nature of business business cycle business policies Debt ratio A contract regarding any combination of capital assets is called a financial instrument, may serve as a medium of exchange, standard of deferred payment, unit of account, or store of value.
Most indigenous forms of money and the modern fiat money are only a "symbolic" storage of value and not a real storage of value like commodity money. Capital contributed by the owner or entrepreneur of a business, obtained, for example, by means of savings or inheritance, is known as own capital or equity, whereas that, granted by another person or institution is called borrowed capital, this must be paid back with interest; the ratio between debt and equity is named leverage. It has to be optimized as a high leverage create solvency risk; this is capital which the business borrows from institutions or people, includes debentures: Redeemable debentures Irredeemable debentures Debentures to bearer Ordinary debentures bonds deposits loans This is capital that owners of a business provide: Preference shares/hybrid source of finance Ordinary preference shares Cumulative preference shares Participating preference shares Ordinary shares Bonus shares Founders' sharesThese have preference
Nerine humilis known as dwarf nerine, is a species of flowering plant in the subfamily Amaryllidoideae of the family Amaryllidaceae, native to the Cape of South Africa. Growing to 40 cm tall, it is a variable bulbous perennial with narrow leaves appearing at the same time as umbels of 1-12 slender, crenellated flowers in shades of pink, in autumn, it is a summer dormant deciduous species, meaning that the top growth disappears for a period during summer months. Plants can be found in large colonies in their native habitat, the Fynbos of the Cape Floristic Region, appearing to respond well to the frequent fires in the area; the Latin specific epithet humilis means “dwarf” or “low-growing”. The plants are more to be dwarf in habit towards the western end of their range; this plant has been given the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. It does not tolerate being frozen, so requires some protection during the winter months. In cooler temperate zones it is best grown in a pot. Overcrowding of bulbs in a pot improves flowering
Park Hyungjun is a South Korean poet and university professor. Park Hyungjun was born in 1966 in North Jeolla Province, he graduated from the Seoul Institute of the Arts in creative writing, he received a master's degree and a doctorate degree in creative writing from Myongji University’s graduate school. During his early years, he came up from the country side and lived in Incheon, a city unfamiliar to him, his experiences in the city during these years led him to write poetry. He has confessed as following. “So when I was living in Incheon, I felt as if I was stagnant though I was endlessly drifting. But I think, what drove me to write poetry.” At Seoul Institute of the Arts, he was a pupil of poets Oh Kyu Choe Ha-rim. Afterwards, he began his literary career when in 1991 his poem Gagu-ui him won the Korea Times New Writer's Award, he was awarded the first Dream and Poetry Literary Award in 1996, the 15th Dongsuh Literary Award in 2002, the 10th Contemporary Poetics Award in 2005, the 24th Sowol Poetry Award Grand Prize in 2009, the 9th Yuksa Poetry Award in 2012.
In 2014 he became a professor in creative writing at Dongguk University. Park Hyungjun has been described as a "poet, reinterpreting the tradition of Korean lyric poetry in the most modern way." In the commentary on his 24th Sowol Poetry Award Grand Prize in 2009, he is credited as being "worthy of high praise for his poetic achievement through his combination of intellect and emotion, tension between language and rhythm, balance between sense and lyricism". His first poetry collection is Naneun ije somyeol-e daehaeseo iyagiharyeonda. In this work, the poet records the times that bear traces of life's scars, he delves into the moment of disappearance where the past and the future of a world comes together. Park's poetry collection Bultan jib took a step further from replaying the memory of disappearance to holding the hands of those struggling and the hurt lives in the world, thereby expanding the spectrum of his poetry. Naneun ije somyeol-e daehaeseo iyagiharyeonda, Moonji Publishing, 1994. Bbangnaemsaereul punggineun geo-ul, Changbi, 1997 Mulsok-kkaji ipsagwiga pi-eo itda, Changbi, 2002.
Chum, Changbi, 2005. Saenggaknal ttaemada uleotda, Moonji Publishing, 2011. Bultan jib, Cheonnyeonui sijak, 2013. Jeonyeokui munui, Hyundae Munhak, 2003. Areumdaum-e heogijida, Changbi, 2007. Dangsin-ege si, Saheul, 2013. Chimmukui eum, Cheonnyeonui sijak, 2013. 1996 1st Dream and Poetry Literary Award 2002 15th Dongsuh Literary Award 2005 10th Contemporary Poetics Award 2009 24th Sowol Poetry Award Grand Prize 2012 9th Yuksa Poetry Award Yu, Seongho, “The Aesthetics of Young Poets That Fight Against the Separation of Host and Guest”, The Quarterly Changbi, Summer 2000. Kim, Sui, “The Perspective of Time and its Residue”, The Quarterly Changbi, Summer 2002. Kang, Gyesuk, “The Power of Memory: On Park Hyungjun”, The Quarterly Changbi, Spring 2004. Hong, Yonghui, “The Variation of Disappearance and Urgency, or the Wedding of Death”, Writer’s World, Winter 2005. Son, Taek-su, “Poetry At Sunset”, Literature and Practice, Summer 2005. Kim, An, “A Stemless Flower That Blossoms Between the Advanced and the Primitive”, Cheonnyeonui sijak, Spring 2011.
Poet Park Hyungjun, ‘How Does Sadness Become Strength’ Poet Park Hyungjun, Kim Huyeong’s Interviews With Poets – The View From the Window
Selkirkia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. Three species occur on the South American mainland and one, Selkirkia berteroi, the first of the genus to be reported, is an endemic on Robinson Crusoe Island off the coast of Chile, it was considered a monotypic genus. Selkirkia species are either a shrub or decumbent, ascending or erect herbs to subshrubs; the leaves are ovate to lanceolate, occurring along the stem, not in rosettes. The corolla is blue to violet; the fruits consist of four nutlets, which are beset with barbed glochids, superficially similar to the fruits of hound's tongues. The fruits of S. berteroi are somewhat winged and attached to the style but in fact, like the other three species, on a pyramidal gynobase. The four species occur in forested areas of Robinson Crusoe Island. Selkirkia berteroi is an endemic shrub on Robinson Crusoe Island, due to the narrow distribution to be considered critically endangered according to IUCN criteria. Selkirkia trianae is a species in the undergrowth of dense, primary cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador.
Although there are not many data, land conversion into pastures might pose a threat to the species. The remaining two species, Selkirkia limense and Selkirkia pauciflora occur in the forests of the Mediterranean climates of Chile, they are endangered due to deforestation and land conversion for agriculture. Boraginaceae systematics relied on fruit morphology, so all four species were thought to belong to Cynoglossum, where the four nutlets are beset with barbed glochidia. However, fruit morphology turned out to be unreliable for classification; when Selkirkia pauciflora was found to be related to Myosotidium hortensia and Omphalodes, Serrano et al. placed the species into a new genus, Mapuchea. However, after inclusion of the two other native South American "Cynoglossum" species and Selkirkia berteroi, it turned out that these four species are related to each other and sister to Myosotidium hortensia. Due to the similar growth habit and the glochidiate nutlets, the four species are now considered as more circumscribed genus Selkirkia
The Preiss Company is a held student housing owner-operator based in Raleigh, North Carolina. The company engages in the acquisition and management of off-campus student housing, it is one of the largest providers of off-campus student housing in USA. and the largest provider of off-campus student housing in North Carolina. The Preiss Company was founded in 1987 by Donna Preiss, she is a member of the NAA National Student Housing Committee and the NMHC National Student Housing Committee. Preiss serves on the Executive Committee of the NMHC, the Board of Advisors for the UNC Wood Center for Real Estate Services and the Board of Trustees for Ravenscroft School, is active in a wide array of charities, she is a 2018 recipient of one of Triangle Business Journal's CEO of the Year Awards. The Preiss Company is among the top 10 largest held student housing providers in United States, it is owning and operating properties in 13 states. Their portfolio comprises nearly 33,000 beds in 43 markets/universities.
Services of the company include property management. It offers construction management, marketing, IT, due diligence and financing services; the company has affiliation with National Multi-Family Housing Council, Commercial Real Estate Women, Institute of Real Estate Management, Certified Commercial Investment Member, National Apartment Association, Urban Land Institute. In addition to its core services, Preiss boasts a diverse array of resident life programming initiatives designed to prepare college students for post-collegiate life; the programming focuses on career development, community outreach, social interaction, life skills and health & wellness among others. Preiss prides itself in not only providing an off-campus housing environment conducive to the learning experience, but in fostering and enabling their residents to transition into successful and productive college graduates. Student Housing Business Magazine's Best Creative Financing Award Commercial Real Estate Women Network Impact Award Triangle Business Journal's Top Women-Owned Businesses Student Housing Business Magazine's Innovator Award Apartment Finance Today's "13 Most Creative Deals" Metro Bravo Award for Real Estate Top sales honors from the Triangle Sales and Marketing Council Pinnacle Master Award for Steady Growth and Profitability Triangle Business Journal's Top Apartment Property Management Companies Business Leader Magazine's Impact Award
Alan E. Steinweis is an American historian and a professor at the University of Vermont. Steinweis earned his doctorate in 1988 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill under Gerhard L. Weinberg; as a PhD student Steinweis was a fellow at the University of Bonn and a postdoctoral fellow at the Free University of Berlin. He was a guest professor in 2000 at the Ben Gurion University in Israel, in 2002 at the University of Hannover and in 2003 at the University of Heidelberg. In 1993 he joined the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, as the Hyman Rosenberg Professor of Modern European History and Judaic Studies in the Department of History. In 2011, he was invited for a sabbatical at the Fritz Bauer Institute in Frankfurt. In 2012, Steinweis was appointed Leonard and Carolyn Miller Distinguished Professor of Holocaust Studies at the University of Vermont, where he serves as Director of Carolyn and Leonard Miller Center for Holocaust Studies. Kristallnacht 1938, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-674-03623-9 Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 2006 ISBN 978-0-674-02205-8 Art and Economics in Nazi Germany: The Reich Chambers of Music and the Visual Arts, University of North Carolina Press, 1993 ISBN 978-0-8078-4607-0 Edited with Daniel E. Rogers: The Impact of Nazism: New Perspectives on the Third Reich and Its Legacy, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8032-4299-9 Edited with Philipp Gassert: Coping with the Nazi Past, 2006 ISBN 978-1-84545-086-1His book Studying the Jew was a Finalist for the National Jewish Book Award in the Holocaust category.
He is editor of the American edition of the Comprehensive History of the Holocaust, a monograph series published by the University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with Yad Vashem, the Holocaust research and commemoration authority of the state of Israel. He is writing a book on the November 1938 Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, which will be published by Harvard University Press. UVM bio