Order of the Star of India
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India in 1947. With the death in 2009 of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became dormant; the motto of the order was Heaven's light our guide. The "Star of India", the emblem of the order appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India and other flags used to represent British India; the order is the fifth most senior British order of chivalry, following the Order of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Order of St Patrick and Order of the Bath. It is the senior order of chivalry associated with the British Raj. Several years after the Indian Mutiny and the consolidation of Great Britain's power as the governing authority in India, it was decided by the British Crown to create a new order of knighthood to honour Indian Princes and Chiefs, as well as British officers and administrators who served in India.
On 25 June 1861, the following proclamation was issued by the Queen: The Queen, being desirous of affording to the Princes and People of the Indian Empire, a public and signal testimony of Her regard, by the Institution of an Order of knighthood, whereby Her resolution to take upon Herself the Government of the Territories in India may be commemorated, by which Her Majesty may be enabled to reward conspicuous merit and loyalty, has been graciously pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to institute, erect and create, an Order of Knighthood, to be known by, have for hereafter, the name and designation, of "The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India" The first appointees were: HRH The Prince Consort HRH The Prince of Wales The Rt Hon Earl Canning, GCB, Governor-General of India and Grand Master of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India HH Maharaja Shri Sir Vaghji Thakor Morvi State for representing Kathiyawar on the day of Victoria's Jubilee Ceremony given by Queen Victoria for this honor HH Sir Vaghaji Thakor make them Sister.
HH Nawab Mir Tahniat Ali Khan Bahadur, Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V, the Nizam of Hyderabad HH Jayajirao Scindia, Maharaja of Gwalior HH Raja Bahadur Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deo, Raja of Udaipur state in Chota Nagpur States. HH Maharaja Duleep Singh, former Maharaja of the Sikh Empire HH Ranbir Singh, Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir HH Tukojirao Holkar, Maharaja of Indore HH Narendra Singh, Maharaja of Patiala HH Khanderrao Gaekwad, Maharaja of Baroda HRH Maharaja Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana of Nepal HH Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Begum of Bhopal HH Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Rampur The Rt Hon Viscount Gough, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army The Rt Hon Lord Harris, Governor of Madras The Rt Hon Lord Clyde, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army Sir George Russell Clerk, Governor of Bombay Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, Bt, GCB, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab Sir James Outram, Bt, GCB, Member of the Viceroy's Council Sir Hugh Henry Rose, GCB, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army HEH Nizam Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Asaf Jah VII, 7th Nizam of HyderabadThe Order of the Indian Empire, founded in 1877, was intended to be a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India.
The last appointments to the orders relating to the British Empire in India were made in the 1948 New Year Honours, some months after the Partition of India in August 1947. The orders have never been formally abolished, Elizabeth II succeeded her father George VI as Sovereign of the Orders when she ascended the throne in 1952, she remains Sovereign of the Order to this day. However, there are no living members of the order. There were only three female members of the Order: Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal and her daughter, Hajjah Nawab Begum Dame Sultan Jahan, Mary of Teck; the last Grand Master of the Order, Admiral of the Fleet The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, was assassinated by the Provisional IRA on 27 August 1979. The last surviving Knight Grand Commander, HH Maharaja Sree Padmanabhadasa Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma GCSI, GCIE, Maharajah of Travancore; the last surviving Knight Commander, HH Maharaja Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur KCSI, Maharaja of Alwar, died on 15 February 2009 in New Delhi.
The last surviving Companion of the Order, Vice-Admiral Sir Ronald Brockman CSI, died on 3 September 1999 in London. The British Sovereign was, still is, Sovereign of the Order; the next most senior member was the Grand Master, a position held ex officio by the Viceroy of India. When the order was established in 1861, there was only one class of Knights Companion, who bore the postnominals KSI. In 1866, however, it was expanded to three classes. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commander" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. All those surviving members, made Knights Companion of the Order were retroactively known as Knights Grand Commander. Former viceroys and other high officials, as well as those who served in the Department of the Secretary of State for India for at least thirty years were eligible for appointment. Rulers of Indian Princely States were eligible for appointment; some states were of such importance that their rulers were always appointed
Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, manifested in its insignia. Exceptionally, the highest class may be referred to as equivalent. In other cases, the rank of Grand Cross may come after another higher rank, e.g. Grand Collar. In rare cases the actual insignia is referred to as the "grand cross". In international relations, in many times the class of Grand Cross is reserved for royalty, heads of state and equivalent. Sometimes a holder of the highest class or grade are referred to as "Commander Grand Cross", "Knight Grand Cross" or just "Grand Cross". In the United Kingdom, the rank entails admission to knighthood, allowing the recipient to use the honorific "Sir" or "Dame" as a style before his or her name, while entitled "Knight Grand Cross" or "Dame Grand Cross"; this stands in contrast to the typical practice in other countries where knighthood is conferred at the initial, lowest rank of the order "Knight". The orders in which the highest rank is named "Grand Cordons" include the following orders: Belgium: Grand Cordons of the Order of Leopold Cameroon: Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit Cameroon: Grand Cordon of the Order of Valour Denmark: Grand Cross with Diamonds of the Order of the Dannebrog Egypt: Grand Cordons of the Order of the Nile France: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour Germany: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Guinea: Grand Cross of the Kola-tree National Order Guinea: Grand Cross of the National Order of Fidelity and People Guinea: Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit Guinea: Grand Cross of the National Order of the Campaign of Independence Italy: Knight Grand Cross decorated with Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Japan: Grand Cordons of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Japan: Grand Cordons of the Order of the Precious Crown Japan: Grand Cordons of the Order of the Rising Sun Jordan: Grand Cordons of the Order of the Star of Jordan Lebanon: Grand Cordons of the Order of Merit Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross Military William Order Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross Order of Orange-Nassau Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross Order of the Netherlands Lion Niger: Grand Cross of the National Order Niger: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Persia: Grand Cordons of the Order of the Lion and the Sun Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword Senegal: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Senegal: Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion Spain: Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III Togo: Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit Togo: Grand Cross of the Order of Mono Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of the 7th November 1987 Tunisia: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic Illustration of typical insignia, as in the case of the Legion of Honour of France.
Order of chivalry Order Phaleristics
Order of the Indian Empire
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since 1947, the year that India and Pakistan became independent from the British Raj. With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the order became dormant in 2010; the motto of the Order is Imperatricis auspiciis, a reference to Queen Victoria, the first Empress of India. The Order is the junior British order of chivalry associated with the British Indian Empire; the British founded the Order in 1878 to reward native officials who served in India. The Order had only one class, but expanded to comprise two classes in 1887; the British authorities intended the Order of the Indian Empire as a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India. On 15 February 1887, the Order of the Indian Empire formally became "The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire" and was divided into two classes: Knights Commander and Companions, with the following first Knights Commander: General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Edward Drummond Sir Alfred Comyns Lyall Bhagvat Singh Robert Anstruther Dalyell Maxwell Melvill Alexander Cunningham Rana Shankar Baksh Singh Dietrich Brandis Sir Monier Williams Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, Maharaja of Vizianagram Donald Campbell Macnabb Nawab Munir ud-Daula Salar Jang, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood Ranjit Singh, Raja of Ratlam Surgeon-General Benjamin Simpson Albert James Leppoc Cappel Sayyid Hassan Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Murshidabad Lachmessur Singh, Maharaja of Darbhanga Sir Nawab Imam Buksh Khan Mazari Sir Nawab Bahram Khan Mazari Sir Parashuram Bhausaheb Patwardhan Rai Sahib Madan Mukund Shuja ul-Mulk, the Mehtar of Chitral Bapu Sahib Avar Donald Mackenzie Wallace Alfred Woodley Croft Bradford Leslie James Houssemayne Du Boulay Baba Sir Khem Singh Bedi, Spiritual Head of the SikhsHowever, on 21 June 1887, a further proclamation regarding the Order was made.
Seven Knights Grand Commander were created, namely: HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duke of Edinburgh HRH The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn HRH The Duke of Cambridge Lord Reay, Governor of Bombay Lord Connemara, Governor of Madras General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Appointments to both Orders ceased after 14 August 1947. The Orders have never been formally abolished, as of 2012 Queen Elizabeth II remains the Sovereign of the Orders. There are no living members of the order; the last Grand Master of the Order was Rear Admiral The 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy of India. Lord Mountbatten was killed in an IRA bombing in County Sligo on 27 August 1979; the last surviving GCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore, died on 19 July 1991 in Trivandrum; the last surviving KCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, died at Dhrangadhra on 1 August 2010; the last surviving CIE, Sir Ian Dixon Scott, died on 3 March 2002.
The fictional characters Purun Dass and Harry Paget Flashman each held a KCIE. The British Sovereign serves as the Sovereign of the Order; the Grand Master held the next-most senior rank. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commanders" rather than "Knights Grand Cross" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. At the time of foundation in 1878 the order had only one class, that of Companion, with no quota imposed. In 1886, the Order was divided into the two classes of Knights Companions; the following year the class of Knight Grand Commander was added. The statute provided that it was "competent for Her Majesty, Her heirs and successors, at Her or their pleasure, to appoint any Princes of the Blood Royal, being descendants of His late Majesty King George the First, as Extra Knights Grand Commanders". By Letters Patent of 2 Aug 1886, the number of Knights Commander was increased to 82, while Commanders were limited to 20 nominations per year. Membership was expanded by Letters Patent of 10 June 1897, which permitted up to 32 Knights Grand Commander.
A special statute of 21 October 1902 permitted up to 92 Knights Commander, but continued to limit the number of nominations of Commanders to 20 in any successive year. On 21 December 1911, in connection with the Delhi Durbar, the limits were increased to 40 Knights Grand Commander, 120 Knights Commander, 40 nominations of companions in any successive year. British officials and soldiers were eligible for appointment, as were rulers of Indian Princely States; the rulers of the more important states were appointed Knights Grand Commanders of the Order of the Star of India, rather than of the Order of the Indian Empire. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the Order. Female princely rulers were admitted as "Knights" rather than as "Dames" or "Ladies". Other Asian and Middle Eas
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Operation Bolero was the used reference for the code name of the United States military troop buildup in the United Kingdom during World War II in preparation for the initial cross-channel invasion plan known as Operation Roundup, to be implemented in mid-1943, or for its lesser contingency alternative, Operation Sledgehammer, to be executed in the fall of 1942 in the event of German setbacks or to ease Axis pressure on the Eastern Front. What became the Bolero plan – the buildup of a strategic air force in Great Britain in preparation for Roundup – was first submitted by Commanding General of the U. S. Army Air Forces, Henry H. Arnold, to General George Marshall, the U. S. Army Chief of Staff, on April 12, 1942, set in motion a huge movement of men and material that laid the groundwork for Operation Overlord. To complement the Roundup invasion plan, planning for the movement and basing of U. S. forces in the United Kingdom was begun at the end of April 1942 and given the code name of Bolero.
A combined committee of key British and American logistical officers worked in both Washington, D. C. and London planning the build-up, to co-ordinate the effort on the highest level. In May 1942, with a tentative target date for Roundup of April 1943, the Operations Division of the War Department and USAAF Headquarters drafted plans to transport and house a million American troops: 525,000 ground troops, 240,000 air force troops, 235,000 from Services of Supply. Arnold's plan to Marshall called for the basing by April 1, 1943, of 21 heavy bomb groups, 8 medium bomb groups, 9 light bomb groups, 17 fighter groups, 6 observation groups, 8 transport groups—a total of 69 combat groups plus their service units. General Arnold met with RAF Air Chief Marshal Charles Portal at the end of May 1942 and presented the U. S. schedule for the arrival of U. S. Army Air Forces into the theater by March 1943; the proposed build-up anticipated 15 groups in July, 35 by November and 66 by March, excluding observation squadrons.
Arnold anticipated that by the April 1 deadline, the combat units of the Eighth Air Force would have 800 heavy bombers, 600 medium bombers, 342 light bombers, 960 fighters.. The movement of the assigned air combat groups began in May 1942 with the shipment by fast troopships of their ground echelons; the movement of their aircraft began in June after the decision was made that the most efficient and rapid buildup could be made by having the groups themselves ferry their planes overseas. Fighters, having only a single crewman and not equipped with proper navigational and communications equipment for trans-oceanic flights, were to be divided into flights of four and escorted by single bombers navigating the route for them. Three groups were assigned for the first phase of movement: the 97th Bomb Group, 1st Fighter Group, 60th Troop Carrier Group; these groups were gathered on the east coast in what was termed the "concentration area" to stage for the overseas flights via the northern ferry route.
All of these groups tasked for the Eighth Air Force, saw limited duty in England and were transferred to the Twelfth Air Force. An anticipated loss rate of 10% for the first movement did not materialize and instead was 5.2%. The largest loss occurred July 15, 1942, when six P-38s of the 94th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Group, two B-17s of the 97th Bomb Group, on the Greenland-to-Iceland leg, were forced by weather to attempt to return to Greenland. Running low on fuel, all eight force-landed on the Greenland ice cap; the aircraft, although recoverable, were abandoned after all of their crews had been safely recovered. One of the P-38s, subsequently named Glacier Girl, was recovered from under ice in 1992, has been restored to flying condition. By the end of August 1942, the Bolero movement had transferred 386 airplanes: 164 P-38's of the 1st and 14th Fighter Groups. 920 airplanes had been sent from the United States to England by the end of 1942, 882 had arrived safely all of them delivered by their combat crews and not specialized ferry command personnel.
By July 1, demands from other theaters had caused a downward revision of the Bolero build-up to a total of 54 groups and 194,332 men. That month USAAF Headquarters estimated that by December 31, 1943, the Bolero build-up could have in place 137 groups, including 74 bomb groups of all types and 31 fighter groups, it estimated that 375,000 airmen would comprise the force, 197,000 in combat units and 178,000 in the service organizations. The estimate proved to be remarkably close the size of the heavy bomber force, to the actual strength of the combined Eighth and Ninth Air Forces at the time of Operation Overlord. In London the Bolero Committee drew up plans for the accommodation of 1,147,000 troops, including 137,000 replacements, in the United Kingdom by the end of March 1943, but by the end of July, plans for Sledgehammer had been abandoned and Roundup postponed until 1944 in favor of Operation Torch, an invasion of North Africa to establish a base of operations for the invasion of Southern Europe.
The Bolero committee thus found its work limited to providing assistance in the
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi