A pancake is a flat cake thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan frying with oil or butter. Archaeological evidence suggests that pancakes were the earliest and most widespread cereal food eaten in prehistoric societies; the pancake's shape and structure varies worldwide. In Britain, pancakes are unleavened and resemble a crêpe. In North America, a leavening agent is used creating a thick fluffy pancake. A crêpe is a thin Breton pancake of French origin cooked on one or both sides in a special pan or crepe maker to achieve a lacelike network of fine bubbles. A well-known variation originating from southeast Europe is a palačinke, a thin moist pancake fried on both sides and filled with jam, cheese cream, chocolate, or ground walnuts, but many other fillings—sweet or savoury—can be used; when potato is used as a major portion of the batter, the result is a potato pancake. Commercially prepared pancake mixes are available in some countries.
When buttermilk is used in place of or in addition to milk, the pancake develops a tart flavor and becomes known as a buttermilk pancake, common in Scotland and the US. Buckwheat flour can be used in a pancake batter, making for a type of buckwheat pancake, a category that includes Blini, Kaletez and Memil-buchimgae. Pancakes may be served at any time of the day with a variety of toppings or fillings but in America they are considered a breakfast food. Pancakes serve a similar function to waffles. In Britain and the Commonwealth, they are associated with Shrove Tuesday known as "Pancake Day", when perishable ingredients had to be used up before the fasting period of Lent; the Ancient Greeks made pancakes called τηγανίτης, ταγηνίτης or ταγηνίας, all words deriving from τάγηνον, "frying pan". The earliest attested references to tagenias are in the works of the 5th-century BC poets Cratinus and Magnes. Tagenites were made with wheat flour, olive oil and curdled milk, were served for breakfast. Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης, from σταίτινος, "of flour or dough of spelt", derived from σταῖς, "flour of spelt".
Athenaeus mentions, in his Deipnosophistae, staititas topped with honey and cheese. The Middle English word pancake appears in English in the 15th century; the Ancient Romans called their fried concoctions alia dulcia, Latin for "other sweets". These were much different from. Pancakes in the Horn of Africa are known as injera. Injera is a yeast-risen flatbread with a unique spongy texture. Traditionally, it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Canjeero known as lahooh or lahoh, is a similar kind of flatbread eaten in Somalia and Yemen. In Eritrea and Ethiopia, injera are served with one or more stews known as wat or with salads or with other injera; the right hand is used to tear small pieces from the injera to use to pick up and eat the stews or salads. The injera under these stews soaks up juices and flavours and, after the stews and salads are finished, is consumed. Injera thus acts as food, eating utensil and plate; when the "tablecloth" formed by the injera is finished, the meal is over.
Lahoh is a pancake-like bread originating in Somalia and Yemen. It is eaten along with honey and tea. During lunch, lahoh is sometimes consumed with soup or stew. In Kenya, pancakes are eaten for breakfast as an alternative to bread, they are served plain with the sugar added to the batter to sweeten them. Kenyan pancakes are similar to French crepes. A "pancake" in South Africa is a crêpe. In Afrikaans, it is known as a pannekoek and, traditionally, is prepared on gas stoves and eaten on wet and cold days. Pannekoeke are served with cinnamon-flavoured sugar, either allowed to dissolve into and soften them or, if their crispy texture is to be retained, eaten immediately, they are a staple at Dutch Reformed Church fêtes. Plaatkoekies are American-style "silver dollar" pancakes. A variation of the pannekoek is the South African crumpet, made from self-raising flour, milk and a pinch of salt; the smooth batter is fried in butter to produce a raised flat cake. Crumpets are always served hot for breakfast, with butter and golden syrup.
In Uganda, pancakes are locally made with bananas and served as a breakfast or as a snack option. Banana pancakes are a menu item in Western-oriented backpackers' cafes in Asian countries such as Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam and China; this has elicited the term Banana Pancake Trail. Chinese pancakes may be either savoury or sweet, are made with dough rather than batter; the dough consists of water and vegetable oil. The dish can be served as a side alongside duck, or as a snack, topped with scallions along with hot and sour sauce. India has many styles of pancake. Variations range from their taste to the main ingredient used. All are made without the use of added raising agents. Pancakes prepared using a north Indian cooking style are known as cheela. Sweet cheela are made using jaggery with a wheat flour-based batter. North Indian salty pancakes are made using batter p
AllSaints is a British fashion retailer headquartered in London, UK. AllSaints sells menswear, womenswear apparel and accessories in 232 stores, has 3,200 employees across 27 countries including the UK, France, USA, Russia, South Korea and Taiwan. 85% of the company is owned by Lion Capital LLP. AllSaints was founded in 1994 by Stuart Trevor, Kait Bolongaro, the original womenswear designer at AllSaints, who have since gone on to found the Bolongaro Trevor label. AllSaints started as a wholesale menswear brand that sold to high-end retailers such as Harvey Nichols and Harrods; the company was named after Stuart Trevor's pseudonym, "The Saint", based on his initials "ST" and updated at the 1993 Notting Hill Carnival that he attended, spending much of his time on All Saints Road. The first stand-alone AllSaints store was opened in Foubert Place off Carnaby Street in London on AllSaints Day in 1997; the company's first womenswear collection followed the next year, born directly out of the expanding menswear collection.
By mid-2004, AllSaints had expanded to 10 stores in the UK and was poised to launch its childrenswear line. Between mid-2004 and the end of 2005, controversial fashion financier Kevin Stanford, co-founder of womenswear chain Karen Millen, bought out each of AllSaints partners besides Stuart Trevor, thus acquiring a majority stake in the company. In December 2005, Stanford bought out Trevor's stake in the company as well. In 2006, AllSaints sold a 35% stake in the company to Icelandic investment firm, Baugur Group, with Kevin Stanford as the majority shareholder. In late 2006, the company launched its e-commerce website. AllSaints expanded globally in 2009–10; that same year the company launched its U. S.-specific e-commerce site and opened its first U. S. store in New York City. Starting in 2009, AllSaints opened stores all across the United States. C. Santa Monica and Chicago. By 2010, the cost of North American expansion was £43 million. Half of revenues now come from overseas and the company has 3,200 employees, with an average age of 27.
In 2016 AllSaints launched its first stores in Italy, Chile and Qatar. Taiwan and Dubai. In April 2011, due to mismanagement by Kevin Stanford, rapid expansion, the collapse of Icelandic investment firm Baugur Group, All Saints was £53 million in debt and on the brink of collapse. In May 2011, citing AllSaints' international potential and online presence, Lion Capital LLP, the British private equity firm headed by Lyndon Lea, combined with Goode Partners to purchase a 76% stake in AllSaints Spitalfields for £105 million. Lion Capital saved AllSaints from collapse, which would have resulted in the loss of 3,000 jobs; the firm began to take an active role in day-to-day management, hired 8 new top executives to manage the company. In 2012, Wil Beedle men’s design director, was appointed Chief Creative Officer overseeing the design and creative vision for all product categories. In March 2012, Goode Partners sold its 11% stake to Lion Capital as well as another 11% stake it held with other co-investors, leaving Lion Capital with an 85% stake in AllSaints.
In 2012, Lion Capital brought in William Kim, an industry veteran whose career included several years at Gucci Group and most Burberry, to be Chief Executive Officer. Under CEO William Kim’s leadership, the company has turned around its fortunes, with latest results announcing a revenue increase of 6% over the previous year to £231.1 million, with an increase of 41% in EBITDA to £24.4 million, the largest EBITDA in the company’s history. As of 2015, AllSaints sells Menswear, Womenswear and accessories through its department store locations, stand-alone retail stores and its website; the brand launched its first comprehensive handbag line, "The Capital Collection" in September 2015. AllSaints has had a connection to popular culture since its founding in 1994 when it was named after a famous London street. Young American and British celebrities are seen and photographed wearing AllSaints clothes to events and entering or leaving AllSaints stores; the company's strongest connection to date has been to the music industry, where they have collaborated with many established musical acts, including: Kings of Leon, Blonde Redhead, the Dum Dum Girls.
AllSaints hosts a series of live music performances in Los Angeles titled "The LA Sessions".including global artists such as OneRepublic and Mikky Ekko. In 2010, the English rapper Tinie Tempah released a single titled "Frisky" that entered the UK Singles Chart at #2 and mentioned the brand in one of the lyrics: "I think I found a winner, with no ring around her finger, her dress from AllSaints, but I think I’ve found a sinner". In 2013, Justin Timberlake released a single titled "Suit & Tie" featuring Jay-Z in which Jay-Z mentioned the brand in the lyrics: "Tom Ford tuxedos for no reason. AllSaints for my angel. Alexander Wang too". In 2011, AllSaints launched a project called "Basement Sessions" that features weekly performances and interviews from both emerging and established musical acts. Acts who have appeared on Basement Sessions include: Calvin Harris, Fatboy Slim, Aloe Blacc, DJ Harvey, Gary Numan, The Naked and Famous, Foster the People, Alpines. In addition to music, AllSaints is active in social causes and public service.
In Summer 2011, the company entered into a long-term partnership with the Not For Sale organization and launched a T-shirt line whose profits go toward combating human trafficking. That year, AllSaints released a short documentary titled Voices of the Cloth int
Scania known as Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities. Scania's largest city is Malmö, the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia. To the north, Scania borders the provinces of Halland and Småland, to the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea, to the west Öresund. Since 2000, a road and railway bridge, the Øresund Bridge, bridges the sound to Denmark. Scania is part of the transnational Øresund Region. From north to south Scania covers less than 3 % of Sweden's total area; the population of over 1,320,000 represents 13% of the country's population. With 121 inh/km2 Scania is the second most densely populated province of Sweden. Scania was part of the kingdom of Denmark, up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. Denmark regained control of the province during the Scanian War 1676-1679 and again in 1711. Scania was formally included in Sweden in 1720; the endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages is Skåne.
The Latinized form Scania occurs in British English as an exonym. However, sometimes the endonym Skåne is used in English text, such as in tourist information sometimes as Skane with the diacritic omitted, wrong both in Swedish and English. Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie and German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania, etc. For the province's modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the endonym Skåne is used in English. In the Alfredian translation of Orosius's and Wulfstan's travel accounts, the Old English form Sconeg appears. Frankish sources mention; the names Scania and Scandinavia are considered to have the same etymology and the southernmost tip of what is today Sweden was called Scania by the Romans and thought to be an island. The actual etymology of the word remains dubious and has long been a matter of debate among scholars; the name is derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã, which appears in Old Norse as Skáney.
According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage". Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Between 1719 and 1996, the province was subdivided in two administrative counties, Kristianstad County and Malmöhus County, each under a governor appointed by the central government of Sweden; when the first local government acts took effect in 1863, each county got an elected county council. The counties were further divided into municipalities; the local government reform of 1952 reduced the number of municipalities, a second subdivision reform, carried out between 1968 and 1974, established today's 33 municipalities in Scania. The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city commissions, are further divided into parishes; the parishes are entities of the Church of Sweden, but they serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population registration and other statistical uses.
In 1999, the county council areas were amalgamated, forming Skåne Regional Council, responsible for public healthcare, public transport and regional planning and culture. During the Danish era, the province had no coat of arms. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province, as each province was to be represented by its arms at his royal funeral. After an initiative from Baron Gustaf Bonde, the Lord High Treasurer of Sweden, the coat of arms of the City of Malmö was used as a base for the new provincial arms; the Malmö coat of arms had been granted in 1437, during the Kalmar Union, by Eric of Pomerania and contains a Pomeranian griffin's head. To distinguish it from the city's coat of arms the tinctures were changed and the official blazon for the provincial arms is, in English: Or, a griffin's head erased gules, crowned azure and armed azure, when it should be armed.
The province was divided in two administrative counties 1719–1996. Coats of arms were created for these entities using the griffin motif; the new Skåne County, operative from 1 January 1997, got a coat of arms, the same as the province's, but with reversed tinctures. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board, the regional presence of central government authority. In 1999 the two county councils were amalgamated forming Region Skåne, it is the only one of its kind using a heraldic coat of arms. It is the same as the province's and the county's, but with a golden griffin's head on a blue shield; the 33 municipalities within the county have coats of arms. The Scania Griffin has become a well-known symbol for the province and is used by commercial enterprises, it is, for instance, included in the logotypes of the automotive manufacturer Scania AB and the airline Malmö Aviation. Coat of arms: Scania was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century.
It came under Danish king Harald Bluetooth in the middle of the 10th century. It was a region that included Blekinge and Halland, situated on the
Escherichia coli known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia, found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, are responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline afterwards. E. Coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut microbiota, fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination.
A growing body of research, has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods outside a host. The bacterium can be grown and cultured and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is a chemoheterotroph whose chemically defined medium must include a source of carbon and energy. E. coli is the most studied prokaryotic model organism, an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. Under favorable conditions, it takes up to 20 minutes to reproduce. E. coli is a facultative anaerobic and nonsporulating bacterium. Cells are rod-shaped, are about 2.0 μm long and 0.25–1.0 μm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm3. E. Coli stains Gram-negative because its cell wall is composed of a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane. During the staining process, E. coli picks up the color of the counterstain safranin and stains pink.
The outer membrane surrounding the cell wall provides a barrier to certain antibiotics such that E. coli is not damaged by penicillin. Strains that possess flagella are motile; the flagella have a peritrichous arrangement. It attaches and effaces to the microvilli of the intestines via an adhesion molecule known as intimin. E. coli can live on a wide variety of substrates and uses mixed-acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria. Optimum growth of E. coli occurs at 37 °C, but some laboratory strains can multiply at temperatures up to 49 °C. E. coli grows in a variety of defined laboratory media, such as lysogeny broth, or any medium that contains glucose, ammonium phosphate monobasic, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium phosphate dibasic, water.
Growth can be driven by aerobic or anaerobic respiration, using a large variety of redox pairs, including the oxidation of pyruvic acid, formic acid and amino acids, the reduction of substrates such as oxygen, fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide. E. coli is classified as a facultative anaerobe. It uses oxygen when it is available, it can, continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation or anaerobic respiration. The ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates; the bacterial cell cycle is divided into three stages. The B period occurs between the beginning of DNA replication; the C period encompasses the time it takes to replicate the chromosomal DNA. The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA replication and the end of cell division; the doubling rate of E. coli is higher. However, the length of the C and D periods do not change when the doubling time becomes less than the sum of the C and D periods.
At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the previous round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA and overlapping cell cycles. E. coli and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation or transduction, which allows genetic material to spread horizontally through an existing population. The process of transduction, which uses the bacterial virus called a bacteriophage, is where the spread of the gene encoding for the Shiga toxin from the Shigella bacteria to E. coli helped produce E. coli O157:H7, the Shiga toxin-producing strain of E. coli. E. coli encompasses an enormous population of bacteria that exhibit a high degree of both genetic and phenotypic diversity. Genome sequencing of a large number of isolates of E. coli and related bacteria shows that a taxonomic reclassification would be desirable. However, this has not been done due to its medical importance, E. coli remains one of the most diverse bacterial species: only 20% of the genes in a typical E. coli genome is shared among all strains.
In fact, from the evolutionary point of view, the members of genus Shigella (S. dysenteriae, S. fle
Freezing food preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten. Since early times, farmers and trappers have preserved grains and produce in unheated buildings during the winter season. Freezing food slows down decomposition by turning residual moisture into ice, inhibiting the growth of most bacterial species. In the food commodity industry, there are two processes: cryogenic; the freezing kinetics is important to preserve texture. Quicker freezing maintains cellular structure. Cryogenic freezing is the quickest freezing technology available due to the ultra low liquid nitrogen temperature −196 °C. Preserving food in domestic kitchens during modern times is achieved using household freezers. Accepted advice to householders was to freeze food on the day of purchase. An initiative by a supermarket group in 2012 promotes the freezing of food "as soon as possible up to the product's'use by' date"; the Food Standards Agency was reported as supporting the change, providing the food had been stored up to that time.
Frozen products do not require any added preservatives because microorganisms do not grow when the temperature of the food is below −9.5 °C, sufficient on its own in preventing food spoilage. Long-term preservation of food may call for food storage at lower temperatures. Carboxymethylcellulose, a tasteless and odorless stabilizer, is added to frozen food because it does not adulterate the quality of the product. Natural food freezing had been in use by tribes in cold climates for centuries. In 1861 Thomas Sutcliffe Mort established at Darling Harbour in Sydney, the first freezing works in the world, which afterwards became the New South Wales Fresh Food and Ice Company. Mort financed experiments by Eugene Dominic Nicolle, a French born engineer who had arrived in Sydney in 1853 and registered his first ice-making patent in 1861; the first trial shipment of frozen meat to London was in 1868. Although their machinery was never used in the frozen meat trade and Nicolle developed commercially viable systems for domestic trade, although the financial return on that investment was not a great success for Mort.
By 1885 a small number of chicken and geese were being shipped from Russia to London in insulated cases using this technique. By March 1899, the "British Refrigeration and Allied Interests" reported that a food importing business, "Baerselman Bros", was shipping some 200,000 frozen geese and chickens per week from three Russian depots to New Star Wharf, Lower Shadwell, London over three or four winter months; this trade in frozen food was enabled by the introduction of Linde cold air freezing plants in three Russian depots and the London warehouse. The Shadwell warehouse stored the frozen goods until they were shipped to markets in London, Birmingham and Manchester; the techniques were expanded into the meat packing industry. From 1929, Clarence Birdseye introduced "flash freezing" to the American public. Birdseye first became interested in food freezing during fur-trapping expeditions to Labrador in 1912 and 1916, where he saw the natives use natural freezing to preserve foods; the Icelandic Fisheries Commission was created in 1934 to initiate innovation in the industry, encouraged fishermen to start quick-freezing their catch.
Íshúsfélag Ísfirðinga, one of the first frozen fish companies, was formed in Ísafjörður, Iceland by a merger in 1937. More advanced attempts include food frozen for Eleanor Roosevelt on her trip to Russia. Other experiments, involving orange juice, ice cream and vegetables were conducted by the military near the end of World War II; the freezing technique itself, just like the frozen food market, is developing to become faster, more efficient and more cost-effective. Mechanical freezers were the first to be used in the food industry and are used in the vast majority of freezing / refrigerating lines, they function by circulating a refrigerant ammonia, around the system, which withdraws heat from the food product. This heat is transferred to a condenser and dissipated into air or water; the refrigerant itself, now a high pressure, hot liquid, is directed into an evaporator. As it passes through an expansion valve, it is cooled and vaporises into a gaseous state. Now a low pressure, low temperature gas again, it can be reintroduced into the system.
Cryogenic or of food is a more recent development, but is used by many leading food manufacturers all over the world. Cryogenic equipment uses low temperature gases – liquid nitrogen or solid carbon dioxide – which are applied directly to the food product. Frozen food packaging must maintain its integrity throughout filling, freezing, transportation and cooking; as many frozen foods are cooked in a microwave oven, manufacturers have developed packaging that can go straight from freezer to the microwave. In 1974, the first differential heating container was sold to the public. A DHC is a sleeve of metal designed to allow frozen foods to receive the correct amount of heat. Various sized apertures were positioned around the sleeve; the consumer would put the frozen dinner into the sleeve according to. This ensured proper cooking. Today there are multiple options for packaging frozen foods. Boxes, bags, Boil-in-Bags, lidded trays and pans, crystallized PET trays, composite and plastic cans. Scientists are continually researching new aspects of frozen food packaging.
Active packaging offers a host of new technologies that can sense and neutralize the presence of bacteria or other ha
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
George Orson Welles was an American actor, director and producer who worked in theatre and film. He is remembered for his innovative work in all three: in theatre, most notably Caesar, a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. While in his twenties Welles directed a number of high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an African American cast and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937 he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941. Welles found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds performed for his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air, it caused widespread panic because many listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was occurring. Although some contemporary sources say these reports of panic were false and overstated, they rocketed Welles to notoriety.
His first film was Citizen Kane, which he co-wrote, produced and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles followed up Citizen Kane with twelve other feature films, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons, The Lady from Shanghai, Touch of Evil, The Trial, Chimes at Midnight and F for Fake. With a development spanning fifty years, Welles' final film, The Other Side of the Wind, was released in 2018. Welles was an outsider to the studio system and directed only thirteen full-length films in his career, he struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios in Hollywood and in life with a variety of independent financiers across Europe, where he spent most of his career. Many of his films were either edited or remained unreleased, his distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur".
In 2002 Welles was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics. Known for his baritone voice, Welles was an actor in radio and film, a Shakespearean stage actor and magician noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. George Orson Welles was born May 6, 1915, in Kenosha, son of Richard Head Welles and Beatrice Ives Welles, he was named after his paternal great-grandfather, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, his brother George Head. An alternative story of the source of his first and middle names was told by George Ade, who met Welles's parents on a West Indies cruise toward the end of 1914. Ade was traveling with a friend, Orson Wells, the two of them sat at the same table as Mr. and Mrs. Richard Welles. Mrs. Welles was pregnant at the time, when they said good-by, she told them that she had enjoyed their company so much that if the child were a boy, she intended to name it for them: George Orson. Welles's birth announcement and a picture of him as a young boy are among George Ade's papers at Purdue University.
Despite his family's affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood. His parents separated and moved to Chicago in 1919, his father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a popular bicycle lamp, became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles's mother, a pianist, played during lectures by Dudley Crafts Watson at the Art Institute of Chicago to support her son and herself. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital on May 10, 1924, just after Welles's ninth birthday; the Gordon String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrice's funeral. After his mother's death, Welles ceased pursuing music, it was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in Wyoming, New York, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward. There he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, including the 12-year-old Prince Aly Khan. In what Welles described as "a hectic period" in his life, he lived in a Chicago apartment with both his father and Dr. Maurice Bernstein, a Chicago physician, a close friend of both his parents.
Welles attended public school before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East. When they returned they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, owned by his father; when the hotel burned down and his father took to the road again."During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom", wrote biographer Frank Brady."In some ways, he was never a young boy, you know," said Roger Hill, who became Welles's teacher and lifelong friend. Welles attended public school in Madison, enrolled in the fourth grade. On September 15, 1926, he entered the Todd Seminary for Boys, an expensive independent school in Woodstock, that his older brother, Richard Ives Welles, had attended ten years before until he was expelled for misbeha