Schuyler County, New York
Schuyler County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,343, making it the second-least populous county in New York; the county seat is Watkins Glen. The name is in honor of General Philip Schuyler, one of the four major generals in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War; when counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present Schuyler County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion.
Tryon County's eastern boundary was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County in honor of the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor. In 1789, Ontario County was split off from Montgomery; the actual area split off from Montgomery County was much larger than the present county including the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties.
Herkimer and Tioga counties were two of three counties split off from Montgomery County in 1791. In 1794, Onondaga County was formed by the splitting of Herkimer County; this county was larger than the present Onondaga County, including the present Cayuga and Tompkins counties. In 1796, Steuben County was split off from Ontario County, it was larger than the present county, however. In 1798, Chemung County was formed from Tioga County, but the county at that time was rather larger than the present county, containing a portion of what would become Schuyler County. In 1799, Cayuga County was formed by the splitting of Onondaga County; this county was, much larger than the present Cayuga County. It included the present Seneca and Tompkins counties, as well as part of what would become Schuyler County. In 1804, Seneca County was formed by the splitting of Cayuga County. In 1817, in turn, a portion of Seneca County was combined with a piece of the remainder of Cayuga County to form Tompkins County. In 1823, Steuben County was reduced in size by the combination of a portion of the county with a portion of Ontario County to form Yates County.
In 1854, portions of Steuben and Tompkins counties were combined to form Schuyler County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 342 square miles, of which 328 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Schuyler County is in the western part of New York State, west of Ithaca at the south end of Seneca Lake; the Finger Lakes National Forest is in the north part of the county. Seneca County - north Tompkins County - east Chemung County - south Steuben County - west Yates County - northwest New York State Route 14 New York State Route 79 New York State Route 224 New York State Route 226 New York State Route 414 Finger Lakes National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,224 people, 7,374 households, 5,191 families residing in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 9,181 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.48% White, 1.45% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.22% of the population. 17.3% were of German, 15.5% English, 13.9% Irish, 11.8% American and 11.4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.1% spoke English and 1.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 7,374 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 26.60% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,010, the median income for a family was $41,441.
Males had a median income of $31,549 versus $21,928 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,039. About 8.80% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those u
The Cayuga was one of the five original constituents of the Haudenosaunee, a confederacy of Native Americans in New York. The Cayuga homeland lay in the Finger Lakes region along Cayuga Lake, between their league neighbors, the Onondaga to the east and the Seneca to the west. Today Cayuga people belong to the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation in Ontario, the federally recognized Cayuga Nation of New York and the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma. Political relations between the Cayuga, the British, the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution were complicated and variable, with Cayuga warriors fighting on both sides. Most of the Iroquois nations allied with the British, in part hoping to end encroachment on their lands by colonists. In 1778, various Iroquois bands, oft allied with British-colonial loyalists conducted a series of raids along the frontier from Connecticut to New York and into south-central Pennsylvania threatening much of the Susquehanna Valley. From the revolutionary government's point of view in Philadelphia, several of these were atrocities, in the early summer that body proceeded to order Washington to send regiments to quell these disturbances.
In 1779, General George Washington of the Continental Army appointed General John Sullivan and James Clinton to lead the Sullivan Expedition, a retaliatory military campaign designed to unseat the Iroquois Confederacy and prevent the nations from continuing to attack New York militias and the Continental Army. The campaign mobilized 6200 troops and devastated the Cayuga and other Iroquois homelands, destroying 40-50 villages; those destroyed included major Cayuga villages such as Cayuga Chonodote. The expedition, with attacks from the spring through the fall destroyed the crops and winter stores of the Iroquois, to drive them out of the land. Survivors fled to Upper Canada; some were granted land there by the British in recognition of their loyalty to the Crown. Following the end of the war, the Central New York Military Tract was established in order to grant land bounties to veterans; the tract included a Cayuga reservation surrounding the north end of Cayuga Lake, but the reservation was given up a few years in a treaty with the state.
Some Seneca and Cayuga had left the area earlier as Tuscarora were migrating north in the early decades of the 1700s, going west of the Alleghenies to the long depopulated Ohio Country lands. These tribes became known as the Mingo or "Black Mingo", for they had a bad reputation, so were able to take in their kin after that systematic bloodletting in 1779. After the Sullivan Campaign, more Cayuga joined them, as well as some other bands of Iroquois who left New York before the end of the Revolutionary War; as the American Revolution was nearing its end, settlers resumed trekking west of the Alleghenies in a trickle that by 1810, became a flood. Other eastern Amerindians, joined by eastward remnants of Susquehannock and large groups of Delaware peoples had traveled the ancient trails through the gaps of the Allegheny to found settlements such as Kittanning and others in the Ohio Valley. Only weakened cobbled together tribes, such as the Mingo, were in the land, still empty. By 1831 those Indians left in the lands east of Ohio were encouraged by bigotry, at times forcibly removed to the Indian Territory, in what became Oklahoma.
Their remnants the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma are a federally recognized tribe. On November 11, 1794, the Cayuga Nation signed the Pickering Treaty with the United States, by which they ceded much of their lands in New York to the United States, forced to do so as allies of the defeated British, it was the second treaty. It recognized the rights of the Haudenosaunee as sovereign nations; the Pickering Treaty remains an operating legal document. S. government continues to send the requisite gift of muslin fabric to the nations each year. The state of New York made additional treaties with the tribes but failed to get them ratified by the Senate; as it lacked the constitutional authority to deal directly with the tribes, individual tribes have sued for land claims since the late 20th century, charging New York had no authority for their actions. The state arranged sales of more than 5 million acres of former Iroquois lands at inexpensive prices to encourage development in the state, it granted some western lands to war veterans in lieu of pay.
Speculators bought up as much land as they resold it to new settlers. Land-hungry Yankees from New England flooded into New York in waves of new settlement, as did some settlers from the Mohawk Valley. Immigrants came from the British Isles and France after the war. Today, there are three Cayuga bands; the two largest, the Lower Cayuga and Upper Cayuga, still live in Ontario, both at Six Nations of the Grand River, a reserve recognized by the Canadian government. Two federally recognized tribes of Cayuga constitute the third band in the United States: the Cayuga Nation of New York in Seneca Falls, New York, the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma; the Cayuga Nation of New York does not have a reservation. Members have lived among the Seneca Nation on their reservation. Since the late 20th century, they have acquired some land in their former homeland; the Cayuga Nation of New York filed an action on November 19, 1980, in the United States District Court
Cayuga Lake is the longest of central New York's glacial Finger Lakes, is the second largest in surface area and second largest in volume. It is just under 40 miles long, its average width is 1.7 miles, it is 3.5 mi wide at its widest point near Aurora. It is 435 ft deep at its deepest point; the city of Ithaca, site of Ithaca College and Cornell University, is located at the southern end of Cayuga Lake. Villages and settlements along the east shore of Cayuga Lake include Myers, King Ferry, Levanna, Union Springs, Cayuga. Settlements along the west shore of the lake include Sheldrake, Poplar Beach, Canoga; the lake has two small islands. One is near Union Springs; this island is not inhabited. The other island, Canoga Island is located near the town of Canoga; this island is inhabited during the summer months. The only other island in any of the Finger Lakes is Squaw Island in Canandaigua Lake. Cayuga Lake is located at 42°41′00″N 76°41′46″W, its depth, steep east and west sides with shallow north and south ends is typical of the Finger Lakes, as they were carved by glaciers during the last ice age.
The water level is regulated by the Mud Lock at the north end of the lake. It is connected to Lake Ontario by the Erie Seneca Lake by the Seneca River; the lake is drawn down as winter approaches, to minimize ice damage and to maximize its capacity to store heavy spring runoff. The north end is dominated by shallow mudflats. An important stopover for migratory birds, the mudflats and marsh are the location of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge; the southern end is shallow and freezes during the winter. Cayuga Lake is popular among recreational boaters; the Allan H. Treman State Marine Park, a large state marina and boat launch, is located at the southern end of the lake in Ithaca. There are two yacht clubs on the western shore: Ithaca Yacht Club a few miles north of Ithaca, Red Jacket Yacht Club just south of Canoga. There are boat launches scattered along the lake shore. Cayuga Lake is the source of drinking water for several communities, including Lansing near the southern end of the lake along the east side, which draws water through the Bolton Point Municipal Water system.
There are several lake source cooling systems that are in operation on the lake, whereby cooler water is pumped from the depths of the lake and circulated in a closed system back to the surface. One of these systems, operated by Cornell University and began operation in 2000, was controversial during the planning and building states for potential negative environmental impact. All the environmental impact reports and scientific studies have shown that the Cornell lake source cooling system has not yet had and will not have any measurably significant environmental impact. Furthermore, Cornell's system pumps less warm water back into the lake than others further north which have been operating for decades, including the coal-fired power plant on the eastern shore; the AES Cayuga electrical generating station operates in the Town of Lansing, on the east shore of Cayuga Lake. This coal-fired plant uses Cayuga Lake as a cooling source. In the late 1960s, citizens opposed the construction of an 830-MW nuclear power plant on the shore of Cayuga Lake.
Rod Serling named his production company Cayuga Productions during the years of his TV series, The Twilight Zone. Serling and his family had a summer home at Cayuga Lake; the fish population is managed and substantial sport fishing is practiced, with anglers targeting smelt, lake trout and smallmouth bass. Fish species present in the lake include lake trout, landlocked salmon, brown trout, rainbow trout, smallmouth bass, alewife, atlantic salmon, black crappie, pickerel, largemouth bass, northern pike, pumpkinseed sunfish, rock bass, yellow perch. There are state owned hard surface ramps in Mudlock Canal Park, Long Point State Park, Cayuga Lake State Park, Dean's Cove State Marine Park, Taughannock Falls State Park, Allen H. Treman Marine Park. Demont Creek Canoga Creek Schuyler Creek Red Creek Big Hollow Creek Mack Creek Bloomer Creek Barnum Creek Groves Creek Sheldrake Creek Lively Run Bergen Creek Trumansburg Creek Taughannock Creek Willow Creek Glenwood Creek Indian Creek Williams Brook Cayuga Inlet Fall Creek Gulf Creek Minnegar Brook Salmon Creek Morrow Creek Paines Creek Little Creek Dean Creek Glen Creek Great Gully Brook Yawger Creek The lake is the subject of local folklore.
Cornell's alma mater makes reference to its position "Far Above Cayuga's Waters", while that of Ithaca College references "Cayuga's shore". A tradition at Wells College in Aurora holds that if the lake freezes over, classes are canceled. According to Wells College records, this most happened in 1979 and 2015. However, other sources suggest that the only time the entire lake froze over solid end to end in the 20th century was in 1912. Cayuga Lake, like nearby Seneca Lake, is the site of a phenomenon known as the Guns of the Seneca, mysterious cannon-like booms heard in the surrounding area. Many of these booms may be attributable to bird-scarers, automated cannon-like devices used by farmers to scare birds away from the many vineyards and crops. There is however no proof of this. Cayuga Lake is included in the American Viticultural Area. Established in 1988, the AVA now boasts over a dozen wineries, four distilleries, a cidery, a meadery. Taughannock Falls World Lakes Database entry for Cayuga Lake.
Cayugalake.org Cayuga Lake Defense Fund Montez
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
Acer is a genus of trees and shrubs known as maple. The genus is placed in the family Sapindaceae. There are 128 species, most of which are native to Asia, with a number appearing in Europe, northern Africa, North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum, extends to the Southern Hemisphere; the type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, the most common maple species in Europe. The maples have recognizable palmate leaves and distinctive winged fruits; the closest relatives of the maples are the horse chestnuts. Most maples are trees growing to a height of 10–45 m. Others are shrubs less than 10 meters tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most species are deciduous, many are renowned for their autumn leaf colour, but a few in southern Asia and the Mediterranean region are evergreen. Most are shade-tolerant when young and are riparian, understory, or pioneer species rather than climax overstory trees. There are a few exceptions such as sugar maple.
Many of the root systems are dense and fibrous, inhibiting the growth of other vegetation underneath them. A few species, notably Acer cappadocicum produce root sprouts, which can develop into clonal colonies. Maples are distinguished by opposite leaf arrangement; the leaves in most species are palmate veined and lobed, with 3 to 9 veins each leading to a lobe, one of, central or apical. A small number of species differ in having palmate compound, pinnate compound, pinnate veined or unlobed leaves. Several species, including Acer griseum, Acer mandshuricum, Acer maximowiczianum and Acer triflorum, have trifoliate leaves. One species, Acer negundo, has pinnately compound leaves that may be trifoliate or may have five, seven, or nine leaflets. A few, such as Acer laevigatum and Acer carpinifolium, have pinnately veined simple leaves. Maple species, such as Acer rubrum, may be dioecious or polygamodioecious; the flowers are regular and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1 – 6 mm long, four to ten stamens about 6 – 10 mm long, two pistils or a pistil with two styles.
The ovary is superior and has two carpels, whose wings elongate the flowers, making it easy to tell which flowers are female. Maples flower in late winter or early spring, in most species with or just after the appearance of the leaves, but in some before the trees leaf out. Maple flowers are green, orange or red. Though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species; some maples are an early spring source of nectar for bees. The distinctive fruits are called samaras, "maple keys", "helicopters", "whirlybirds" or "polynoses"; these seeds occur in distinctive pairs each containing one seed enclosed in a "nutlet" attached to a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue. They are shaped to carry the seeds a considerable distance on the wind. People call them "helicopters" due to the way that they spin as they fall. During World War II, the US Army developed a special air drop supply carrier that could carry up to 65 pounds of supplies and was based on the Maple seed.
Seed maturation is in a few weeks to six months after flowering, with seed dispersal shortly after maturity. However, one tree can release hundreds of thousands of seeds at a time. Depending on the species, the seeds can be green to orange and big with thicker seed pods; the green seeds are released in pairs, sometimes with the stems still connected. The yellow seeds are released individually and always without the stems. Most species require stratification in order to germinate, some seeds can remain dormant in the soil for several years before germinating; the genus Acer together with genus Dipteronia are either classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or else classified as members of the family Sapindaceae. Recent classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in Sapindaceae; when put in family Sapindaceae, genus Acer is put in subfamily Hippocastanoideae. The genus is subdivided by its morphology into a multitude of subsections. Fifty-four species of maples meet the International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria for being under threat of extinction in their native habitat.
The leaves are used as a food plant for the larvae of a number of the Lepidoptera order.. In high concentrations, like the greenstriped mapleworm, can feed on the leaves so much that they cause temporary defoliation of host maple trees. Aphids are very common sap-feeders on maples. In horticultural applications a dimethoate spray will solve this. In the United States and Canada, all maple species are threatened by the Asian long-horned beetle. Infestations have resulted in the destruction of thousands of maples and other tree species in Illinois, New Jersey and New York. Maples are affected by a number of fungal diseases. Several are susceptible to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium species, which can cause significant local mortality. Sooty bark disease, caused by Cryptostroma species, can kill trees that are under stress due to drought. Death of maples can be caused by Phytophthora root rot and Ganoderma root decay. Maple leaves in late summer and autumn are disfigured by "tar spot" caused by Rhytisma species and mildew caused by Uncinula species, though these diseases do not have an adverse effect on th