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Finger protocol

In computer networking, the Name/Finger protocol and the Finger user information protocol are simple network protocols for the exchange of human-oriented status and user information. The Name/Finger protocol is based on Request for Comments document RFC 742 as an interface to the name and finger programs that provide status reports on a particular computer system or a particular person at network sites; the finger program was written in 1971 by Les Earnest who created the program to solve the need of users who wanted information on other users of the network. Information on, logged in was useful to check the availability of a person to meet; this was the earliest form of presence information for remote network users. Prior to the finger program, the only way to get this information was with a who program that showed IDs and terminal line numbers for logged-in users. Earnest named his program after the idea that people would run their fingers down the who list to find what they were looking for.

The term "finger" had, in the 1970s, a connotation of "is a snitch": this made "finger" a good reminder/mnemonic to the semantic of the UNIX finger command. The finger daemon runs on TCP port 79; the client will open a connection to port 79. An RUIP is started on the remote end of the connection to process the request; the local host sends the RUIP one line query based upon the Finger query specification, waits for the RUIP to respond. The RUIP receives and processes the query, returns an answer initiates the close of the connection; the local host receives the answer and the close signal proceeds to close its end of the connection. The Finger user information protocol is based on RFC 1288; the server side of the protocol is implemented by a program fingerd, while the client side is implemented by the name and finger programs which are supposed to return a friendly, human-oriented status report on either the system at the moment or a particular person in depth. There is no required format, the protocol consists of specifying a single command line.

The program would supply information such as whether a user is logged-on, e-mail address, full name etc. As well as standard user information, finger displays the contents of the.project and.plan files in the user's home directory. This file contains either useful information about the user's current activities, similar to micro-blogging, or alternatively all manner of humor. Supplying such detailed information as e-mail addresses and full names was considered acceptable and convenient in the early days of networking, but was considered questionable for privacy and security reasons. Finger information has been used by hackers as a way to initiate a social engineering attack on a company's computer security system. By using a finger client to get a list of a company's employee names, email addresses, phone numbers, so on, a hacker can call or email someone at a company requesting information while posing as another employee; the finger daemon has had several exploitable security holes crackers have used to break into systems.

For example, in 1988 the Morris worm exploited an overflow vulnerability in fingerd to spread. The finger protocol is incompatible with Network Address Translation from the private network address ranges that are used by the majority of home and office workstations that connect to the Internet through routers or firewalls nowadays. For these reasons, by the late 1990s the vast majority of sites on the Internet no longer offered the service, it is implemented on Unix, Unix-like systems, current versions of Windows. Other software has finger support: ELinks Minuet LDAP Ph Protocol Social network service WebFinger RFC 742 RFC 1288 Linux finger command History of the Finger protocol by Rajiv Shah Microsoft TechNet Finger article

Bougainville campaign

The Bougainville campaign was a series of land and naval battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II between Allied forces and the Empire of Japan, named after the island of Bougainville. It was part of the Allied grand strategy in the South Pacific; the campaign took place in the Northern Solomons in two phases. The first phase, in which American troops landed and held the perimeter around the beachhead at Torokina, lasted from November 1943 through November 1944; the second phase, in which Australian troops went on the offensive, mopping up pockets of starving, isolated but still-determined Japanese, lasted from November 1944 until August 1945, when the last Japanese soldiers on the island surrendered. Operations during the final phase of the campaign saw the Australian forces advance north towards the Bonis Peninsula and south towards the main Japanese stronghold around Buin, although the war ended before these two enclaves were destroyed. Before the war, Bougainville had been administered as part of the Australian Territory of New Guinea though, Bougainville is part of the Solomon Islands chain.

As a result, within the various accounts of the campaign it is referred to as part of both the New Guinea and the Solomon Islands campaigns. During their occupation the Japanese constructed naval aircraft bases in the north and south of the island, they developed a naval anchorage at Tonolei Harbor near Buin, their largest base, on the southern coastal plain of Bougainville. On the nearby Treasury and Shortland Islands they built naval bases and anchorages; these bases helped protect Rabaul, the major Japanese garrison and naval base in Papua New Guinea, while allowing continued expansion to the south-east, down the Solomon Islands chain, to Guadalcanal and New Guinea and beyond. To the Allies, Bougainville would also be considered vital for neutralizing the Japanese base around Rabaul. In March–April 1942, the Japanese landed on Bougainville as part of their advance into the South Pacific. At the time, there was only a small Australian garrison on the island which consisted of about 20 soldiers from the 1st Independent Company and some coastwatchers.

Shortly after the Japanese arrived, the bulk of the Australian force was evacuated by the Allies, although some of the coastwatchers remained behind to provide intelligence. Once secured, the Japanese began constructing a number of airfields across the island; the main airfields were on Buka Island, the Bonis Peninsula in the north, at Kahili and Kara, in the south, Kieta on the east coast, while a naval anchorage was constructed at Tonolei Harbor near Buin on the southern coastal plain, along with anchorages on the Shortland Islands group. The airfield at Kahili was known by the Japanese as Buin Airfield, to its south was an airfield on Ballale Island in the Shortland Islands; these bases allowed the Japanese to conduct operations in the southern Solomon Islands and to attack the Allied lines of communication between the United States and the Southwest Pacific Area. At the opening of the Allied offensives, their estimates of Japanese strength on Bougainville varied ranging between 45,000 and 65,000 Army and labour personnel.

These forces constituted the Japanese 17th Army, commanded by General Harukichi Hyakutake. Hyukatake reported to General Hitoshi Imamura, commander of the Japanese Eighth Area Army, headquartered at Rabaul on New Britain Island. Naval command at Rabaul was the responsibility of Vice Admiral Jinichi Kusaka, commander Southeast Area Fleet; the level of cooperation between these two officers was greater than that found between the branches of the Japanese armed forces. On Bougainville, the Japanese forces consisted of the following formations: the 17th Infantry Group – consisting of the 81st Infantry Regiment and the III Battalion, 53rd Infantry Regiment under Major General Kesao Kijima, elements of the 6th Division; the 17th Infantry occupied northern Bougainville, while the 6th had responsibility for the island south of Tarina. Reduction of the main Japanese base at Rabaul was the ultimate goal of the Allied offensive in the Solomons. To achieve this, Allied planners formulated Operation Cartwheel.

By 1943 Rabaul was within range of Allied heavy bombers, but a closer airfield was needed for light bombers and escort fighters. Thus, the entire island of Bougainville did not need to be occupied. According to Morison this "was the one and only reason why the JCS authorized Halsey to seize a section of Bougainville: to establish forward airfields for strikes on Rabaul."The area around Cape Torokina was settled on since, among other things, the Japanese were not there in force and had no airfield there. Empress Augusta Bay had a somewhat protected anchorage, the physical barriers to the east of the cape – for instance the mountain ranges and thick jungle – meant that mounting a counterattack would be beyond the capabilities of the Japanese for weeks, if not months, which would allow the US forces to consolidate after landing and give them enough time to establish a strong perimeter. Bougainville lay within the Southwest Pacific Area, so operations were nominally under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, whose headquarters were in Brisbane, Australia.

Although MacArthur had to approve all major moves, he gave planning and operational control to Admiral William F. Halsey, Commander U. S. Third Fleet, headquartered at Nouméa on New Caledonia. In mid-October, Halsey set 1 November as the date for the invasion of Bougainville. By early October, it was clear to the Japanese that the Allies were planning a follow-up offensive to the Allied capture of the New Georgias, although the target was

Rowland Day

Rowland Day was an American merchant and politician from New York. In 1805, Day removed to Skaneateles, in 1810 to Sempronius, he engaged in mercantile pursuits, was Supervisor of the Town of Sempronius for several years. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1816-17, a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821. Day was elected as a Crawford Democratic-Republican to the 18th, as a Jacksonian to the 23rd United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1823, to March 3, 1825, from March 4, 1833, to March 3, 1835, he was Postmaster of Sempronius. In 1833, the Western part of Sempronius was separated as the Town of Moravia, he was buried at the Indian Mound Cemetery in Moravia United States Congress. "Rowland Day". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough Table of the Post Offices in the United States Rowland Day at Find a Grave

George Wilkins (priest)

George Wilkins, D. D. was born in May 1785 in Norwich. He was Archdeacon of Nottingham, he died on 13 August 1865. George Wilkins came from a family of architects: his brother William designed several famous buildings including the National Gallery, London, his father was estate architect to the head of the Pierrepont family, who since 1806 had been styled the Earl Manvers. He was educated at the Grammar School at Cambridge. George was ordained in 1810 and served, in succession, as Curate of Great Plumstead 1808 Curate of Hadleigh, Suffolk, 1808 - 1815 Vicar of Laxton, Nottinghamshire, 1813 - 1817 Vicar of Lowdham, Nottinghamshire, 1815 - 1839 Vicar of St Mary's Church, Nottingham, 1817 - 1843 Prebendary of Southwell Minster 1823 - 1865 Rector of Wing, Rutland, 1827 - 1839, Archdeacon of Nottingham 1832 - 1865 Rector of Beelsby, Lincolnshire, 1843 - 1865. During his time in Nottingham, he had a continuing problem in ensuring that people wanting to get married were genuine parishioners, he employed a sexton for each banns application to check the residence of the applicants.

He himself had eloped to Gretna Green to marry Amelia Auriol Hay-Drummond during his time at Hadleigh. Wilkins was a 26-yr-old Curate, posted to Hadleigh, lodged with the Rector, the Very Rev. Edward Auriol Hay-Drummond, whose father's father was Thomas Hay, 7th Earl of Kinnoull, whose father-in-law was Robert Harley, the 1st Earl of Oxford, his wife was the eldest daughter of the Rector. They were married on 2 September nine days before her 17th birthday. After the marriage, they returned to continue living in the parental home and went on to have nine children; as Vicar of St Mary's, Nottingham, he was preaching at a service when a loud crack from the masonry caused those attending to believe that the tower was collapsing, a panic ensued. Wilkins summoned the architect Lewis Nockalls Cottingham to survey the fabric, Cottingham implemented a scheme to prop up the tower with scaffolding while the tower piers were repaired. By selecting Cottingham, Wilkins is credited with saving St Mary's medieval fabric, rather than submitting to a project to rebuild the church.

He was responsible for the construction of two churches out of St Mary's parish. St Paul's Church, George Street, Nottingham Holy Trinity Church, Trinity SquareA third church, St John the Baptist, Leenside was begun during his incumbency but he resigned before its completion, he died on 13 August 1865. Bowen, M. W; the Anglican Church in the Industrialised Town: St. Mary's Parish, Nottingham 1770-1884 M. Phil. University of Nottingham, October 1997

2016 United States House of Representatives election in South Dakota

The 2016 United States House of Representatives election in South Dakota was held on November 8, 2016, to elect the U. S. Representative from South Dakota's at-large congressional district, who would represent the state of South Dakota in the 115th United States Congress; the election coincided with the 2016 U. S. presidential election, as well as other elections to the House of Representatives, elections to the United States Senate and various state and local elections. The primaries were held on June 7. Incumbent Republican Kristi Noem won reselection. Kristi Noem, incumbent U. S. Representative Paula Hawks, South Dakota State Representative United States House of Representatives elections, 2016 United States elections, 2016 Official campaign websites Paula Hawks for Congress Kristi Noem for Congress

Dismal Swamp Canal

The Dismal Swamp Canal is located along the eastern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina in the United States. It is the oldest continually operating man-made canal in the United States, opened in 1805, it is part of the Intracoastal Waterway, an inland route, which parallels the east coast and offers boaters shelter from the Atlantic Ocean from Manasquan Inlet, New Jersey, to Brownsville, Texas. The route runs through bays, rivers and canals, includes the Intracoastal Waterway running from Norfolk, Virginia, to the Florida Keys. In the Colonial period, water transportation was the lifeblood of the North Carolina sounds region and the Tidewater areas of Virginia; the landlocked sounds were dependent upon poor overland tracks or shipment along the treacherous Carolina coast to reach further markets through Norfolk, Virginia. In May 1763, George Washington made his first visit to the Great Dismal Swamp and suggested draining it and digging a north–south canal through it to connect the waters of the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and Albemarle Sound in North Carolina.

As the first president, Washington agreed with Virginia Governor Patrick Henry that canals were the easiest answer for an efficient means of internal transportation and urged their creation and improvement. In 1784, the Dismal Swamp Canal Company was created. Work was started in 1793; the canal was dug by hand. It took 12 years of back-breaking construction under unfavorable conditions to complete the 22-mile long waterway, which opened in 1805. At about the time the canal opened, the Dismal Swamp Hotel was built astride the state line on the west bank, it was a popular spot for lover's trysts as well as duels. As the state line split the main salon, the hotel was quite popular with gamblers who would move the game to the opposite side of the room with the arrival of the sheriff from the other jurisdiction. No trace of the hotel can be found today. Tolls were charged for maintenance and improvements. In 1829, the channel was deepened; the waterway was an important route of commerce in the era before railroads, such as the Petersburg Railroad, highways became major transportation modes.

During the American Civil War the canal was in an important strategic position for Union and Confederate forces. In April, 1862, upon learning of rumors that the canal would be used to help the Confederate ironclad escape from Hampton Roads to the Albemarle Sound in North Carolina, Union General Ambrose E. Burnside sent General Jesse L. Reno from Roanoke Island to destroy the Culpepper Locks near South Mills on the Dismal Swamp Canal. Reno's 3,000 troops disembarked from their transports near Elizabeth City on April 18; the Union troops advanced the following morning on an exhausting march toward South Mills where Confederate Colonel Ambrose R. Wright posted his 900 men to command the road to the town. Reno encountered Wright's position at noon; the Confederates' determined fighting continued for four hours until their artillery commander, Captain W. W. McComas, was killed. To avoid being flanked, Wright retired behind Joy's Creek, two miles away. General Reno did not pursue them because of his troops' exhaustion.

That evening he heard a rumor that Confederate reinforcements were arriving from Norfolk and ordered a silent march back to the transports near Elizabeth City. The losses were estimated at 25 Confederate soldiers; the Battle of South Mills was the only battle action near the canal. However, wartime activity left the canal in a terrible state of repair; the repairs and maintenance needed by the canal made travel difficult. In 1892, Lake Drummond Canal and Water Company launched rehabilitation efforts and once again, a steady stream of vessels carrying lumber, farm products, passengers made the canal a bustling interstate thoroughfare. By the 1920s, improvements in other modes of transportation meant another downturn for the canal, commercial traffic had subsided except for passenger vessels. In 1929 it was sold to the federal government for $500,000; as recreational boating became popular in the mid-20th century, the canal became an important link to provide shelter from the brutal forces of the treacherous Atlantic Coast line off the Carolinas and the Virginia capes.

In modern times, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains the canal; the Dismal Swamp Canal is one of two inland routes connecting the Chesapeake Bay and the Albemarle Sound. About 2,000 recreational boaters transit the canal each year as they pass through the Intracoastal Waterway; the canal was closed October 2016 to boating traffic after Hurricane Matthew caused a flash flood in Chesapeake VA. The runoff from this storm filled the canal with sand, making it impassable; the necessary dredging for navigation on the canal was completed November 2017 to a depth of five feet, reopened for a short time before closing again, due to being inundated with duckweed. The duckweed clogs the intakes on power boats causing them to overheat; the Elizabeth River runs parallel to the canal, was not affected by the 2016 flash flood, being much wider and much deeper than the canal. As of March 2018, the canal has been reopened by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the ICW has remained open during all of this via the North Landing River.

The Virginia portion of the canal was located in Norfolk County, which today is the City of Chesapeake, where the northern portion of the canal at Deep Creek connects with the Southern Branch Elizabeth River. The southern end of the canal leads to the Albemarle