In female human anatomy, Skene's glands or the Skene glands are glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They secrete a fluid that helps lubricate the urethral opening, are surrounded with tissue that swells with blood during sexual arousal; the Skene's glands are located in the general area of the vulva, on the anterior wall of the vagina around the lower end of the urethra. The Skene's glands are homologous with the prostate gland in males, containing numerous microanatomical structures in common with the prostate gland, such as secretory cells. Skene's glands are not, explicit prostate glands themselves; the two Skene's ducts lead from the Skene's glands to sites on the surface of the vulva, to the left and right of the urethral opening, from which they are structurally capable of secreting fluid. Although there remains debate about the function of the Skene's glands, one purpose is to secrete a fluid that helps lubricate the urethral opening contributing antimicrobial factors to protect the urinary tract from infections.
The origin and production site of female ejaculation has not been proven. It has been postulated; because the Skene's gland and male prostate act in terms of prostate-specific antigen, an ejaculate protein identically produced in males, in terms of prostate-specific acid phosphatase, this led to a trend of calling the Skene's glands the female prostate. Female ejaculate, which may emerge during sexual activity for some women during female orgasm, contains biochemical markers of sexual function like human urinary protein 1 and the enzyme PDE5, whereas women without the gland had lower concentrations of these proteins; when examined with electron microscopy, the Skene's and prostate glands show similar secretory structures. It has been demonstrated that a large amount of fluid can be secreted from these glands when stimulated from inside the vagina; some reports indicate that embarrassment regarding female ejaculation, the debated notion that the substance is urine, can lead to purposeful suppression of sexual climax, lead women to seek medical advice and undergo misadvised surgery to "stop the urine".
Disorders of or related to the Skene's gland include: Infection Skene's duct cyst Trichomoniasis: The Skene glands act as a reservoir for Trichomonas vaginalis. This is. Inflammation of the Skene's glands and Bartholin glands may appear similar to cystocele. While the glands were first described by the French surgeon Alphonse Guérin, they were named after the Scottish gynaecologist Alexander Skene, who wrote about it in Western medical literature in 1880. In 2002, Skene's gland was renamed to female prostate by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Bartholin's gland List of homologues of the human reproductive system Pudendal nerve Vaginal lubrication Wolffian duct Davì G, Asta G, Lagalla R, Midiri M, Mercadante G. "Skene's gland pseudocysts. An occasional finding with computed tomography and ultrasound". La Radiologia Medica. 98: 314–16. PMID 10615378. Radiology images of the Skene's gland Jones N. "Bigger is better when it comes to the G spot". New Scientist. Geddes L. "Ultrasound nails location of the elusive G spot".
New Scientist. Gravina GL, Brandetti F, Martini P, Carosa E, Di Stasi SM, Morano S, Lenzi A, Jannini EA. "Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm". J Sex Med. 5: 610–18. Doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00739.x. PMID 18221286
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibres called axons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system; each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium; the axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. The entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts; each nerve is covered on the outside by a dense sheath of the epineurium. Beneath this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons.
Perineurial septae subdivide it into several bundles of fibres. Surrounding each such fibre is the endoneurium; this forms an unbroken tube from the surface of the spinal cord to the level where the axon synapses with its muscle fibres, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, meshwork of collagen fibres. Nerves are bundled and travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibres are surrounded by a low-protein liquid called endoneurial fluid; this acts in a similar way to the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. Molecules are thereby prevented from crossing the blood into the endoneurial fluid. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation, the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation; this increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury.
Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted: Afferent nerves conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system, for example from the mechanoreceptors in skin. Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain both afferent and efferent axons, thus conduct both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system: Spinal nerves innervate much of the body, connect through the vertebral column to the spinal cord and thus to the central nervous system, they are given letter-number designations according to the vertebra through which they connect to the spinal column. Cranial nerves innervate parts of the head, connect directly to the brain, they are assigned Roman numerals from 1 to 12, although cranial nerve zero is sometimes included.
In addition, cranial nerves have descriptive names. Specific terms are used to describe their actions. A nerve that supplies information to the brain from an area of the body, or controls an action of the body is said to "innervate" that section of the body or organ. Other terms relate to whether the nerve affects the same side or opposite side of the body, to the part of the brain that supplies it. Nerve growth ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling". If the axons of a neuron are damaged, as long as the cell body of the neuron is not damaged, the axons would regenerate and remake the synaptic connections with neurons with the help of guidepost cells; this is referred to as neuroregeneration. The nerve begins the process by destroying the nerve distal to the site of injury allowing Schwann cells, basal lamina, the neurilemma near the injury to begin producing a regeneration tube. Nerve growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud.
When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration tube, it begins to grow towards its original destination guided the entire time by the regeneration tube. Nerve regeneration is slow and can take up to several months to complete. While this process does repair some nerves, there will still be some functional deficit as the repairs are not perfect. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve; these impulses are fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and back to electrical. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: An afferent nerve fiber conducts sensory information from a sensory neuron to the central nervous system, where the information is processed. Bundles of fibres or axons, in the peripheral nervous system are called nerves, bundles of afferent fibers are known as sensory nerves.
An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres are known as efferent nerves; the nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. In vertebrates it consists of two main par
The middle finger, long finger, or tall finger is the third digit of the human hand, located between the index finger and the ring finger. It is the longest finger. In anatomy, it is called the third finger, digitus medius, digitus tertius or digitus III. In Western countries, extending the middle finger is an offensive and obscene gesture recognized as a form of insult; the middle finger is used for finger snapping together with the thumb
A finger cot is a medical device used to cover one or more fingers in situations where a full glove seems unnecessary. Like medical and rubber gloves, finger cots may be made from a variety of water-tight materials including latex, nitrile rubber, vinyl. A toe protector or toe cap is similar, but shorter and of greater diameter; the function is not so much to prevent contamination—toes are contained within footwear that protects them—but to protect an injured toe against further damage from friction and pressure by continual rubbing against other toes and shoes. They are made or wholly of a soft material such as a mineral oil gel, the end may be either open or closed, they are used in medicine to limit patient exposure to infection, to protect health professionals from contact with bodily fluids that can transmit disease. Finger cots can be used in a wide scope of medical procedures and examinations, for example, when applying a topical medication or during digital rectal examination. Finger cots may be used when keep it dry.
The term "fyngyr stalle" was recorded in 1483. Early stalls were made of leather. Finger cots have applications in many workplaces to protect objects which can be damaged by exposure to the skin's natural oils, skin particles, dirt on hands. In electronics manufacturing, e.g. the manufacture of semiconductors, finger cots are used while handling such components. In watchmaking they are used to protect delicate watch parts. In art conservation and restoration they protect works of art from contamination which can have detrimental effects over time. In jobs that require labor with the hands, such as automobile repair or cooking, finger cots may be used to protect and isolate an injured finger. Thimblettes are soft thimbles, made predominantly of rubber, used for leafing through or counting documents, bank notes, tickets, or forms, they protect against paper cuts as a secondary function. Thimble
The index finger, is the first finger and the second digit of a human hand. It is located between the thumb and the middle finger, it is the most dextrous and sensitive finger of the hand, though not the longest – it is shorter than the middle finger, may be shorter or longer than the ring finger – see digit ratio. "Index finger" means "pointing finger", from the same Latin source as indicate. The index finger has three phalanges; the index finger does not contain any muscles, but is controlled by muscles in the hand by attachments of tendons to the bones. A lone index finger held vertically is used to represent the number 1, or when held up or moved side to side, it can be an admonitory gesture. With the hand held palm out and the thumb and middle fingers touching, it represents the letter d in the American Sign Language alphabet. Pointing with index finger may be used to indicate an item or person. Around the age of one year, babies begin pointing to communicate complex thoughts, including interest, desire and more.
Pointing in human babies can demonstrate the theory of mind, or ability to understand what other people are thinking. This gesture may form one basis for the development of human language. Non-human primates, lacking the ability to formulate ideas about what others are thinking, use pointing in much less complex ways; however and elephants do understand finger pointing. In some countries the Ethnic Malays in Malaysia, pointing using index finger is rude, hence thumb is used instead. In the Netherlands sticking up your index finger with your palm faced towards someone is a greeting. In Islam raising the index finger signifies the Tawhīd, which denotes the indivisible oneness of God, it is used to express the unity of God. The gesture has become widespread among supporters of political Islam and jihad members of ISIL. In Arabic, the index or fore finger is called musabbiḥa used with the definite article: al-musabbiḥa. Sometimes as-sabbāḥa is used; the Arabic verb سَبَّحَ - which shares the same root as the Arabic word for index finger - means to praise or glorify God by saying: "Subḥāna Allāh".
The Romans used the forefinger while fighting because the index finger asserted that the enemy was in front of them. As an artistic convention, the index finger pointing at the viewer is in the form of a command or summons. Two famous examples of this are recruiting posters used during World War I by the United Kingdom and the United States; the index finger pointing up is a sign of teaching authority. This is shown in the depiction of Plato in the School of Athens by Raphael. Digit ratio, comparative lengths of the index finger and ring finger and androgen levels in utero Extensor indicis muscle Fingering Index Media related to Index finger at Wikimedia Commons