click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Fingerpick

A fingerpick or thumbpick is a type of plectrum used most for playing bluegrass style banjo music. Most fingerpicks are composed of plastic. Unlike flat guitar picks, which are held between the thumb and finger and used one at a time, fingerpicks clip onto or wrap around the end of the fingers and thumb. Three are used: one for the thumb, one each for the middle and index fingers. Fingerpicks worn on the thumb are called "thumbpicks". Most players use a plastic thumbpick while using metal fingerpicks. Fingerpicks come in a variety of thicknesses to accommodate different musicians' styles of playing. Thin picks produce more delicate sound, while thick picks produce a heavier sound. Fingerpicks are used by guitar, Hawaiian guitar, lap steel, pedal steel guitar and Dobro players. Fingerpicks take quite some time to adapt to for people who come from the more common fingerstyle techniques. Tone wise, they are the most similar to standard guitar picks; some players combine bare fingers/fingernails. Classical guitar players, who traditionally use their fingernails to pluck the guitar's strings, may choose to use fingerpicks as an alternative to maintaining fingernails.

Fingerstyle guitar Hybrid picking

Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, a few others including osteoclasts have many; the cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function; the nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, the nuclear matrix, a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.

Because the nuclear envelope is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, a number of nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, particular parts of the chromosomes; the best-known of these is the nucleolus, involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA; the nucleus was the first organelle to be discovered. What is most the oldest preserved drawing dates back to the early microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

He observed the nucleus, in the red blood cells of salmon. Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei; the nucleus was described by Franz Bauer in 1804 and in more detail in 1831 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in a talk at the Linnean Society of London. Brown was studying orchids under the microscope when he observed an opaque area, which he called the "areola" or "nucleus", in the cells of the flower's outer layer, he did not suggest a potential function. In 1838, Matthias Schleiden proposed that the nucleus plays a role in generating cells, thus he introduced the name "cytoblast", he believed that he had observed new cells assembling around "cytoblasts". Franz Meyen was a strong opponent of this view, having described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei; the idea that cells can be generated de novo, by the "cytoblast" or otherwise, contradicted work by Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow who decisively propagated the new paradigm that cells are generated by cells.

The function of the nucleus remained unclear. Between 1877 and 1878, Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus; this was the first time. This was in contradiction to Ernst Haeckel's theory that the complete phylogeny of a species would be repeated during embryonic development, including generation of the first nucleated cell from a "monerula", a structureless mass of primordial protoplasm. Therefore, the necessity of the sperm nucleus for fertilization was discussed for quite some time. However, Hertwig confirmed his observation in other animal groups, including amphibians and molluscs. Eduard Strasburger produced the same results for plants in 1884; this paved the way to assign the nucleus an important role in heredity. In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity; the function of the nucleus as carrier of genetic information became clear only after mitosis was discovered and the Mendelian rules were rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century.

The nucleus is the largest organelle in animal cells. In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is 6 micrometres, which occupies about 10% of the total cell volume; the contents of the nucleus are held in the nucleoplasm similar to the cytoplasm in the rest of the cell. The fluid component of this is termed the nucleosol, similar to the cytosol in the cytoplasm. In most types of granulocyte, a white blood cell, the nucleus is lobated and can be bi-lobed, tri-lobed or multi-lobed; the nuclear envelope, otherwise known as nuclear membrane, consists of two cellular membranes, an inner and an outer membrane, arranged parallel to one another and separated by 10 to 50 nanometres. The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus and separates the cell's genetic material from the surrounding cytoplasm, serving as a barrier to prevent macromolecules from diffusing between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm; the outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, is studded with ribosomes.

The space between the membranes is called the perinuclear space and is continuous with the RER lumen. Nuclear pores, which provide aqueous

Pierre Chambon

Pierre Chambon was the founder of the Institute for Genetics and Cellular and Molecular Biology in Strasbourg, France. He was one of the leading molecular biologists who utilized gene cloning and sequencing technology to first decipher the structure of eukaryotic genes and their modes of regulation, his major contributions to science include the identification of RNA polymerase II, the identification of transcriptional control elements, the cloning and dissection of nuclear hormone receptors, revealing their structure and showing how they contribute to human physiology. His group was one of the first to demonstrate and electron-microscopically, that the nucleosome is the smallest unit of chromatin, he accomplished much of his work in the 1970-90s. Chambon was elected a Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Sciences and to the French Académie des Sciences in 1985, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1987, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in 1999.

In 2003 he was awarded the March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology. He received the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2004 for his work in the field. In 2010, Chambon was awarded the Gairdner Foundation International Award "for the elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of transcription in animal cells and to the discovery of the nuclear receptor superfamily". In 2018 he received the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for a second time; the Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize ISI Highly Cited page

Boomerang (1947 film)

Boomerang! is a 1947 American crime film noir based on the true story of a vagrant, accused of murder by an incompetent police force, only to be found not guilty through the efforts of the prosecutor. It stars Lee J. Cobb, Karl Malden, Arthur Kennedy and Jane Wyatt; the film was directed by Elia Kazan, based on a story in Reader's Digest and was shot in Stamford, Connecticut after Kazan was denied permission to film in Bridgeport, where the actual events occurred. This semidocumentary contains voice-overs by Reed Hadley; the film was entered into the 1947 Cannes Film Festival. Father Lambert, a priest, is shot dead on a Connecticut street at night; the police, led by Chief Robinson, fail to find the murderer. It soon becomes a political hot potato, with the police accused of incompetence, the city's reform-minded administration comes under attack. Robinson and the prosecutor Henry Harvey come under severe pressure by political leaders to find the killer or bring in outside help. After strenuous efforts yield nothing, a vagrant ex-serviceman, John Waldron, is apprehended and identified in a lineup.

Pushed by politicians, the press, the public, the police need someone to bring to trial. Waldron is interrogated for two days by police; the evidence seems solid, a gun in his possession is believed to be the gun, used in the shooting. Harvey, however, is not convinced, he questions Waldron, investigates the evidence and the witnesses. Harvey risks his reputation and incurs the wrath of the police and the public in proposing that the defendant is innocent, while he and his wife are being threatened by a businessman named Harris. In court though he is the prosecutor, Harvey lays out the flaws in the case before the judge, indicates he intends to dismiss the charges; the judge suspects Harvey's motives. A sub-plot involving Paul Harris and a property under consideration for sale to the city—at a price Harris needs to keep himself afloat—also has a prominent place in the film. Harris tries to blackmail Harvey by threatening to destroy his wife, a planning committee member, unless he supports the sale and sits idle, allowing Waldron to be convicted.

At a preliminary hearing, Harvey once again presents evidence that would lead to Waldron's exoneration. When a reporter gets wind of the double-dealing and threatens Harris with exposure, Harris commits suicide in the courtroom; the film ends with a narration that the murder was never solved, the real Henry Harvey was Homer Cummings who rose to the position of U. S. Attorney General. Dana Andrews as State's Atty. Henry L. Harvey Jane Wyatt as Madge Harvey Lee J. Cobb as Chief Harold F. "Robby" Robinson Cara Williams as Irene Nelson Arthur Kennedy as John Waldron Sam Levene as Dave Woods Taylor Holmes as T. M. Wade Robert Keith as "Mac" McCreery Ed Begley as Paul Harris Karl Malden as Det. Lt. White William Challee as Stone, Harvey's assistant Lewis Leverett as Whitney, Harvey's assistant Arthur Miller as a suspect in the police line-up Wyrley Birch as Father Lambert The film is based on an actual murder case in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1924. While walking near the Lyric Theatre in downtown Bridgeport, the Rev. Hubert Dahme was fatally shot behind the left ear by a gun fired at close range.

Those in the theatre were so shocked that no one thought to call for an ambulance until 10 minutes had passed. Two hours the priest was pronounced dead at St. Vincent's Hospital in Bridgeport. A vagrant and discharged soldier, Harold Israel, was indicted for the murder. Israel confessed to the crime, a.32 revolver was found in his possession that police believe was used in the murder. Fairfield County, Connecticut state's attorney Homer Cummings conducted a thorough investigation and found Israel innocent of the crime. Cummings became Attorney General of the United States under Franklin D. Roosevelt; the Morning Record was the name used in the film for the Bridgeport Post. All of the film was shot in Stamford, except for the courtroom scene shot in White Plains, New York. Stamford locations: The South End of Stamford at Saint Luke's Chapel. Old Town Hall the Police Department offices and the stairway leading up from them to the courtroom; the Altschul home on Den Road in Stamford. For a scene in which the pastor was killed, the movie used the front and sidewalk of the Plaza Theatre, which stood on Greyrock Place.

The former offices of The Advocate of Stamford, the local daily newspaper, on Atlantic Street. Some members of the Advocate editorial staff members were used in a scene about the news breaking that the priest killer had been caught; the movie premiered at the Palace Theatre in Stamford on March 5, 1947, with Kazan and Andrews in attendance. When first released film critic Bosley Crowther discussed the filmmaking, writing the "...style of presentation has resulted in a drama of rare clarity and punch."The staff at Variety

The New Atlanta

The New Atlanta is an American reality television series that aired on Bravo and premiered on September 17, 2013. The series was green-lit under the working title of Taking Atlanta, it would emerge with its current title on July 17, 2013. The New Atlanta chronicles the lives of five young adults — Africa Miranda, Alexandra Dilworth, Emily Lipman, Jevon "Vawn" Sims, Tribble Reese — who are building their empires and achieving their dreams in Atlanta, Georgia. Australia — The series premiered on October 24, 2013 on Arena; the New Atlanta at Internet Movie Database The New Atlanta at TV.com The New Atlanta at TV Guide The New Atlanta at TV.com

2017 Junior World Rally Championship

The 2017 FIA Junior World Rally Championship was the sixteenth season of the Junior World Rally Championship, an auto racing championship recognised by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, running in support of the World Rally Championship. The Junior World Rally Championship was open to drivers born after 1 January 1988—although no such restriction existed for co-drivers—and they competed in identical one-litre Ford Fiesta R2s built and maintained by M-Sport, with DMACK tyres. Crews who contested the Junior World Rally Championship were eligible to score points in the World Rally Championship-3; the championship was competed over six European WRC rounds. Nil Solans was crowned champion at the end of the season; the final 2017 Junior World Rally Championship calendar consisted of six European events, taken from the 2017 World Rally Championship. The following crews competed in the championship; the series will change from using Citroën DS3 R3Ts with Michelin tyres, to use Ford Fiesta R2 prepared by M-Sport with DMACK tyres.

The championship will adopt the prize format of the Drive DMACK Fiesta Trophy in which the season will be divided into "stages" and a prize awarded to the top-placed driver in each stage. The driver with most points after the first two rallies will be awarded two drives in the 2018 World Rally Championship-2 in a Ford Fiesta R5; the driver with most points scored in the second pair of rallies will win an equal prize, as will the top-placed driver in the third pair of rallies. Additionally, an extra prize drive will be awarded to the overall winner of the category; the season started with the Tour de Corse. After building a lead of more than 40 seconds in the first Leg, he managed he was chased by local Terry Folb, until a driveshaft problem made him lost his second place to fellow Frenchman Nicolas Ciamin. Points are awarded to the top ten classified finishers. An additional point is given for every stage win; the best 5 classification results count towards the drivers’ and co-drivers’ totals, but stage points from all 6 rounds can be retained.

Official website of the World Rally Championship