A devil is the personification of evil as it is conceived in many and various cultures and religious traditions. It is seen as the objectification of a destructive force, it is difficult to specify a particular definition of any complexity that will cover all of the traditions, beyond that it is a manifestation of evil. It is meaningful to consider the devil through the lens of each of the cultures and religions that have the devil as part of their mythos; the history of this concept intertwines with theology, psychiatry and literature, maintaining a validity, developing independently within each of the traditions. It occurs in many contexts and cultures, is given many different names — Satan, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles — and attributes: It is portrayed as blue, black, or red; the idea of the devil has been taken often, but not always, for example when devil figures are used in advertising and on candy wrappers. The Modern English word devil derives from the Middle English devel, from the Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of the Latin diabolus.
This in turn was borrowed from the Greek: διάβολος diábolos, "slanderer", from διαβάλλειν diabállein, "to slander" from διά diá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl" akin to the Sanskrit gurate, "he lifts up". In his book The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Jeffrey Burton Russell discusses various meanings and difficulties that are encountered when using the term devil, he does not claim to define the word in a general sense, but he describes the limited use that he intends for the word in his book — limited in order to “minimize this difficulty” and “for the sake of clarity”. In this book Russell uses the word devil as "the personification of evil found in a variety of cultures", as opposed to the word Satan, which he reserves for the figure in the Abrahamic religions. In the Introduction to his book Satan: A Biography, Henry Ansgar Kelly discusses various considerations and meanings that he has encountered in using terms such as devil and Satan, etc.
While not offering a general definition, he describes that in his book "whenever diabolos is used as the proper name of Satan", he signals it by using "small caps". The Oxford English Dictionary has a variety of definitions for the meaning of "devil", supported by a range of citations: "Devil" may refer to Satan, the supreme spirit of evil, or one of Satan's emissaries or demons that populate Hell, or to one of the spirits that possess a demonic person; the earliest Hindu texts do not offer further explanations for evil, regarding evil as something natural. However texts offer various explanations for evil. According to an explanation given by the Brahmins, both demons and gods spoke truth and untruth, but the demons relinquished the truth and the gods relinquished the untruth, but both spirits are regarded as different aspects of one supreme god. Some fierce deities like Kali are not thought of as devils but just as darker aspects of God and may manifest benevolence. Zoroastrianism introduced the first idea of the conceptual devil.
In Zoroastrianism and evil derive from two opposed forces. The force of good is called Ahura Mazda and the "destructive spirit" in Avestan-language called Angra Mainyu; the Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. They are in eternal struggle and neither is all-powerful Angra Mainyu is limited to space and time: in the end of time, he will be defeated. While Ahura Mazda creates what is good, Angra Mainyu is responsible for every evil and suffering in the world, such as toads and scorpions. Among the Tengristic myths, Erlik refers to a devil-like figure as the ruler of Hell, the first human. According to one narrative and God swam together over the primordial waters; when God was about to create the Earth, he send Erlik to collect some mud. Erlik hid some inside his mouth to create his own world, but when God commanded the Earth to expand, Erlik got troubled by the mud in his mouth. God aided Erlik to spit it out; the mud carried by Erlik gave place to the unpleasant areas of the world. Because of his sin, he was assigned to evil.
In another variant, the creator-god is identified with Ulgen. Again, Erlik appears to be the first human, he desired to create a human just as Ulgen did, thereupon Ulgen reacted by punishing Erlik, casting him into the Underworld where he becomes its ruler. According to Tengrism, there is no death by meaning that life comes to an end, it is a transition into the invisible world; as the ruler of Hell, Erlik enslaves the souls. Further, he lurks on the souls of those humans living on Earth by causing death and illnesses. At the time of birth, Erlik sends a Kormos to seize the soul of the newborn, following him for the rest of his life in an attempt to seize his soul by hampering and injuring him; when Erlik succeeds in destroying a human's body, the Kormos sent by Erlik will try take him down into the Underworld. However a good soul will be brought to Paradise by a Yayutshi sent by Ulgen; some shamans made sacrifices to Erlik, for gaining a higher rank in the Underworld, if they should be damned to Hell.
According to Yazidism there is no entity that represents evil in opposi
Mägo de Oz (album)
Mägo de Oz was Mägo de Oz's debut album. Juanma: voice Mohamed: violin Carlitos: lead guitar Chema: rhythm guitar Salva: bass Txus: drums, voice on "Lo que el viento se dejó" and "Yankees go home"
Puente La Reina – Gares
Puente La Reina is a town and municipality located in the autonomous community of Navarre, in northern Spain. Puente la Reina lies between Pamplona and Estella on the Way of St. James pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela, it is the first town after the junction of the French Way, the most popular route, Aragonese Way. Queen Muniadona, wife of King Sancho III was the queen who gave her name to the town and the bridge known as the Puente Románico, she built the six-arched Romanesque bridge over the Arga for the use of pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela along the Camino de Santiago. Navarra.com/camino/puente.htm Puente La Reina / Gares in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia Walking the Camino de Santiago, A Guide The site has great photos of the bridge at six in the morning as the sun rises
La Ciudad de los Árboles
La Ciudad de los Árboles is the eighth studio album by Spanish folk metal group Mägo de Oz, it was released on 6 November 2007. It comes in Digibook format and includes a DVD; the first single of the album is "a tribute to Mexico in ranchera style. The second single of the album is "Deja de Llorar" El Espíritu del Bosque - 1:46 La Ciudad de los Árboles - 6:02 Mi Nombre es Rock & Roll - 6:03 El Rincón de los Sentidos - 4:39 Deja de Llorar - 4:18 La Canción de los Deseos - 4:01 Y Ahora Voy a Salir - 3:53 Runa Llena* - 4:46 Resacosix en la Barra - 3:47 No Queda sino Batirnos - 4:19 Sin Ti, Sería Silencio - 4:42 Si Molesto, Me Quedo - 4:38 El Espíritu del Bosque II - 1:15* A play on the phrase "Full Moon", in Spanish "Luna Llena"
Scarborough Fair (ballad)
"Scarborough Fair" is a traditional English ballad that hangs, in some versions at least, upon a possible visit by an unidentified person to the Yorkshire town of Scarborough. The song implies the tale of a man who instructs the third party to tell his former love, who lives in said fair town, to perform for him a series of impossible tasks, such as making for him a shirt without a seam and no needlework and washing it in a dry empty well, adding that if she were to complete these tasks he would take her back into his affections; the song is sung as a duet, with the woman giving her sometime lover a series of impossible tasks, promising to give him his seamless shirt and her heart once he has finished. As the versions of the ballad known under the title "Scarborough Fair" are limited to the exchange of these impossible tasks, many suggestions concerning the plot have been proposed, including the hypothesis that it is about the Great Plague of the late Middle Ages; the lyrics of "Scarborough Fair" appear to have something in common with an obscure Scottish ballad, The Elfin Knight by Francis James Child, traced as far back as 1670 and may well be earlier.
In this ballad, an elf threatens to abduct a young woman to be his lover unless she can perform an impossible task. The melody is in Dorian mode, is typical of the middle English period; as the song spread, it was adapted and rewritten to the point that dozens of versions existed by the end of the 18th century, although only a few are sung nowadays. The references to the traditional English fair, "Scarborough Fair" and the refrain "parsley, sage and thyme" date to 19th century versions and the refrain may have been borrowed from the ballad Riddles Wisely Expounded, which has a similar plot. A number of older versions refer to locations other than Scarborough Fair, including Wittingham Fair, Cape Ann, "twixt Berwik and Lyne", etc. Many versions do not mention a place-name and are generically titled; as a popular and distributed song from 1946-1968, there are many versions of the lyrics. The one here, intended as a duet by a man and a woman, includes the place after which it is named: Male part: Are you going to Scarborough Fair?
Parsley, sage and thyme. Tell her to make me a cambric shirt, sage and thyme. Tell her to wash it in yonder well, sage and thyme. Tell her to dry it on yonder thorn, sage and thyme. Female part: Now he has asked me questions three, sage and thyme. Tell him to buy me an acre of land, sage and thyme. Tell him to plough it with a ram's horn, sage and thyme. Tell him to sheer't with a sickle of leather, sage and thyme. Tell him to thrash it on yonder wall, sage and thyme, And never let one corn of it fall, Then he shall be a true lover of mine; when he has done and finished his work. Parsley, sage and thyme: Oh, tell him to come and he'll have his shirt, And he shall be a true lover of mine; the oldest versions of The Elfin Knight contain the refrain "my plaid away, my plaid away, the wind shall not blow my plaid away". More recent versions contain one of a group of related refrains: Sober and grave grows merry in time Every rose grows merry with time There's never a rose grows fairer with time Yesterday holds memories in timeThese are paired with "Once he was a true love of mine" or some variant.
"Parsley, sage and thyme" may be an alternate rhyming refrain to the original based on a corruption of "grows merry in time" into "rosemary and thyme". The earliest commercial recording of the ballad was by actor/singers Gordon Heath and Lee Payant, Americans who ran a cafe and nightclub, L'Abbaye, on the Rive Gauche in Paris, they recorded the song on the Elektra album Encores From The Abbaye in 1955. Their version used the melody from Frank Kidson's collection Traditional Tunes, published in 1891, which reported it as being "as sung in Whitby streets twenty or thirty years ago", or about the 1860s; the song was included on A. L. Lloyd's 1955 album The English And Scottish Popular Ballads, using Kidson's melody; the version using the melody used by Simon & Garfunkel in "Scarborough Fair/Canticle" was first recorded on a 1956 album, English Folk Songs, by Audrey Coppard. It was included by Ewan MacColl on Matching Songs For The British Isles And America, by MacColl and Peggy Seeger on The Singing Island, by Shirley Collins on the album False True Lovers.
It is that both Coppard and Collins learned it from MacColl, who claimed to have collected it "in part" from a Scottish miner. According to the Teesdale Mercury and Martin Carthy's daughter, it emerged that researcher-musician MacCol
Jethro Tull (band)
Jethro Tull are a British rock band formed in Blackpool, Lancashire, in 1967. Playing blues rock, the band developed their sound to incorporate elements of hard and folk rock to forge a progressive rock signature; the band is led by vocalist/flautist/guitarist Ian Anderson, has featured a revolving door of lineups through the years including significant members such as guitarists Mick Abrahams and Martin Barre, keyboardist John Evan, drummers Clive Bunker, Barriemore Barlow, Doane Perry, bassists Glenn Cornick, Jeffrey Hammond, John Glascock, Dave Pegg. The group first achieved commercial success in 1969, with the folk-tinged blues album Stand Up, which reached No. 1 in the UK, they toured in the UK and the US. Their musical style shifted in the direction of progressive rock with the albums Aqualung, Thick as a Brick and A Passion Play, shifted again to hard rock mixed with folk rock with Songs from the Wood and Heavy Horses. Jethro Tull have sold an estimated 60 million albums worldwide, with 11 gold and five platinum albums among them.
They have been described by Rolling Stone as "one of the most commercially successful and eccentric progressive rock bands". The last works as a group to contain new material were released in 2003, though the band continued to tour until 2011. Anderson said Jethro Tull were finished in 2014; the current band line-up includes musicians who have been members of Anderson's solo band since 2012. The band began a world tour on 1 March 2018. Ian Anderson, Jeffrey Hammond and John Evan, who would become members of Jethro Tull, attended grammar school together in Blackpool. Anderson was born in Dunfermline and grew up in Edinburgh before moving to Blackpool in January 1960. Evans had become a fan of the Beatles after seeing them play "Love Me Do" on Granada Television's Scene at 6:30. Though he was an accomplished pianist, he decided to take up the drums, as it was an instrument featured in the Beatles' line-up. Anderson had acquired a Spanish guitar and taught himself how to play it, the pair decided to form a band.
The pair recruited Hammond on bass. The group played as a three piece at local clubs and venues, before Evans became influenced by Georgie Fame and the Animals and switched to organ, recruiting drummer Barrie Barlow and guitarist Mike Stevens from local band the Atlantics. By 1964 the band had recruited guitarist Chris Riley and developed into a six-piece blue-eyed soul band called the John Evan Band. Evans had shortened his surname to "Evan" at the insistence of Hammond, who thought it sounded better and more unusual; the group recruited Johnny Taylor as a booking agent and played gigs further afield around northwest England, playing a mixture of blues and Motown covers. Hammond subsequently quit the band to go to art school, he was replaced by Derek Ward by Glenn Cornick. Riley quit and was replaced by Neil Smith; the group recorded three songs at Regent Sound Studios in Denmark Street, London in April 1967, appeared at The Marquee club in June. In November 1967, the band moved to the London area.
They signed a management deal with Terry Ellis and Chris Wright and replaced Smith with guitarist Mick Abrahams, but realised that supporting a 6-piece band was financially impractical, the group split up. Anderson and Cornick decided to stay together, recruiting Abrahams' friend Clive Bunker on drums and becoming a British blues band. Cornick recalled that although Evan left, the band said he was welcome to rejoin at a date; as the only member not having nearby family, Anderson lived in a bed-sit "on the verge of starvation" and worked as a cleaner for the Luton Ritz Cinema to pay the rent. Jethro Tull formed on 20 December. At first, the new band had trouble getting repeat bookings and they took to changing their name to continue playing the London club circuit, names which included "Navy Blue", "Ian Henderson's Bag o' Nails", "Candy Coloured Rain". Anderson recalled looking at a poster at a club and concluding that the band name he didn't recognise was his. Band names were supplied by their booking agents' staff, one of whom, a history enthusiast christened them "Jethro Tull" after the 18th-century agriculturist.
The name stuck because they happened to be using it the first time a club manager liked their show enough to invite them to return. They recorded a session with producer Derek Lawrence, which resulted in the single "Sunshine Day"; the B-side "Aeroplane" was an old John Evan Band track with the saxophones mixed out. It was released in February 1968 on MGM Records, miscredited to "Jethro Toe". Anderson has since questioned the misnomer as a way to avoid paying royalties; the more common version, with the name spelled is a counterfeit made in New York. Anderson met Hammond while in London and the two renewed their friendship, while Anderson moved into a bedsit in Chelsea with Evan. Hammond became the subject of several songs, beginning with their next single, "A Song for Jeffrey"; because he was living in a cold bedsit, Anderson bought a large overcoat to keep him warm, along with the flute, it became part of his early stage image. It was around this time that Anderson purchased a flute after becoming frustrated with his inability to play guitar as well as Abrahams, because their managers thought he should remain a rhythm guitarist, with Abrahams becoming the front man.
I didn't want to be just another third-
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.e. it is a type of read-only memory. During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software and data for computers and fourth generation video game consoles; some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data is only usable on a computer. The CD-ROM format was developed by Japanese company Denon in 1982, it was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a storage capacity of 553 MiB. CD-ROM was introduced by Denon and Sony at a Japanese computer show in 1984; the Yellow Book is the technical standard. One of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats, the Yellow Book, standardized by Sony and Philips in 1983, specifies a format for discs with a maximum capacity of 650 MiB. CD-ROMs are identical in appearance to audio CDs, data are stored and retrieved in a similar manner.
Discs are made from a 1.2 mm thick disc of polycarbonate plastic, with a thin layer of aluminium to make a reflective surface. The most common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter, though the smaller Mini CD standard with an 80 mm diameter, as well as shaped compact discs in numerous non-standard sizes and molds, are available. Data is stored on the disc as a series of microscopic indentations. A laser is shone onto the reflective surface of the disc to read the pattern of lands; because the depth of the pits is one-quarter to one-sixth of the wavelength of the laser light used to read the disc, the reflected beam's phase is shifted in relation to the incoming beam, causing destructive interference and reducing the reflected beam's intensity. This is converted into binary data. Several formats are used for data stored on compact discs, known as the Rainbow Books; the Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, standardized in 1989 as the ISO/IEC 10149 / ECMA-130 standard.
The CD-ROM standard builds on top of the original Red Book CD-DA standard for CD audio. Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, further define formats based on the CD-ROM specifications; the Yellow Book itself is not available, but the standards with the corresponding content can be downloaded for free from ISO or ECMA. There are several standards that define how to structure data files on a CD-ROM. ISO 9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM. ISO 13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions; the ISO 13346 standard was designed to address most of the shortcomings of ISO 9660, a subset of it evolved into the UDF format, adopted for DVDs. The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, is called El Torito. Data stored on CD-ROMs follows the standard CD data encoding techniques described in the Red Book specification.
This includes cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, eight-to-fourteen modulation, the use of pits and lands for coding the bits into the physical surface of the CD. The structures used to group data on a CD-ROM are derived from the Red Book. Like audio CDs, a CD-ROM sector contains 2,352 bytes of user data, composed of 98 frames, each consisting of 33-bytes. Unlike audio CDs, the data stored in these sectors corresponds to any type of digital data, not audio samples encoded according to the audio CD specification. To structure and protect this data, the CD-ROM standard further defines two sector modes, Mode 1 and Mode 2, which describe two different layouts for the data inside a sector. A track inside a CD-ROM only contains sectors in the same mode, but if multiple tracks are present in a CD-ROM, each track can have its sectors in a different mode from the rest of the tracks, they can coexist with audio CD tracks as well, the case of mixed mode CDs. Both Mode 1 and 2 sectors use the first 16 bytes for header information, but differ in the remaining 2,336 bytes due to the use of error correction bytes.
Unlike an audio CD, a CD-ROM cannot rely on error concealment by interpolation. To achieve improved error correction and detection, Mode 1, used for digital data, adds a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check code for error detection, a third layer of Reed–Solomon error correction using a Reed-Solomon Product-like Code. Mode 1 therefore contains 288 bytes per sector for error detection and correction, leaving 2,048 bytes per sector available for data. Mode 2, more appropriate for image or video data, contains no additional error detection or correction bytes, having therefore 2,336 available data bytes per sector. Note that both modes, like audio CDs, still benefit from the lower layers of error correction at the frame level. Before being stored on a disc with the techniques described above, each CD-ROM sector is scrambled to prevent some problematic patterns from showing up; these scrambled sectors follow the same encoding process described in the Red Book in order to be stored