1960 Summer Olympics
The 1960 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London. On June 15, 1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, Rome won the rights to host the 1960 Games, having beaten Brussels, Mexico City, Detroit and Lausanne. Tokyo and Mexico City would subsequently host the proceeding 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics respectively. Toronto was interested in the bidding, but appears to have dropped out during the final phase of the bid process; this was the first of five unsuccessful attempts by Toronto to secure the Summer Olympics from until the 2008 games. Swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title. Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth consecutive gold medal in the team sabre event.
The Japanese men's gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds. The United States men's national basketball team—led by promising college players Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson and Jerry West—captured its fifth straight Olympic gold medal. Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class. Others to emulate his performance in an individual event are Al Oerter, Carl Lewis, Michael Phelps, Kaori Icho and, if the Intercalated Games of 1906 are included, Ray Ewry. German Armin Hary won the 100 metres in an Olympic record time of 10.2 seconds. Wilma Rudolph, a former polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track, she was acclaimed as "the fastest woman in the world". Jeff Farrell won two gold medals in swimming, he underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials. Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing's light-heavyweight gold medal.
Ramon "Buddy" Carr was one of the coaches. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men's 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history. Rafer Johnson defeated his rival and friend C. K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time; the future Constantine II, last King of Greece won his country a gold in sailing: dragon class. The Pakistani Men's Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian team victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistan's first Olympic gold medal. Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, Doug Blubaugh, who wrestled together growing up, won gold medals in their respective weight classes. Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and died in the hospital, it was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics.
South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime. It would not be allowed to return until 1992, by. Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, to become its national flag after independence, as the British had granted it self-government a year earlier. Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category, the first time that an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal. Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a field shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target, in so doing he dropped from second place to fourth. Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, competed in yachting for Venezuela; the future Queen Sofía of Spain represented her native Greece in sailing events. CBS paid US$394,000 in today's dollars for the exclusive right to broadcast the Games in the United States; this was the first Summer Olympic games to be telecast in North America. In addition to CBS in the United States, the Olympics were telecast for the first time in Canada and in Mexico.
Since television broadcast satellites were still two years into the future, CBS, CBC, TSM shot and edited videotapes in Rome, fed the tapes to Paris where they were re-recorded onto other tapes which were loaded onto jet planes to North America. Planes carrying the tapes landed at Idlewild Airport in New York City, where mobile units fed the tapes to CBS, to Toronto for the CBC, to Mexico City for TSM. Despite this arrangement, many daytime events were broadcast in North America on CBS and CBC, the same day they took place. Olympic Stadium² - opening/closing ceremonies, equestrian events Flaminio Stadium¹ - football finals Swimming Stadium¹ - swimming, water polo, modern pentathlon Sports Palace¹ - basketball, boxing Olympic Velodrome¹ - cycling, field hockey Small Sports Palace¹ - basketball, weightlifting Marble Stadium² - field hockey preliminaries Baths of Caracalla - gymnastics Basilica of Maxentius - wrestling Palazzo dei Congressi - fencing Umberto I Shooting Range¹ - modern pentathlon, shooting Roses Swimming Pool¹ - water polo Lake Albano, Castelgandolfo - rowing, canoeing Piazza di
Cycling at the 1960 Summer Olympics – Men's individual road race
These are the official results of the Men's Individual Road Race at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, held on 30 August 1960. There were 142 participants from 42 nations. Of the 142 starters 76 rode the distance to the end
Jorma Johannes Limmonen was a Finnish boxer who competed in the featherweight division in the 1960 and 1964 Olympics. He won a bronze medal in 1960, losing in a semifinal to the eventual champion Francesco Musso, was eliminated in the second bout in 1964. Limmonen won ten consecutive national titles in 1953 -- 64, he retired in 1964 and worked as a boxing coach and a sports journalist. In 2006 he was inducted into the Finnish Boxing Hall of Fame. Jorma Limmonen competed as a featherweight in the 1964 Olympic boxing tournament in Tokyo. Here are his results from that event: Round of 32: defeated Jan de Rooj of the Netherlands Round of 16 lost to Constantin Crudu of Romania by a 2-3 decision
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Eugen Georg Oskar Ekman is a retired Finnish gymnast. He competed in all artistic gymnastics events at the 1960 and 1964 Olympics and won a gold medal in pommel horse in 1960; that year he finished sixth all-around, while in 1964 he served as the Olympic flag bearer for Finland at the opening ceremony
Finland at the 1908 Summer Olympics
Finland competed at the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. The Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire at the time, but Finland had become a sovereign member of the International Olympic Committee in 1907. Verner Weckman became the first Finn to win an olympic gold, he was the first Finn to win a gold at the 1906 Intercalated Games. 28 Finns won a medal at the games. No women entered from Finland. Aarne Salovaara and Johan Kemp competed in two sports, among 46 athletes in the games who competed in multiple sports. Finland's best result was Verner Järvinen's bronze medal in the Greek-style discus throw; the athletics team performed up to expectations. Only javelin throw. Unless otherwise specified, results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 44–100. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Notes: Notes: The Finnish divers had low expectations, as they had competed in plain jumps only, their scores suffered from low degrees of difficulty.
Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill. The 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 141–146. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. For many of the individual gymnasts, the score or rank was not recorded, it is known that Riku Korhonen was the highest-ranking Finn in the men's artistic individual all-around event, meaning the other Finns placed outside top 75. The Finnish shooting team returned in disgrace; the captain of the shooting team, Axel Fredrik Londen, explained in an article that the Finnish shooters could only afford an inferior number of practice shots and inferior gun powder. There was an import ban on modern bullets and rifles in Finland. Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 223–227. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. In the Official Report of the 1908 Olympics, three Finns are listed as having entered the trap event: Robert Huber, Axel Fredrik Londen and Karl Fazer, are suggested as having been eliminated in the first round of the event.
However, Bill Mallon and Ian Buchanan in modern research argue. In a contemporary article, Londen describes him being there in a team leader's form, the Finns entering the 300-metre rifle event only and never mentions Huber or Fazer; the Finnish swimmers took the games as an excursion. They competed for the first time in backstroke, they were used to a 25 metre track, but the Olympic pool was 100 metres long, which hindered them in their main event, the breaststroke. Unless otherwise specified, results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 242–253. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Finland placed third in the wrestling medal table. Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 283–290. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Ledend: W = win, L = loss, /f = by fall, /p by points According to rumours, Weckman bribed Saarela to throw the final.
Modern sportswriters Arto Teronen and Jouko Vuolle consider that there is plenty of circumstantial evidence in favour. Evans, Hilary. "Finland at the 1908 London Summer Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 9 July 2017. Cook, Theodore Andrea; the Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report. London: British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2017
Veli Veikko Valtteri Lehtelä is a retired Finnish rower. He competed in various two-man and four man events at the 1956, 1960 and 1964 Olympics and won two bronze medals, in 1956 and 1960, his daughter Jorma Lehtelä became an Olympic rower. Throughout most of his career Lehtelä rowed with Toimi Pitkänen. Besides two Olympic bronze medals, they won two gold and two silver medals at the European championships from 1955 to 1961, placed sixth at the 1964 Olympics