Kari Liimo is a Finnish basketball player. He competed in the men's tournament at the 1964 Summer Olympics
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Diving at the 1964 Summer Olympics
At the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, four diving events were contested during a competition that took place at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium, from 11 to 18 October, comprising 82 divers from 21 nations. The events are named according to the International Olympic Committee labelling, but they appeared on the official report as "springboard diving" and "high diving", respectively. Here are listed the nations that were represented in the diving events and, in brackets, the number of national competitors. Diving at the 1963 Pan American Games "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2006-11-22; the Organising Committee for The Games of the XVIII Olympiad. The Official Report of The Games of the XVIII Olympiad Tokyo 1964, Volume II. Tokyo: The Organising Committee for The Games of the XVIII Olympiad. Retrieved 2007-01-03
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before being cancelled because of World War II; the 1964 Summer Games were the first Olympics held in Asia, the first time South Africa was barred from taking part due to its apartheid system in sports. Tokyo was chosen as the host city during the 55th IOC Session in West Germany, on 26 May 1959; these games were the first to be telecast internationally without the need for tapes to be flown overseas, as they had been for the 1960 Olympics four years earlier. The games were telecast to the United States using Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, from there to Europe using Relay 1; these were the first Olympic Games to have color telecasts, albeit partially. Certain events like the sumo wrestling and judo matches, sports huge in Japan, were tried out using Toshiba's new colour transmission system, but only for the domestic market.
History surrounding the 1964 Olympics was chronicled in the 1965 documentary film Tokyo Olympiad, directed by Kon Ichikawa. The games were scheduled for mid-October to avoid the city's midsummer heat and humidity and the September typhoon season; the previous Olympics in Rome in 1960 experienced hot weather. The following games in 1968 in Mexico City began in October; the 1960's Olympics were the last to use a traditional cinder track for the track events. A smooth, all-weather track was used for the first time at the 1968 Olympics and at every Olympiad thereafter. Tokyo won the rights to the Games on 26 May 1959, at the 55th IOC Session in Munich, West Germany, over bids from Detroit and Vienna. Toronto was an early bidder again in 1964 after the failed attempt for 1960 and failed to make the final round. Yūji Koseki composed the theme song of the opening ceremony. Yoshinori Sakai, who lit the Olympic flame, was born in Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, the day an atomic bomb was dropped on that city.
Kumi-daiko was first exhibited to a worldwide audience at the Festival of Arts presentation. Judo and volleyball, both popular sports in Japan, were introduced to the Olympics. Japan won gold medals in three judo events; the Japanese women's volleyball team won the gold medal, with the final being broadcast live. The women's pentathlon was introduced to the athletics events. Reigning world champion Osamu Watanabe capped off his career with a gold medal for Japan in freestyle wrestling, surrendering no points and retiring from competition as the only undefeated Olympic champion to date at 189–0. Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina won a silver medal and two bronze medals, she had held the record for most Olympic medals at 18 which stood until broken by American swimmer Michael Phelps in 2012. Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská wins three gold medals, including the individual all-around competition, crowning her the new queen over the reigning champion Larisa Latynina. Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser won the 100 m freestyle event for the third time in a row, a feat matched by Vyacheslav Ivanov in rowing's single scull event.
Don Schollander won four gold medals in swimming. Abebe Bikila became the first person to win the Olympic marathon twice. New Zealand's Peter Snell won a gold medal in both 1500 metre. American Billy Mills, an unfancied runner, won the gold in the men's 10,000 m. No American had won it before and or since. British runner Ann Packer set a world record in becoming the surprise winner of the 800 metre, having never run the distance at international level before the Games. Bob Hayes won the 100 metre title in a time of 10.0 seconds. He had run a wind-assisted 9.9 seconds in the semifinal, but this was not recognized as a world record. He won a Super Bowl ring as a wide receiver for the Dallas Cowboys and was the second gold medalist elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Joe Frazier, future heavyweight champion of the world, won a gold medal in heavyweight boxing; this was the last Summer Olympics to use a cinder running track for athletic events, the first to use fiberglass poles for pole vaulting.
The nation of Malaysia, which had formed the previous year by a union of Malaya, British North Borneo and Singapore, competed for the first time in the Games. Zambia declared its independence on the day of the closing ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming the first country to have entered an Olympic games as one country, left it as another; the start of operations for the first Japanese "bullet train" between Tokyo Station and Shin-Ōsaka Station was scheduled to coincide with the Olympic games. The first scheduled train ran on 1 October 1964, just nine days before the opening of the games, transporting passengers 515 kilometres or 320 miles in about four hours, connecting the three major metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Osaka; the 1964 Summer Olympics featured 19 different sports encompassing 25 disciplines, medals were awarded in 163 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Note: In the Japan Olympic Committee report, sailing is listed as "yacht
Eugen Georg Oskar Ekman is a retired Finnish gymnast. He competed in all artistic gymnastics events at the 1960 and 1964 Olympics and won a gold medal in pommel horse in 1960; that year he finished sixth all-around, while in 1964 he served as the Olympic flag bearer for Finland at the opening ceremony
Modern pentathlon at the 1964 Summer Olympics
The modern pentathlon at the 1964 Summer Olympics was represented by two events: Individual competition and Team competition. As usual in Olympic modern pentathlon, one competition was held and each competitor's score was included to the Individual competition event results table and was added to his teammates' scores to be included to the Team competition event results table; this competition consisted of 5 disciplines: Equestrian, held on October 11 at Asaka Nezu Park. Fencing, held on October 12 at Waseda Memorial Hall. Shooting, held on October 13 at Asaka Shooting Range. Swimming, held on October 14 at National Gymnasium. Cross-country, held on October 15 at Kemigawa. A total of 37 athletes from 15 nations competed at the Tokyo Games: "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2006-12-05. Tokyo Organizing Committee; the Games of the XVIII Olympiad: Tokyo 1964, vol. 2
Finland at the 1908 Summer Olympics
Finland competed at the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. The Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire at the time, but Finland had become a sovereign member of the International Olympic Committee in 1907. Verner Weckman became the first Finn to win an olympic gold, he was the first Finn to win a gold at the 1906 Intercalated Games. 28 Finns won a medal at the games. No women entered from Finland. Aarne Salovaara and Johan Kemp competed in two sports, among 46 athletes in the games who competed in multiple sports. Finland's best result was Verner Järvinen's bronze medal in the Greek-style discus throw; the athletics team performed up to expectations. Only javelin throw. Unless otherwise specified, results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 44–100. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Notes: Notes: The Finnish divers had low expectations, as they had competed in plain jumps only, their scores suffered from low degrees of difficulty.
Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill. The 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 141–146. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. For many of the individual gymnasts, the score or rank was not recorded, it is known that Riku Korhonen was the highest-ranking Finn in the men's artistic individual all-around event, meaning the other Finns placed outside top 75. The Finnish shooting team returned in disgrace; the captain of the shooting team, Axel Fredrik Londen, explained in an article that the Finnish shooters could only afford an inferior number of practice shots and inferior gun powder. There was an import ban on modern bullets and rifles in Finland. Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 223–227. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. In the Official Report of the 1908 Olympics, three Finns are listed as having entered the trap event: Robert Huber, Axel Fredrik Londen and Karl Fazer, are suggested as having been eliminated in the first round of the event.
However, Bill Mallon and Ian Buchanan in modern research argue. In a contemporary article, Londen describes him being there in a team leader's form, the Finns entering the 300-metre rifle event only and never mentions Huber or Fazer; the Finnish swimmers took the games as an excursion. They competed for the first time in backstroke, they were used to a 25 metre track, but the Olympic pool was 100 metres long, which hindered them in their main event, the breaststroke. Unless otherwise specified, results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 242–253. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Finland placed third in the wrestling medal table. Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 283–290. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Ledend: W = win, L = loss, /f = by fall, /p by points According to rumours, Weckman bribed Saarela to throw the final.
Modern sportswriters Arto Teronen and Jouko Vuolle consider that there is plenty of circumstantial evidence in favour. Evans, Hilary. "Finland at the 1908 London Summer Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 9 July 2017. Cook, Theodore Andrea; the Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report. London: British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2017