Finland at the 1908 Summer Olympics
Finland competed at the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. The Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire at the time, but Finland had become a sovereign member of the International Olympic Committee in 1907. Verner Weckman became the first Finn to win an olympic gold, he was the first Finn to win a gold at the 1906 Intercalated Games. 28 Finns won a medal at the games. No women entered from Finland. Aarne Salovaara and Johan Kemp competed in two sports, among 46 athletes in the games who competed in multiple sports. Finland's best result was Verner Järvinen's bronze medal in the Greek-style discus throw; the athletics team performed up to expectations. Only javelin throw. Unless otherwise specified, results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 44–100. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Notes: Notes: The Finnish divers had low expectations, as they had competed in plain jumps only, their scores suffered from low degrees of difficulty.
Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill. The 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 141–146. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. For many of the individual gymnasts, the score or rank was not recorded, it is known that Riku Korhonen was the highest-ranking Finn in the men's artistic individual all-around event, meaning the other Finns placed outside top 75. The Finnish shooting team returned in disgrace; the captain of the shooting team, Axel Fredrik Londen, explained in an article that the Finnish shooters could only afford an inferior number of practice shots and inferior gun powder. There was an import ban on modern bullets and rifles in Finland. Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 223–227. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. In the Official Report of the 1908 Olympics, three Finns are listed as having entered the trap event: Robert Huber, Axel Fredrik Londen and Karl Fazer, are suggested as having been eliminated in the first round of the event.
However, Bill Mallon and Ian Buchanan in modern research argue. In a contemporary article, Londen describes him being there in a team leader's form, the Finns entering the 300-metre rifle event only and never mentions Huber or Fazer; the Finnish swimmers took the games as an excursion. They competed for the first time in backstroke, they were used to a 25 metre track, but the Olympic pool was 100 metres long, which hindered them in their main event, the breaststroke. Unless otherwise specified, results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 242–253. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Finland placed third in the wrestling medal table. Results are lifted from: Mallon, Bill; the 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina, United States: McFarland. Pp. 283–290. ISBN 978-0-7864-0598-5. Ledend: W = win, L = loss, /f = by fall, /p by points According to rumours, Weckman bribed Saarela to throw the final.
Modern sportswriters Arto Teronen and Jouko Vuolle consider that there is plenty of circumstantial evidence in favour. Evans, Hilary. "Finland at the 1908 London Summer Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 9 July 2017. Cook, Theodore Andrea; the Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report. London: British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2017
Olli-Pekka Karjalainen is a Finnish former hammer thrower. The 1998 World Junior Champion, Karjalainen is the world junior record holder with 78.33 metres. His personal best throw is 83.30, achieved in July 2004 in Lahti. Karjalainen took his first medal at the 2006 European Championships by throwing 80.84. He finished second, but became the Champion in 2014 as IAAF decided to strip Ivan Tskikhan of Belarus of the gold medal for doping. Karjalainen was awarded with the gold medal in a ceremony arranged at the 2014 Finland-Sweden athletics international in Helsinki. Olli-Pekka Karjalainen at IAAF
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Finland at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Finland competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The nation has competed at every Summer Olympic Games since its official debut in 1908; the Finnish Olympic Committee sent a total of 56 athletes to the Games, 29 men and 27 women, to compete in 14 sports. There was only a single competitor in artistic gymnastics, taekwondo and tennis. Notable Finnish athletes included the defending champion Satu Mäkelä-Nummela in women's trap shooting, Olympic bronze medalist Tero Pitkämäki in men's javelin throw. Badminton player Anu Nieminen, swimmer Hanna-Maria Seppälä, who finished fourth in the women's freestyle event, made their fourth Olympic appearance as the most experienced athletes. Seppälä became Finland's first female flag bearer at the Summer Olympics' opening ceremony. Suomen Olympiakomitea set a goal of three medals, with at least one gold medal and six point positions in eighth-place finish, to be targeted in the medal standings. At the end of the Games, Finland had three medals, but reached beyond the medal target by a single point.
Finland, left London with two silvers and one bronze medal in sailing and athletics, failing to win a gold medal for the second time in Summer Olympic history since 2004. Antti Ruuskanen only received his silver medal in 2017, due to doping by the original silver medalist Oleksandr Pyatnytsya from Ukraine. Several Finnish athletes who reached finals missed out on the medal standings including Pitkämäki, taekwondo jin Suvi Mikkonen. Finnish athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: KeyNote – Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road eventsField events Qualification Legend: FA = Qualify to final. Finland has qualified two quota places.
KeyVT - Victory by Fall. PP - Decision by Points - the loser with technical points. PO - Decision by Points - the loser without technical points. Men's Greco-Roman
Shooting at the 2000 Summer Olympics
The shooting competitions at the 2000 Summer Olympics were carried out at the Sydney International Shooting Centre in Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia during the first week of the Games, from Saturday 16 September 2000 to Saturday 23 September 2000. While the rifle and running target rules were unchanged from the Atlanta Games, two new shotgun events were added, raising the number of individual Olympic shooting events to an all-time high of seventeen. A total of 408 shooters, 262 men and 146 women, from 103 nations competed at the Sydney Games: Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad – Shooting. Retrieved 2008-09-06
Sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held from 17–30 September 2000 at the Olympic Sailing Shore Base in the Sydney Harbour. The quota for sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics was 400, of which 124 positions were for men, 92 for women and 184'open' to men or women; the Sailing Program of 2000 consisted of a total of eleven sailing classes. For each class with the exception of the Soling and the 49er, eleven races were scheduled from 17–30 September 2000. For the Soling six fleet races were scheduled followed by a series of match races for the top twelve boats of the fleet race result; the 49er had sixteen scheduled fleet races. The sailing was done on several types of course configurations; the Sydney 2000 Games featured a name change for the sport known as yachting. The choice of Sydney Harbour as the sailing venue allowed a huge number of spectators access to the action. However, there was not a great level of interest for this and only 2000 tickets had been sold one month before the start of the event.
The Olympic Sailing Shore Base was located on parts of Rushcutters Bay Park, Yarranabbe Park, the Sir David Martin Reserve and the waters of Rushcutters Bay. The shore base was used for logistic support and competition management and included temporary structures for the sailing events such as a marina for 250 boats. A new permanent public jetty for water taxis was constructed. Variable weather patterns necessitated a flexible competition schedule. Four course areas inside Sydney Harbour were used in combination with two offshore course areas; the Soling match racing was staged in Farm Cove at the forecourt of the Sydney Opera House. The Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games; the Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games, Volume I Planning and Organization. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers. Retrieved 2011-09-14; the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games. The Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games, Volume II The Centennial Olympic Games. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
The Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games. The Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games, Volume III The Competition Results. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers. Retrieved 2011-09-14. Hugh Drake & Paul Henderson. Canada's Olympic Sailing Legacy, Paris 1924 - Beijing 2008. Toronto: CYA. Kubatko, Justin. "Sailing at the 2000 Atlanta Summer Games". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 2011-09-17. "IYRU Olympic Update". ISAF. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc