Brazil national basketball team
The Brazil national basketball team is governed by the Brazilian Basketball Confederation, abbreviated as CBB. They have been a member of the International Federation of Basketball, since 1935. Brazil's national basketball team remains among the most successful in the Americas, it is the only team besides the United States, that has appeared at every FIBA Basketball World Cup, since it was first held in 1950. Throughout its history, the Brazilian national team has won two FIBA World Cup gold medals, three Summer Olympic Games bronze medals, four FIBA AmeriCup gold medals, six Pan American Games gold medals. Basketball was introduced to Brazil by Professor Augusto Shaw in 1896. In 1912, he began organizing the first state tournament and in 1922 the first national team made its debut at games against Argentina and Uruguay; as in the case of football, South America was ahead of the rest of the world and in 1930 held the first edition of the FIBA South American Championship. In that decade, Brazilian basketball was supported by professional football clubs, to include it as a new sports section, although amateur in nature.
These clubs became professional and supported the national team with world-class players. In the following years, Brazil became a regular at major international competitions, its basketball squad participated in the first official basketball tournament at the Summer Olympics 1936 in Berlin. In 1939, the first continental championship was held in Rio de Janeiro. In the 40s, basketball left the elitist stigma; the sport received the ultimate accolade at the 1948 Olympic Games in London. There, against all odds, the team directed by Moacyr Daiuto managed to achieve the bronze medal; the team recorded six straight wins. In the bronze medal match, Brazil beat Mexico, they managed to feature ten amateur players. The pre-Olympic Brazil concentration was poor in resources. After its time-consuming journey to London, the team was astonishment when they saw how the U. S. team practiced: each player with a ball. Brazil only had two for the whole team. One of the fundamental pillars of Brazilian basketball was the boldness of its coaches.
The "father" of them all is Togo Renan Soares, "Kanela". Working in the shadow of the giant football, Kanela understood that basketball would add more followers if it could only offer new emotions, he aimed to get the influential media involved, so the game was conceived as a spectacle based on its dynamism and aesthetics. The formula worked. Besides the national team, he coached Flamengo which chained ten titles Rio de Janeiro State Championships in a row. Born in Joao Pessoa, he coached football and water polo. In his youth, he studied at a military college, his lengthy workouts alternated with authoritative teaching tone. The unstoppable rise of basketball was confirmed at the second World Championship in Rio; the Brazilian team, coached by Kanela, reached the final undefeated and proclaimed runner-up after losing to the global hegemonic basketball power from the U. S; that Brazilian team was equipped with experienced players who won the bronze medal at the 1948 London Summer Olmpic Games, supported through the arrival of two young men.
These young men were Amaury Pasos and Wlamir Marques, 18 and 17 years old, respectively. The bet of the visionary Kanela would give tremendous returns in years; the Brazilian player leap happened when the team was made up of willing and enthusiastic amateurs. These athletes, who were initiated into the game self-taught by imitation of American basketball players who had toured the country; the hard work of Kanela consisted of giving these players basic fundamentals and lecture them on team concepts. Amaury and Wlamir were his most successful students, their jump shots dazzled at the 54 FIBA World Cup. "Their scoring was smart and technically perfect." Said the Brazilian journalist Fábio Balassiano. Before playing basketball, who measured 1.91 m tall, had practiced swimming and volleyball, which provided him with much athletic ability. Amaury began his career playing as a typical center and power forward, but he learned to play away from the basket, to play as a play maker, his partner, was another former track runner.
Standing 1.85 m tall, Wlamir was a great shooter, had great ball handling skills, enormous agility and jumping ability, which helped him to become an excellent rebounder. Amaury and Wlamir fit well into Kanela's system: fast pace, quick transition, full confidence in the outside shooters. After three months of intense preparation at a Marine base, Brazil was presented at the 1959 FIBA World Championship in Chile, as a candidate for the podium. In addition to the U. S. a tough opponent emerged, absent in the previous tournament: the Soviet Union, the 1957 EuroBasket champions and 1956 Summer Olympics silver medalists. Kanela had the following starting lineup: Amaury Pasos as play maker, Wlamir Marques and the 33-year old veteran, Algodão, as wings. To complete his 7-player rotation, Kanela played his bench players, small forward Jatyr Schall and point guard Pecente Fonseca. There were some minutes for the young forward Rosa Branca, a great ball handler, who received an offer to join the Harlem Globetrotters.
In 2012, Brazil
Greece national basketball team
The Greece national basketball team is organized and run by the Hellenic Basketball Federation. They were runners-up in the 2006 FIBA World Championship, after beating the United States 101–95 in the tournament's semifinal, they have won EuroBasket twice. Greece is placed eighth in the FIBA World Rankings. Greece has won one silver and two bronze medals at EuroBasket, having missed a medal in several occasions in world and continental tournaments, as well as ending up in the fifth place in their last three Olympic appearances. Between 1990 and 1997, following their consecutive successes in EuroBasket, the Greeks participated in all major international tournaments but one, with their lowest ranking being a sixth place in the 1990 FIBA World Championship. Greece is the only national team in the world to have defeated the United States during Mike Krzyzewski's era, as the latter had an undefeated record both before and after the 2006 World Championship semifinal, all major competitions included.
Basketball has a long tradition in Greece, as the country was one of the eight founding members of the International Basketball Federation, more known by its French acronym FIBA, in 1932. However, the men's national team was considered as a second-class power in international basketball for several decades and only came into prominence in the mid-1980s by winning the EuroBasket 1987, it was the first major international title won by a Greek national team in any sports. As a result, basketball became popular in the country and since Greece has been placed in the high level on the basketball stage. Greece was to take part in EuroBasket 1935, the inaugural FIBA European Championship held in Geneva, but were not able to travel to Switzerland due to financial problems. Thus, Greece made their international debut fourteen years in the EuroBasket 1949 in Cairo, Egypt; that tournament has been marked as the weakest in the history of the competition, as most of the leading European basketball nations at the time refused to travel by plane to Egypt.
Greece entered the tournament as a newcomer and got through to make their first major success in their first appearance in the competition, finishing in third place behind hosts Egypt and strong side France. After their first international success, the Greeks were present in the following tournament in 1951, where they qualified to the semi-final round and finished 8th among the eighteen nations that participated, they made their first appearance at the Summer Olympic Games, taking part at the Summer Olympic basketball tournament in 1952. They were narrowly eliminated in the preliminary round, finishing at the bottom of the classification along with other six teams, ending the first period in the history of the team as Greece did not enter any major tournament for the rest of the 1950s. During the 1960s, the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s, Greece appeared in most of the EuroBasket competitions, with their best performances being the 8th place in 1965 and the 9th place in both 1979 and 1981.
They didn't manage to qualify for the Summer Olympic Games and the FIBA World Cup but in 1979 they managed to win the gold medal at the Mediterranean Games, beating Yugoslavia 85–74 in the final. The history of the national team was not overly impressive until the mid-1980s, when Greece arose as the new power in international basketball spearheaded by top-class players Nikos Galis, Panagiotis Giannakis, Panagiotis Fasoulas and Fanis Christodoulou; the beginning was their qualification for the 1986 FIBA World Championship, for the first time in their history and the end of the tournament found them 10th among the twenty-four nations. In the next year, Greece faced up their biggest challenge, as the country was the host of the EuroBasket 1987 and the team enjoyed a formidable line-up. Qualified from the preliminary round, they eliminated Italy and Yugoslavia, both among the favourites to win the tournament, in the quarter-finals and the semi-finals respectively. In the final, Greece faced the defending champions and favoured Soviet Union.
In front of 17,000 Greek fans at the Peace and Friendship Stadium, the hosts won the gold medal after a thrilling win 103–101 over the Soviets, with Nikos Galis scoring 40 points. It was the first time that a Greek national team won a major tournament in any sports, thus basketball was made the national team sport overnight and the national team was to be considered the official cherished of the Greek nation; the European champions failed to qualify for the 1988 Summer Olympic Games for a first time in 36 years, despite a decent performance in the pre-Olympic tournament. In the EuroBasket 1989, the defending champions were under pressure to prove that they could stand at the top level of international basketball and they did so in a convincing way. After they had qualified from the group stage, the Soviet Union stood in their way in the semi-finals but Greece defeated them once again and reached the final. Contrary to what happened two years ago, this time Greece had to overcome Yugoslavia and the latter's home court advantage, as the tournament was held in Zagreb.
The Greek team bowed to the home side taking the silver medal, their third medal in total and second in a row. In the 1990s there was a series of successful results for the national team, present in all major international tournaments every year except for the 1992 Summer Olympic
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most known as Norden. The term includes Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands—which are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands and Svalbard and Jan Mayen archipelagos that belong to Finland and Norway whereas the Norwegian Antarctic territories are not considered a part of the Nordic countries, due to their geographical location. Scandinavians, who comprise over three quarters of the region's population, are the largest group, followed by Finns, who comprise the majority in Finland; the native languages Swedish, Norwegian and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse. Native non-Germanic languages are Finnish and several Sami languages; the main religion is Lutheran Christianity. The Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure.
The Nordic countries have a long history of political unions and other close relations, but do not form a separate entity today. The Scandinavist movement sought to unite Denmark and Sweden into one country in the 19th century, with the indepedence of Finland in the early 20th century, Iceland in the mid 20th century, this movement expanded into the modern organised Nordic cooperation which includes the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. In English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprises the mainland of Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland; the combined area of the Nordic countries is 3,425,804 square kilometres. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of this area in Greenland. In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people; the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.
With only four language groups, the common linguistic heterogeneous heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The languages of Danish, Swedish and Faroese are all rooted in Old Norse and Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible; these three dominating languages are taught in schools throughout the Nordic region. For example, Swedish is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools, since Finland by law is a bilingual country. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these insular states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918. Beside these and the insular Scandinavian languages Faroese and Icelandic, which are North Germanic languages, there are the Finnic and Sami branches of the Uralic languages, spoken in Finland and in northern Norway and Finland, respectively. All the Nordic countries have a North Germanic official language called a Nordic language in the Nordic countries.
The working languages of the Nordic region's two political bodies are Danish and Swedish. Each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours, but to varying degrees the Nordic countries share the Nordic model of economy and social structure: a market economy is combined with strong labour unions and a universalist welfare sector financed by heavy taxes. There is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest and these include support for said "universalist" welfare state aimed at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility; the Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and culture with Scandinavia. It is meant to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous; the Nordic countries are considered to refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, including their associated territories.
The term "Nordic countries" found mainstream use after the advent of Foreningen Norden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, which means "The North". Unlike "the Nordic countries", the term Norden is in the singular; the demonym is nordbo meaning "northern dweller". Scandinavia refers to either the cultural and linguistic group formed by the three monarchies Denmark and Sweden, or the Scandinavian peninsula, formed by mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries. First recorded use of the name by Pliny the Elder about a "large, fertile island in the North". Fennoscandia refers to the area that includes the Scandinavian peninsula, Kola Peninsula and Karelia; this term is
A basketball uniform is a type of uniform worn by basketball players. Basketball uniforms consist of a jersey that features the number and last name of the player on the back, as well as shorts and athletic shoes. Within teams, players wear uniforms representing the team colors. Different basketball leagues have different specifications for the type of uniform, allowed on the court. Early in the history of the sport, basketball was played in any type of athletic attire, but by the 1900s, special uniforms were developed and marketed to basketball players; the style and fit of basketball uniforms evolved throughout subsequent decades modeled after the general fashion trends of the day. Basketball was played in any type of athletic attire, ranging from track suits to football uniforms; the first official basketball uniforms, as displayed in the Spalding catalog of 1901, featured three types of pants: knee-length padded pants, similar to those worn for playing football, as well as shorter pants and knee-length tights.
There were two types of a quarter-length sleeve and a sleeveless version. The long pants evolved into medium-length shorts in the 1920s, by the 1930s, the material used for jerseys changed from heavy wool to the lighter polyester and nylon. In the 1970s and 80s, uniforms became tighter-fitting and shorts were shorter, consistent with the overall fashion trends of these two decades. At this time, women's basketball uniforms transitioned from longer-sleeved uniforms to tank-top style jerseys similar to men's basketball uniforms, which more explicitly showed off players' muscle tone. In 1984, Michael Jordan asked for longer shorts and helped popularize the move away from tight, short shorts toward the longer, baggier shorts worn by basketball players today. Throughout the 1990s, basketball uniforms fell under the influence of hip hop culture, with shorts becoming longer and looser-fitting, team colors brighter, designs more flashy and suggestive of rappers' bling. At the turn of the 21st century, basketball uniforms became more oversized and loose-fitting.
For the Christmas Day games of 2013, the NBA and its apparel partner Adidas introduced a newly designed sleeved jersey with large team and NBA logos on the front. Marketers for the new uniforms realized that fans were unwilling to wear sleeveless jerseys in their day-to-day life and hoped the new sleeved jerseys would be more popular for everyday wear. However, it was a "not-so-well-kept secret that the NBA wanted to implement jersey ads in the years following the introduction of sleeved jerseys" as the "sleeves allow more space for potential partners to add their corporate logos to jerseys" like association football. After the league deal with Adidas expired and Nike signed on as the new apparel partner, the sleeved jersey did not continue; the sleeved jersey was controversial among players. LeBron James famously ripped the sleeves off during a prime time game against the New York Knicks in 2015, but in the 2016 NBA Finals James convinced his teammates to wear the sleeved jerseys in Game 5 and again in the title-clinching Game 7.
In 1903, a special basketball shoe with suction cups to prevent slippage was added to the official basketball uniform demonstrated in the Spalding catalog. Over the decades, different shoe brands and styles were popular as basketball shoes: Chuck Taylor All-Stars and Keds in the 1960s and 70s. In the 1970s, Slick Watts and Bill Walton began to wear headbands, which soon became popular with other players. Rick Barry popularized wrist-bands, other players soon created variations, such as bands that covered their forearms or biceps; these were used to wipe off sweat, or worn as fashion statements. In professional basketball leagues today, teams playing at home wear lighter-colored uniforms than the visiting team; as of the 2017–18 season, the NBA has eliminated the distinction between designated "home" and "away" uniforms. The home team is now allowed to wear any uniform color it chooses, while its opponent may wear any color that sufficiently contrasts with the home team's choice. In the NBA, basketball shorts must fall at least 1 inch above the knee, T-shirts cannot be worn under the jersey – however, they are permitted in American college basketball.
Some NBA and WNBA teams have allowed sponsors' logos to appear on their uniforms. Uniforms are made of wicking material designed to ensure that it evaporates faster, they are the product of a four-year study researching professional basketball players, who identified the need for fewer seams, lighter weight, faster drying and cooling in their jerseys. The main difference between U. S. basketball uniforms and those of other countries is the appearance of sponsorship iconography. S. uniforms feature center. For the 2017-18 season, some U. S. teams have started putting sponsorship logos on their jerseys on the upper left of the jersey, a maximum of 2.5 inches by 2.5 inches. Sportswear
The 1995 FIBA European Championship called FIBA EuroBasket 1995, was the 29th FIBA EuroBasket basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which served as Europe qualifier for the 1996 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to each of the top four teams in the final standings. It was held in Greece between 21 June and 2 July 1995. Fourteen national teams entered the event under the auspices of FIBA Europe, the sport's regional governing body; the city of Athens hosted the tournament. FR Yugoslavia won its sixth FIBA European title by defeating Lithuania with a 96–90 score in the final. Lithuania's Šarūnas Marčiulionis was voted the tournament's MVP; this edition of the FIBA EuroBasket tournament saw the successful return of the Lithuania national basketball team to the tournament, since its last triumph in 1939. The tournament's official anthem was "Wings of Tomorrow" by Finnish band Stratovarius. All games were played at the O. A. C. A. Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens; the teams were split in two groups of seven teams each.
The top four teams from each group advance to the knockout quarterfinals. The winners in the semifinals compete for the European Championship, while the losers from the semifinals play a consolation game for the third place; the losers in the quarterfinals compete in a separate bracket to define 5th through 8th place in the final standings. Times given below are in Eastern European Summer Time. One of the most intense matches in Eurobasket history, the finals match-up between Yugoslavia and Lithuania on Sunday, 2 July 1995 ended in scandal. Played in the boiling atmosphere of the Athens' OAKA, more than 20,000 people filled up the arena, most of them local Greeks vociferously cheering for Lithuania, or more cheering against Yugoslavia because it eliminated Greece in the semifinals. From the start, the two teams matched up evenly, as Lithuania's Šarūnas Marčiulionis and Arvydas Sabonis and Yugoslavia's Aleksandar Đorđević and Predrag Danilović exchanged points. At halftime, the Lithuanians were ahead by a point, 49–48.
Vlade Divac got a technical foul early in first half. In second half, an American referee George Toliver signaled Lithuanian center Arvydas Sabonis for a technical foul, which led to Lithuanian protestations. After a few more fouls signaled by the referee, one offensive and one technical against Lithuania, the Lithuanian team refused to return to the court after timeout. After a few minutes, Aleksandar Đorđević, the leading scorer with 41 points, tried to convince Marčiulionis to continue playing; the persuasions were successful, five Lithuanians returned to the court. Yugoslavia was leading 93–89 with 2 minutes remaining in the game. Players Arvydas Sabonis and Rimas Kurtinaitis could not return to the court, as they fouled out before the Lithuanian refusal to play, and although the Lithuanian team tried their hardest to catch up with the Yugoslavian team, they lost 96–90. After the Yugoslavs' victory, the Greek crowd that cheered against Yugoslavia throughout the final further showed their displeasure during the winners ceremony by chanting "Lithuania is the champion!".
Furthermore, there was controversy during the medal ceremony as right before the winning Yugoslav team were about to receive their gold medals, the third-placed Croatian team, in an unprecedented move, stepped down from the medal podium and walked off the court due the ongoing war between the two countries. 1995 European Championship for Men, FIBA.com
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e