A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Arna Township, Pine County, Minnesota
Arna Township is a township in Pine County, United States. The population was 86 at the 2000 census. Arna Township was founded on March 11, 1910, its name was proposed by a county auditor by the name of W. H. Hamlin. Early settlers to the area were attracted by the lumber industry. In 1912 the Soo Line Railroad passed through Arna Township, the community of Markville sprang up with the railroad. By 1920 the population of Arna had reached a peak of 350, but this number decreased over the following decades. In 1981, the last train passed through Markville, the railroad bed was subsequently dismantled and replaced by the Gandy Dancer Trail, used exclusively by All Terrain Vehicles and snowmobiles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 37.8 square miles, of which 37.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Located within Arna Township is the community of Markville, with a population of 30 people. Major bodies of water include the Saint Croix River.
The topography of the area is level, but there are several low hills and ridges in the township. As of the census of 2000, there were 86 people, 43 households, 22 families residing in the township; the population density was 2.3 people per square mile. There were 194 housing units at an average density of 5.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 74.42% White, 1.16% African American, 17.44% Native American, 5.81% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.33% of the population. There were 43 households out of which 11.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 2.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.8% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.55. In the township the population was spread out with 12.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 18.6% from 25 to 44, 38.4% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 126.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.6 males. The median income for a household in the township was $30,875, the median income for a family was $30,875. Males had a median income of $31,389 versus $28,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,521. There were 8.6% of families and 10.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including 33.3% of under eighteens and none of those over 64
Askov is a city in Pine County, United States. The population was 364 at the 2010 census. Minnesota State Highway 23 serves as a main route in the community, Interstate 35 is nearby; the location of the village was within the lands of the village of Partridge, at a stop far outside the original village along Great Northern Railway. Most of the original village of Partridge was destroyed in the 1894 Hinckley fire; the immigrants to the Danish'colony' of Askov were nationalistic Lutheran followers of the theologian and cultural leader, Bishop N. F. S. Grundtvig, romanticising the superiority of Danish culture and emphasising the importance of speech and education. Danish immigrants had up till this point been economic migrants fleeing poverty in Denmark, but the first migrants to Askov were all Grundvigian Danes from elsewhere in the USA; the Dansk Folkesamfund was founded in 1887 by Svend Hersleb Grundtvig, the son of N. F. S. Grundtvig, to conserve Danish social heritage and promote immigration to the USA.
The Dansk Folkesamfund, with help from the railroad company, bought the parcels of land around the train station and post office in 1906 and by 1909 had sold the 45 plots to Danish settlers, some 25 families. The name "Askov" was chosen to commemorate the larger village of Askov in Denmark, the site of one of the largest folk high schools founded by N. F. S. Grundtvig, although it is claimed the name is derived from'ash wood'. By 1916 a thousand settlers of Danish descent lived here, although 1920 USA census data records only 242 inhabitants in Askov and most people lived in the village of Partridge -this was thus the largest concentration of Danish settlers in Minnesota; the new village was incorporated on April 25, 1918, separated from the township as the City of Askov on April 8, 1921. The main economic activity was dairy supplemented by mixed intensive farming. Nearly all the streets in Askov have been given Danish names. Despite the Danish history, the modern population has the following ancestries: German, Norwegian, Scandinavian, American.
The fashion brand Askov Finlayson was named after this city and neighboring Finlayson, which share a freeway exit on I-35. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.26 square miles, all land. The Kettle River and Partridge Creek both flow nearby. Banning State Park is nearby; as of the census of 2010, there were 364 people, 171 households, 88 families residing in the village. The population density was 288.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 188 housing units at an average density of 149.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.3% White, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 171 households of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.8% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.5% were non-families. 41.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the village was 41 years. 21.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 53.0 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 368 people, 165 households, 92 families residing in the city; the population density was 288.3 people per square mile. There were 181 housing units at an average density of 141.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.92% White, 0.27% African American, 1.63% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.54% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. There were 165 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.2% were non-families. 40.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 20.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,472, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $27,375 versus $24,375 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,583. About 5.3% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over. Askov called itself "rutabaga capital of the world" because one or two dozen local farmers grew this crop in the early to mid-1900s; the village is now home to an annual "Fair and Rutabaga Festival", a beauty pageant and fair held during the fourth weekend of August, a few months before rutabaga is harvested. Askov is the hometown of Minneapolis Lakers star and NBA Hall of Famer Vern
Pine City, Minnesota
Pine City is a city in Pine County, Minnesota, in east central Minnesota. Pine City is the county seat of Pine County. A portion of the city is located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation. Founded as a railway town, it became a logging community and the surrounding lakes made it a resort town. Today, it exists in part as a commuter town to jobs in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area; the Dakota Indians were the first in the area. With the Ojibwa expansion, the area became a mixture of the two. By the early 19th century, the area became predominantly Ojibwa, they hunted on the land and traded furs at the nearby trading posts. With the Treaty of St. Peters of 1837, dubbed the "White Pine Treaty", lumbering began in the area. Lumbering, was limited by access to the available waterways. In the late 19th century, European settlers came to the Pine City area, still forested with thick stands of white pine, some of the largest in the state; when the railroad arrived in Pine City so began a logging expansion.
Pine City prospered and grew into a city that had everything needed to serve residents and the fast expanding lumber industry. Pine City was platted in 1869; the city was incorporated in 1881. When Buchanan County was merged with Pine County in 1861, the county seat was consolidated to Pine City because it was well-established; because of its location on the far southern edge of Pine County, there have been attempts over the years to move the county seat to more centrally located Hinckley and Sandstone. However, being the most populous city in the county, Pine City always prevailed as the county seat. In 2005, the city became the first in rural Minnesota with an annual gay pride event, East-Central Minnesota Pride, one of only two rural communities to hold such an event in the United States. A book capturing Pine City's history in vintage photos was written as part of the Images of America series and became available in 2010. Pine City is reached as a day trip for tourists from the Twin Cities who enjoy the downtown's specialty stores and restaurants as well as a nearby casino and recreational opportunities, including the scenic St. Croix River valley.
A local historical site situated along the Snake River, the Snake River Fur Post, has become a tourist draw. Pine City is home to two golf courses, the Pine City Country Club, a nine-hole, par 36 public course that opened in 1971, Pokegema Lake Golf Course, a course located just west of town; the Pine County Fair takes place in Pine City each year in late July/early August. A highlight of the fair is a three-night demolition derby, one of Minnesota's largest, drawing several thousand spectators each evening; the five-day event is a free gate fair and features free on-site parking. The Initiative Foundation named Pine City "Outstanding Community" of 2009 and the NAMM Foundation identified it as one of the "Best Communities for Music Education in America" for 2010, 2011 and 2012. In 2016, Movoto named Pine City one of "The 7 Best Towns in Minnesota for LGBT Families", it is a participant in the Green Steps program by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.91 square miles, of which 3.44 square miles is land and 0.47 square miles is water.
Below is a table of average low temperatures throughout the year in Pine City. Of note, Pine City's early years included historic temperature extremes as it was the site of three record-setting cold temperatures: March 2, 1897 November 30, 1896 December 31, 1898 As of the census of 2000, there were 3,043 residents, 1,222 households, 734 families in the city; the population density was 1,076.3 people per square mile. There were 1,275 housing units at an average density of 451.0 per square mile. 95.58% White, 1.54% Native American, 1.22% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.74% Asian, 0.26% African American, 0.19% from other races, 0.03% Pacific Islander and 1.67% from two or more races. The city has continued to grow. In fact, it is one of only three small towns in Minnesota, along with Mora and Litchfield, to have never lost population. Much of the growth of the area occurs around the lakes in the neighboring townships, in Pokegama, Chengwatana or Pine City Township, as of the latest census, the Pine City Zip Code had 9,348 residents.
There were 1,222 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,000 and the median income for a family was $37,000. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,000. About 10.8% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over.
Ancestry of Pine City residents is German, Norwegian and Czech. After the
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government