Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
The Kumpula Campus is a science campus of University of Helsinki. The campus is located some four kilometres in the Kumpula district. Completed in 2005, it provides study and research facilities for about 6,000 students and 1,000 teachers/researchers; the University of Helsinki departments housed on the campus are: Department of Chemistry Department of Computer Science Department of Geosciences and Geography Department of Mathematics and Statistics Department of Physics A number of related or independent institutions are housed on the campus, e.g.: The Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention The Finnish Museum of Natural History Dating Laboratory The Helsinki Institute of Physics The Helsinki Institute for Information Technology The Institute of Seismology The Luma Centre The Finnish Meteorological Institute Integrated Carbon Observation System The Kumpula Science Library provides scientific library services for the campus. The campus consists of the following buildings: Chemicum Physicum Exactum Dynamicum Accelerator Laboratory Kumpula manor Sport CenterThe Kumpula Botanical Garden is located adjacent to the campus.
Faculty of Science Information about The Kumpula Campus Kumpula Campus Library The Journey Planner of Helsinki Metropolitan Public Transport Authority — service to find a route to the campus or view the location on a map
OPCW–The Hague Award
The OPCW–The Hague Award is an annual award founded by the OPCW as a result of their being presented with the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize. The purpose of the Award is to honour and recognize individuals and institutions that have contributed towards the goal of a world free of chemical weapons. In 2014, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons established the OPCW–The Hague Award to honour select individuals and institutions by highlighting their exceptional contributions towards the goal of a world permanently free of chemical weapons; the award was created as a legacy of the OPCW winning the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize for their "extensive work to eliminate chemical weapons". The OPCW—The Hague Award Fund was created using the €900,000 monetary prize which accompanied the Nobel Peace Prize, is supported financially by the City of The Hague, where the OPCW is based; the winner of the Award is presented with a medal, certificate and a monetary prize of up to €90,000. As an essential partner in both establishing and maintaining the Award, the commemorative medal features an engraving of the OPCW headquarters building with the official coat of arms of the City of The Hague au verso.
This reflects The Hague’s stature as the international city of peace and justice, its historic support of the OPCW mission statement. The roster of past winners includes experts in analytical chemistry techniques, medical toxicology, the ethical use of chemistry, the legal frameworks governing the elimination of all chemical weapons. To date there have been four recipients of The OPCW–The Hague award. In its first edition, the Award was presented to Dr Robert Mathews of the Commonwealth of Australia, to the organisation VERIFIN of the Republic of Finland. Dr Robert MathewsDr Robert Mathews lead the Nuclear and Chemical Arms Control Unit in the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation, which he founded in 1974. Through his work Dr Mathews has contributed to the OPCW since its formation in 1997, has provided invaluable expertise in both the disarmament of chemical weapons, the advancement of innovative protective counter-measures against their use. VERIFINVERIFIN operates as part of the Department of Science at the University of Helsinki, was founded in 1994.
VERIFIN has served as the National Authority of Finland since 1998, as defined under Article VII of the Chemical Weapons Convention. As such, VERIFIN works with the main body of the OPCW and has provided considerable assistance through the development of advanced verification methods for use in the detection and identification of chemical weapons and their components. In 2015, the Award was presented to Dr Mahdi Balali-Mood of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Dr Alastair Hay of the United Kingdom. Dr Mahdi Balali-MoodDr Mahdi Balali-Mood, a leading authority in medical toxicology, was presented with The OPCW–The Hague Award due to his outstanding work in treating the victims of chemical weapon use, his wealth of experience in the field lead to the establishment of his own clinic in the aftermath of the war in order to provide care for victims affected by the long term consequences of surviving exposure to chemical weapons. Since he has been “a tireless educator on the medical aspects of chemical weapons”, in addition to his collaborations with the WHO and OPCW.
Dr Alastair HayDr Alastair Hay a preeminent expert in the field of occupational health and toxicology, in this capacity he has participated in numerous missions to investigate alleged uses of chemical weapons. His training courses for doctors and OPCW inspectors working in Syria have aided them in better understanding the long-term health effects of exposure to chemical weapons, establishing more effective protocols for the treatment of victims. Dr Hay is a leading figure in international efforts to advocate the peaceful applications of chemistry and biology
University of Helsinki
The University of Helsinki is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available. Around 36,500 students are enrolled in the degree programs of the university spread across 11 faculties and 11 research institutes; as of 1 August 2005, the university complies with the harmonized structure of the Europe-wide Bologna Process and offers Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degrees. Admission to degree programmes is determined by entrance examinations, in the case of bachelor's degrees, by prior degree results, in the case of master and postgraduate degrees. Entrance is selective, it has been ranked a top 100 university in the world according to the 2016 ARWU, QS and THE rankings. The university is bilingual, with teaching by law provided both in Swedish. Since Swedish, albeit an official language of Finland, is a minority language, Finnish is by far the dominating language at the university.
Teaching in English is extensive throughout the university at Master and Doctoral levels, making it a de facto third language of instruction. Remaining true to its traditionally strong Humboldtian ethos, the University of Helsinki places heavy emphasis on high-quality teaching and research of a top international standard, it is a member of various prominent international university networks, such as Europaeum, UNICA, the Utrecht Network, is a founding member of the League of European Research Universities. The first predecessor of the university, The Cathedral School of Åbo, was founded in 1276 for education of boys to become servants of the Church; as the university was founded in 1640 by Queen Christina of Sweden in Turku, as the Åbo Kungliga Akademi, the senior part of the school formed the core of the new university, while the junior year courses formed a grammar school. It was the third university founded in the Swedish Empire, following Uppsala University and the Academia Gustaviana in Dorpat.
The second period of the university's history covers the period when Finland was a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, from 1809 to 1917. As Finland became part of the Russian Empire in 1809, Emperor Alexander I expanded the university and allocated substantial funds to it. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, higher education within the country was moved to Helsinki, the new administrative heart of the Grand Duchy, in 1828, renamed the Imperial Alexander University in Finland in honour of the late benefactor of the university. In the capital the primary task of the university was to educate the Grand Duchy’s civil servants; the university became a community subscribing to the new Humboldtian ideals of science and culture, studying humanity and its living environment by means of scientific methods. The new statutes of the university enacted in 1828 defined the task of the university as promoting the development of “the Sciences and Humanities within Finland and, educating the youth for the service of the Emperor and the Fatherland”.
The Alexander University was a centre of national life that promoted the birth of an independent Finnish State and the development of Finnish identity. The great men of 19th century Finland, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot and Zachris Topelius, were all involved in the activities of the university; the university became a major center of Finnish cultural and legal life in 19th century Finland, became a remarkable primum mobile of the nationalist and liberal cultural movements, political parties, student organisations. In the 19th century university research changed from being collection-centred to being experimental and analytical; the more scientific approach of the university created new disciplines. As the scientific disciplines developed, Finland received more scholarly knowledge and educated people, some of whom entered evolving industry or the government; the third period of the university's history began with the creation of the independent Republic of Finland in 1917, with the renaming of the university as the University of Helsinki.
Once Finland gained her independence in 1917 the university was given a crucial role in building the nation state and, after World War II, the welfare state. Members of the academic community promoted the international relations of the new state and the development of its economic life. Furthermore, they were involved in national politics and the struggle for equality. In the interwar period the university was the scene of a conflict between those who wanted to advance the usage of Finnish language in the university, to the detriment of Swedish and those who opposed such move. Geographer Väinö Tanner was one of the most vocal defenders of Swedish language usage. Swedish People's Party of Finland initiated a campaign collecting 153 914 signatures in defense of the Swedish language that were handed to the parliament and government in October 1934. On an international front academics from Denmark, Sweden and Iceland sent letters to the diplomatic representations of Finland in their respective countries warning about a weakening of the Nordic unity that would result from diminishing the role of Swedish in the University of Helsinki.
In the 20th century, scholarly research at the University of Helsinki reached the level of the
Chemical Weapons Convention
The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production and use of chemical weapons and their precursors. The full name of the treaty is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction and it is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, an intergovernmental organization based in The Hague, The Netherlands; the treaty entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the large-scale use, production and transfer of chemical weapons. Limited production for research, pharmaceutical or protective purposes is still permitted; the main obligation of member states under the convention is to effect this prohibition, as well as the destruction of all current chemical weapons. All destruction activities must take place under OPCW verification; as of May 2018, 193 states accept its obligations. Israel has signed but not ratified the agreement, while three other UN member states have neither signed nor acceded to the treaty.
Most the State of Palestine deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 17 May 2018. In September 2013 Syria acceded to the convention as part of an agreement for the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons; as of November 2018, 96.62% of the world's declared chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed. The convention has provisions for systematic evaluation of chemical production facilities, as well as for investigations of allegations of use and production of chemical weapons based on intelligence of other state parties; some chemicals which have been used extensively in warfare but have numerous large-scale industrial uses such as phosgene are regulated, certain notable exceptions exist. Chlorine gas is toxic, but being a pure element and widely used for peaceful purposes, is not listed as a chemical weapon. Certain state-powers continue to manufacture and implement such chemicals in combat munitions. Although these chemicals are not listed as controlled by the CWC, the use of any toxic chemical as a weapon is in-and-of itself forbidden by the treaty.
Other chemicals, such as white phosphorus, are toxic but are legal under the CWC when they are used by military forces for reasons other than their toxicity. Intergovernmental consideration of a chemical and biological weapons ban was initiated in 1968 within the 18-nation Disarmament Committee, after numerous changes of name and composition, became the Conference on Disarmament in 1984. On 3 September 1992 the Conference on Disarmament submitted to the U. N. General Assembly its annual report; the General Assembly approved the Convention on 30 November 1992, the U. N. Secretary-General opened the Convention for signature in Paris on 13 January 1993; the CWC remained open for signature until its entry into force on 29 April 1997, 180 days after the deposit of the 65th instrument of ratification. The convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections, it does not, cover biological weapons. The convention is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which acts as the legal platform for specification of the CWC provisions.
The Conference of the States Parties is mandated to change the CWC and pass regulations on implementation of CWC requirements. The Technical Secretariat of the organization conducts inspections to ensure compliance of member states; these inspections target destruction facilities, chemical weapons production facilities which have been dismantled or converted for civil use, as well as inspections of the chemical industry. The Secretariat may furthermore conduct "investigations of alleged use" of chemical weapons and give assistance after use of chemical weapons; the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the organization because it had, with the Chemical Weapons Convention, "defined the use of chemical weapons as a taboo under international law" according to Thorbjørn Jagland, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons Destruction of chemical weapons production facilities Destruction of all chemical weapons Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons An OPCW inspection regime for the production of chemicals which might be converted to chemical weapons International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas The convention distinguishes three classes of controlled substance, chemicals that can either be used as weapons themselves or used in the manufacture of weapons.
The classification is based on the quantities of the substance produced commercially for legitimate purposes. Each class is split into Part A, which are chemicals that can be used directly as weapons, Part B, which are chemicals useful in the manufacture of chemical weapons. Separate from the precursors, the convention defines toxic chemicals as "ny chemical which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals; this includes all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, regardless of whether they are produ
Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Finland)
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is a ministry in the Finnish Government and is responsible for preparing and implementing the government's foreign policy. The ministry in 2017 has a total budget of 1.079 billion euros, of which 675 million will be spent on development cooperation and 248 million euros on the ministry's operating expenses. Upkeep of crisis management troops will cost 50 million euros and civilian personnel 15 million, it employs 1,420 people as well as 980 locally hired personnel and maintains 89 overseas offices housing foreign missions. Since 1987 the ministry has been concentrated in the Katajanokka district of Helsinki. Two ministers in the current Juha Sipilä's government have portfolios relating to the ministry: Minister for Foreign Affairs, in overall political control of the ministry Minister for Foreign Trade and DevelopmentThe most senior civil servant is the Secretary of State, is assisted by four Under-Secretaries of State with responsibilities allocated as follows: Administrative and Protocol Affairs Foreign and Security Policy and Culture External Economic Affairs International Development Cooperation and Development PolicyBelow these, the ministry is divided into twelve departments: Political Department Department for External Economic Relations Department for Development Policy Department for Europe Department for Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Department for Global Affairs Legal Department Department for Administrative Affairs Department for Communication and Culture Protocol DepartmentOutside of these departments there are two specialised units: Unit for Internal Auditing Unit for Policy Planning and Research The ministers, as of 12 February 2018, are: Minister for Foreign and European Affairs - Timo Soini Minister for Foreign Trade and Development - Anne-Mari VirolainenThe current Secretary of State at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs is Matti Anttonen. Foreign relations of Finland Minister for Foreign Affairs ThisisFINLAND