In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth called Middle-earth, set in the remote past, they appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, but their complex history is described more in The Silmarillion. Tolkien had been writing about Elves; the modern English word elf derives from the Old English word ælf. Numerous types of elves appear in Germanic mythology, the West Germanic concept appears to have come to differ from the Scandinavian notion in the early Middle Ages, Anglo-Saxon concept diverged further under Celtic influence. Tolkien would make it clear in a letter that his Elves differ from those "of the better known lore", referring to Scandinavian mythology. By 1915 when Tolkien was writing his first elven poems, the words elf and gnome had many divergent and contradictory associations. Tolkien had been warned against using the term'fairy', which John Garth supposes may have been due to the word becoming used to indicate homosexuality, although despite this warning Tolkien continued to use it.
By the late 19th century, the term'fairy' had been taken up as a utopian theme, was used to critique social and religious values, a tradition which Tolkien along with T. H. White are seen to continue. One of the last of the Victorian Fairy-paintings, The Piper of Dreams by Estella Canziani, sold 250,000 copies and was well known within the trenches of World War I where Tolkien saw active service. Illustrated posters of Robert Louis Stevenson's poem Land of Nod had been sent out by a philanthropist to brighten servicemen's quarters, Faery was used in other contexts as an image of "Old England" to inspire patriotism. According to Marjorie Burns, Tolkien chose the term elf over fairy, but still retained some doubts. In his 1939 essay On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien wrote that "English words such as elf have long been influenced by French. Traditional Victorian dancing fairies and elves appear in much of Tolkien's early poetry, have influence upon his works in part due to the influence of a production of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham in 1910 and his familiarity with the work of Catholic mystic poet, Francis Thompson which Tolkien had acquired in 1914.
O! I hear the tiny horns Of enchanted leprechauns And the padded feet of many gnomes a-coming! As a philologist, Tolkien's interest in languages led him to invent several languages of his own as a pastime. In considering the nature of who might speak these languages, what stories they might tell, Tolkien again turned to the concept of elves. In his The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien develops a theme that the diminutive fairy-like race of Elves had once been a great and mighty people, that as Men took over the world, these Elves had "diminished" themselves; this theme was influenced by the god-like and human-sized Ljósálfar of Norse mythology, medieval works such as Sir Orfeo, the Welsh Mabinogion, Arthurian romances and the legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Some of the stories Tolkien wrote as elven history have been seen to be directly influenced by Celtic mythology. For example, "Flight of The Noldoli" is based on the Tuatha Dé Danann and Lebor Gabála Érenn, their migratory nature comes from early Irish/Celtic history.
John Garth sees that with the underground enslavement of the Noldoli to Melkor, Tolkien was rewriting Irish myth regarding the Tuatha Dé Danann into a Christian eschatology. The name Inwe, given by Tolkien to the eldest of the elves and his clan, is similar to the name found in Norse mythology as that of the god Ingwi-Freyr, a god, gifted the elf world Álfheimr. Terry Gunnell claims that the relationship between beautiful ships and the Elves is reminiscent of the god Njörðr and the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, he retains the usage of the French derived term "fairy" for the same creatures. The larger Elves are inspired by Tolkien's personal Catholic theology—as representing the state of Men in Eden who have not yet "fallen", similar to humans but fairer and wiser, with greater spiritual powers, keener senses, a closer empathy with nature. Tolkien wrote of them: "They are made by man in his own likeness, they are immortal, their will is directly effective for the achievement of imagination and desire."In The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien includes both the more serious "medieval" type of elves such as Fëanor and Turgon alongside the frivolous, Jacobean type of elves such as the Solosimpi and Tinúviel.
Alongside the idea of the greater Elves, Tolkien developed the idea of children visiting Valinor, the island-homeland of the Elves in their sleep. Elves would visit children at night and comfort them if they had been chided or were upset; this theme, linking elves with children's dreams and nocturnal travelling was abandoned in Tolkien's writing. Along with Book of Lost Tales, Douglas Anderson shows that in The Hobbit, Tolkien again includes both the more serious'medieval' type of elves, such as Elrond and the Wood-elf king, frivolous elves, such as those at Rivendell. In 1937, having had his manuscript for The Silmarillion rejected by a publisher who disparaged all the "eye-splitting Celtic names" that Tolkien had given his Elves, Tolkien denied the names had a Celtic origin: Needless t
Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in his Middle-earth legendarium, she appears in The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales. She was a royal Elf of both the Noldor and the Teleri, being a grandchild of both King Finwë and King Olwë, was close kin of King Ingwë of the Vanyar through her grandmother Indis, she was one of the leaders in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor during the First Age, she was the only prominent Noldo to survive and return, at the end of the Third Age. Towards the end of her stay in Middle-earth she was co-ruler of Lothlórien with her husband, Lord Celeborn, was referred to variously as the Lady of Lórien, the Lady of the Galadhrim, the Lady of Light, or the Lady of the Golden Wood, her daughter Celebrían was the wife of Elrond and mother of Arwen and Elrohir. Tolkien describes Galadriel as "the mightiest and fairest of all the Elves that remained in Middle-earth" and the "greatest of elven women".
Stories of Galadriel's life prior to The Lord of the Rings appear in both The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Galadriel was the only daughter and youngest child of Finarfin, prince of the Noldor, of Eärwen, cousin to Lúthien, her elder brothers were Finrod Felagund and Aegnor. She was born in Valinor during the Years of the Trees. Galadriel is described as having been "blessed with the ability to peer into the minds of others and she judged them so fairly, but in Fëanor, she only sees darkness". As one of the members of the royal house of Finwë and having the blood of the Vanyar from her paternal grandmother, she was called the fairest of all Elves, either in Aman or Middle-earth. According to the older account of her story, sketched by Tolkien in The Road Goes Ever On and used in The Silmarillion, Galadriel was an eager participant and leader in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor, she had, long since parted ways with Fëanor and his sons, did not participate in the Kinslaying at Alqualondë.
In Beleriand she lived with her brother Finrod Felagund at Nargothrond and at the court of Thingol and Melian in Doriath. In this account she met a kinsman of Thingol, in Doriath. After the War of Wrath, the Valar prohibited the leaders of the Exiles from returning to the Undying Lands, so as one of those leaders Galadriel remained an Exile in Middle-earth. At the end of the Third Age, when she refused the One Ring, she was allowed to return to Valinor. Unfinished Tales gathers many other accounts of Celeborn. One of these highlights a second version of, she lived with her mother's kindred in the Telerin port of Alqualondë and there met Celeborn, who would become her husband and co-ruler. Celeborn, by this account, was Olwë's grandson. Galadriel and Celeborn sailed from the West and came to Beleriand separately from the two main hosts of the Noldor. Galadriel was thus not directly involved in the revolt of the Noldorin princes in this version, indeed fought against them at Alqualondë during the kinslaying.
In Beleriand she and Celeborn were lived in Doriath. When the Noldor arrived in Beleriand, Galadriel re-established contact with her brothers. In this version of the story, she is offered a pardon by the Valar, but refused it out of pride and therefore remained under the Ban. In later accounts from Unfinished Tales, written not long before Tolkien died, Galadriel was not subject to the Ban, remained in Middle-earth of her own volition. In both versions Celeborn and Galadriel play no important role in the Battles of Beleriand, as they judge the War of the Jewels to be hopeless against Morgoth's strength. Little is told of their subsequent activities in the First Age, they leave Beleriand before the War of Wrath, they travelled first to Lindon, where they ruled over a group of Elves as a fiefdom under Gil-galad, the last High King of the Noldor. According to Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn, they removed to the shores of Lake Nenuial, were accounted the Lord and Lady of all the Elves of Eriador.
Around SA 700, they moved eastward and established the realm of Eregion or Hollin. At this time they made contact with a Nandorin settlement in the valley of the Anduin, which became Lothlórien. At some point Celeborn and Galadriel settled in Lothlórien. According to some accounts, they became rulers of Lothlórien for a time during the Second Age. Early in the Second Age, the Númenórean King Tar-Aldarion presented some Mallorn seeds to Gil-galad, High-King of the Noldor in Middle-earth, ruler of the Kingdom of Lindon, the westernmost realm in Middle-earth. "Under her power" the mellyrn had sprouted in the land of Lothlórien, but "they did not reach the height or girth of the groves of Númenor."Celeborn and Galadriel had a daughter, Celebrían, who married Elrond Half-elven of Rivendell, thus making Galadriel and her husband Celeborn the grandparents of the twins Elladan and Elrohir and their younger sister Arwen Undómiel, future Queen of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor. During the Second Age, when the Rings
In the fantasy of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Dwarves are a race inhabiting Middle-earth, the central continent of Earth in an imagined mythological past, they are based on the dwarfs of Germanic myths: small humanoids that dwell in mountains, are associated with mining, metallurgy and jewellery. They appear in his books The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, the posthumously published The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales, The History of Middle-earth series, the last three edited by his son and literary executor Christopher Tolkien. In The Book of Lost Tales the few Dwarves who appear are portrayed as evil beings, employers of Orc mercenaries and in conflict with the Elves—who are the imagined "authors" of the myths, are therefore biased against Dwarves. Tolkien was inspired by the dwarves of Norse myths and dwarves of Germanic folklore, from whom his Dwarves take their characteristic affinity with mining, metalworking and avarice; the representation of Dwarves as evil changed with The Hobbit. Here the Dwarves became comedic and bumbling, but seen as honourable, serious-minded, but still portraying some negative characteristics such as being gold-hungry proud and officious.
Tolkien was now influenced by his own selective reading of medieval texts regarding the Jewish people and their history. The dwarves' characteristics of being dispossessed of their homeland, living among other groups whilst retaining their own culture are all derived from the medieval image of Jews, whilst their warlike nature stems from accounts in the Hebrew Bible. Medieval views of Jews saw them as having a propensity for making well-crafted and beautiful things, a trait shared with Norse dwarves. For The Hobbit all dwarf-names are taken from the Dvergatal or "Catalogue of the Dwarves", found in the Poetic Edda. However, more than just supplying names, the "Catalogue of the Dwarves" appears to have inspired Tolkien to supply meaning and context to the list of names—that they travelled together, this in turn became the quest told of in The Hobbit; the Dwarves' written language is represented in illustrations by Anglo-Saxon Runes. The Dwarf calendar invented; the dwarves taking Bilbo out of his complacent existence has been seen as an eloquent metaphor for the "impoverishment of Western society without Jews".
When writing The Lord of the Rings Tolkien continued many of the themes he had set up in The Hobbit. When giving Dwarves their own language Tolkien decided to create an analogue of a Semitic language influenced by Hebrew phonology. Like medieval Jewish groups, the Dwarves use their own language only amongst themselves, adopted the languages of those they live amongst for the most part, for example taking public names from the cultures they lived within, whilst keeping their "true-names" and true language a secret. Along with a few words in Khuzdul, Tolkien developed runes of his own invention, said to have been invented by Elves and adopted by the Dwarves. Tolkien further underlines the diaspora of the Dwarves with the lost stronghold of the Mines of Moria. In The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses the main dwarf character Gimli to reconcile the conflict between Elves and Dwarves through showing great courtesy to Galadriel and forming a deep friendship with Legolas, seen as Tolkien's reply toward "Gentile anti-Semitism and Jewish exclusiveness".
Tolkien elaborated on Jewish influence on his Dwarves in a letter: "I do think of the'Dwarves' like Jews: at once native and alien in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue..." After preparing The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien returned again to the matter of the Silmarillion, in which he gave the Dwarves a creation myth. The most Dwarf-centric story from The Book of Lost Tales, "The Nauglafring", was not redrafted to fit with the positive portrayal of the dwarves from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, nor other events in the Silmarillion, leading Christopher Tolkien to rewrite it with input from Guy Gavriel Kay in preparation for publication. Sometime before 1969 Tolkien wrote the essay Of Dwarves and Men, in which detailed consideration was given to the Dwarves' use of language, that the names given in the stories were of Northern Mannish origin, Khuzdul being their own secret tongue and the naming of the Seven Houses of the Dwarves.
The essay represents the last of Tolkien's writing regarding the Dwarves and was published in volume 12 of The History of Middle-earth in 1996. In the last interview before his death, after discussing the nature of Elves says of his Dwarves: "The dwarves of course are quite wouldn't you say that in many ways they remind you of the Jews? Their words are Semitic constructed to be Semitic." The original editor of The Hobbit "corrected" Tolkien's plural dwarves to dwarfs, as did the editor of the Puffin paperback edition of The Hobbit. According to Tolkien, the "real ` historical"' plural of dwarf is dwerrows, he referred to dwarves as "a piece of private bad grammar". In Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings it is explained that if we still spoke of dwarves English might have retained a special plural for the word dwarf as with goose—geese. Despite Tolkien's fondness for it, the form dwarrow only appears in his writing as Dwarrowdelf, a name for Moria. Tolkien used Dwarves, which corresponds with Elf and Elves.
In this matter, one has to consider the fact that the
Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin, the Blue Mountains, in the northwest of Middle-earth in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, it is the westernmost land of the continent. The Gulf of Lune divides it into Harlindon. Mithlond or the Grey Havens stood near the mouth of the River Lhûn at the gulf's eastern end. Lindon serves as a narrative plot device, the final point of transition from the mortal changing world of Middle-earth to the unchanged Arda of the past. Ossiriand was the most eastern region of Beleriand during the First Age, lying between the Ered Luin and the river Gelion. Ossiriand was a forested land; the Seven Rivers were, from north to south: River Gelion River Ascar or Rathlóriel River Thalos River Legolin River Brilthor River Duilwen River Adurant Along the northern side of the Ascar ran the Dwarf-road to Nogrod. North of Ossiriand lay the land of Thargelion, ruled by Caranthir son of Fëanor; the island Tol Galen in Ossiriand's southernmost river, the Adurant, was named the Land of the Dead that Live when Lúthien and Beren lived their second lives there.
The first settlers of Beleriand were the Sindarin Elves, but they did not venture into Ossiriand except as "wandering hunters". Ossiriand continued to remain unoccupied for many centuries, a situation not disturbed when Dwarves appeared, built their road along the northern boundary. Another Elven people, the Nandor, entered Ossiriand under their leader Denethor; the Nandor were given permission by Thingol to settle the lands. There they lived in "long years of peace", they chose no more leaders, many of them removed to Thingol's kingdom of Doriath. The Nandor remaining in Ossiriand withdrew into its woods, became known as the Laiquendi, or Green Elves; the Laiquendi were prodigious singers. At the drowning of Beleriand in the War of Wrath, only parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion survived, along with what became the islands of Tol Fuin and Himring. Belegaer the Great Sea broke through the Blue Mountains on the eastern boundary of Beleriand to create the Gulf of Lhûn; the War of Wrath ended the First Age, thereafter the name Lindon was applied to the surviving parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion.
This new Elven realm was ruled by King Gil-galad until his death in S. A. 3441, subsequently by the lord Círdan. Many of the Elves of Beleriand relocated to Lindon at the beginning of the Second Age, where they were ruled by King Gil-galad; the Noldor dwelt in the northern section of Forlindon, while the Sindar and surviving Laiquendi were in the southern section of Harlindon. Together they built Mithlond, the Grey Havens, on the eastern end of the Gulf of Lhûn along the banks of the River Lhûn in its deep firth. Círdan the Shipwright was the master of the Havens since its founding; the general map of Middle-earth in The Lord of the Rings shows other anchorages farther west in the Gulf of Lhûn: Harlond and Forlond on the southern and northern shores, respectively. Lindon was one of the two Noldorin realms during the other being Eregion, or Hollin; because of its cultural and spiritual importance to the Elves, Mithlond in time became the primary Elvish settlement west of the Misty Mountains prior to the establishment of Eregion and of Imladris.
After the death of Gil-galad, as the Elves dwindled in numbers by the year, Mithlond remained a focal point of the history of the northern part of Middle-earth. During the War of the Elves and Sauron, the Dark Lord Sauron attempted to invade and conquer the Havens in order to gain the Three Elven Rings but was halted and defeated at the Lhûn by Gil-galad with the timely arrival of the great Númenórean armament of Tar-Minastir; the Second Age ended with the Last Alliance of Men. The Last Alliance was the final great military effort of the Elves and they raised their largest army since the First Age for the war. Gil-galad was killed by Sauron during the last battle of the war; the Elves of Lindon suffered severe losses in the war and afterwards most of the surviving Noldor departed for Valinor and much of Lindon became depopulated. In the Third Age Lindon was ruled by Gil-galad's ally, the Sindarin elf Círdan the Shipwright, master of Mithlond. Círdan ruled as a "lord" and never with Gil-galad's title "king".
Círdan's main task was to build ships for the Elves departing Middle-earth to sail to the West. By the end of the Third Age, the majority of Lindon's population resided in or around the harbour of the Grey Havens, while the rest settled along the shores of the Gulf of Lhûn. Lindon was one of the few populated areas of northwestern Middle-earth that remained untouched by the War of the Ring. Sauron never achieved the strength and reach he had in the Second Age and he was unable to make a direct assault though the realm was a strategically important location populated by his enemies. During the Fourth Age, it was one of the last Elven havens as the remaining Elves of Rivendell and Lothlórien left Middle-earth. In the beginning of the first century, Fourth Age, it experienced a population growth as migrants from the east came to
The Dagor Bragollach was the fourth battle of the Wars of Beleriand in J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, it was the great turning point in the War of the Jewels. It began on a winter's night in the beginning of the year 455 of the First Age, with the eruptions of the volcanic peaks of Thangorodrim sending out rivers of flame, poisonous fumes and clouds of smoke and ash. All this provided confusion and darkness to cover the advance of Morgoth's forces; the fires, spearheaded by Glaurung the Dragon, destroyed the vegetation of the grassy plain of Ard-galen, renamed Anfauglith, the Gasping Dust. Both Fingolfin, High-king of the Noldor, Fëanorian Noldor led by Maedhros had maintained camps of cavalry on Ard-galen as a forward watch on Morgoth. Many of these were killed. Morgoth's armies of Orcs, led by numerous Balrogs, were now able to advance, without interference and under cover of darkness, to attack each of the realms of the Noldor and individually, preventing the three Houses of the Noldor from joining forces or coming to one another's assistance.
As in the Third Battle, Dagor Aglareb, Morgoth's prime objective was the capture of the central highland of Dorthonion, a fief of Finrod's realm that lay directly south of Angband across the plain. Possession of Dorthonion would provide Morgoth with a forward base supported from Angband while splitting the Noldorin forces in two, physically preventing any effort to unite forces against him, and the first realm to be overrun was Dorthonion. Both Angrod and Aegnor, together with Bregolas, Lord of Ladros and brother of Barahir, died in battle, with Barahir holding onto western Dorthonion. Finrod Felagund led an army of reinforcements from Nargothrond, but was ambushed by Morgoth's forces at the Fens of Serech and cut off from the bulk of his troops. Finrod would have been killed or captured but for a sortie by Barahir, who descended from Dorthonion and rescued the elven lord, despite suffering heavy losses. In return for Barahir's courage and loyalty, Finrod swore an oath of friendship to Barahir and his family, giving him his ring as a token.
The armies of Hithlum attempted to come to Dorthonion's assistance, but were driven back to their hill fortresses in the Ered Wethrin, suffering severe losses. Hador, Lord of Dor-lómin, his younger son Gundor and many of their followers died in the rearguard of Fingolfin's army as it retreated to the fortress of the Barad Eithel. Dorthonion, the centre of the northern Noldorin siege line, was gained by Morgoth, a new pass south into Mid-Beleriand at Anach was opened for the Orcs. With the Noldor and their allies thrown on the defensive and his primary objective—the capture of Dorthonion—achieved, the initiative was in Morgoth's grip; the gateway passes south into Beleriand and west into Hithlum were his next objectives. The river island fortress of Minas Tirith in the Pass of Sirion in the west under Orodreth held. In the east, all the cavalry camps of the March of Maedhros were overrun, but the ferocity and valour of Maedhros was unmatched and his fortress on Himring withstood the assaults.
The Pass of Aglon was breached, although Morgoth's forces suffered severe losses, Celegorm and Curufin fled via the north marches of Doriath towards Minas Tirith. Glaurung spearheaded a separate attack on Maglor's Gap, forced, Morgoth's armies ravaged the land between the arms of the river Gelion. Maglor retreated to Maedhros' fortress on Himring. Morgoth's Orcs took the mountain forts on Mount Rerir, defiled Lake Helevorn advanced south through Thargelion and into East Beleriand over the fords of the river Gelion. Caranthir fled far south to Amon Ereb, where he and his brothers and Amras, allied with the Green Elves. While Maglor and Maedhros held Himring, survivors from Dorthonion and the other eastern realms rallied there, Maedhros managed to secure the Pass of Aglon. However, the March of Maedhros, the eastern wing of the northern Noldorin siege line against Morgoth, could not be re-established. Finrod and his army retired south to Nargothrond, while Barahir continued to try to contest Dorthonion with a dwindling force of men.
When the land became inhospitable, the women and children of the House of Bëor relocated to Hithlum and Brethil under the leadership of Emeldir, the wife of Barahir. The mountain forts of the Ered Wethrin around Hithlum held against all attacks, although barely; the siege was broken, the sons of Fëanor were scattered, parts of Finrod's realm lost and Fingon were shut up in Hithlum, Orcs roamed at will throughout the north. Despite their successes, the armies of Morgoth had suffered severe losses, he recalled his hosts in the spring, ending the main battle. Doriath had been undisturbed by the war, many Sindar had deserted the Noldor at the beginning of the battle and settled there, increasing the strength of that realm; as a result of these and ensuing battles, only of the Noldorin Elves around 10,000 were taken prisoners to Angband. When Fingolfin, the High-king of the Noldor, learned of the defeats and heavy casualties of the Noldor, in despair and anger, he rode alone upon his war-horse, across Anfauglith to challenge Morgoth to single combat.
The Orcs fled at the rumour of his approach. When Fingolfin arrived at gate of the fortress of Angband, his challenge to Morgoth was accepted, they fought a great duel. Yet, he was felled by Morgoth's mace and crushed beneath Morgoth's foot. Fingolfin's body was borne away by King of Eagles. Morgoth was permanently scarred by these wounds and f
Khuzdul is a fictional language created by J. R. R. Tolkien, is one of the languages which feature in Middle-earth, is the secret and private language of the Dwarves. Although not known, Tolkien had begun developing Khuzdul within the 1930's before the publication of The Hobbit, with some names appearing in the early versions of The Silmarillion. Tolkien based Khuzdul on Semitic languages Hebrew, featuring triconsonantal roots and similarities to Hebrew's phonology and morphology. Tolkien noted some similarities between Dwarves and Jews: both were "at once natives and aliens in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue…". Tolkien commented of the Dwarves that "their words are Semitic constructed to be Semitic." Although a limited vocabulary is known, Tolkien mentioned he had developed the language to a certain extent. A small amount of material on Khuzdul phonology and root modifications has survived, yet to be published. In the fictional setting of Middle-earth, little is known of Khuzdul, the Dwarves kept it secret, except for place names and a few phrases such as their battle-cry and Balin's tomb in Moria, which read respectively: The highest level of secrecy applied to Dwarves' "inner-names", their personal names, with the possible exception of the Petty-dwarves.
The names of all Dwarves are "outer-names" either from another language or nicknames/titles, sometimes in Khuzdul: e.g. Azaghâl, Gamil Zirak. According to the Lhammas, Khuzdul is a language isolate, the sole member of the Aulëan language family, not related to the Oromëan languages spoken by Elves. Aulëan was named from the Dwarvish tradition that it had been devised by Aulë the Smith, the Vala who created the Dwarves. Tolkien dropped the origins of Elvish being taught by Oromë, but kept the origins of Khuzdul the same, it is said in The Silmarillion that Aulë created the dwarves, taught them "the language he had devised for them", making Khuzdul in both fiction and reality, a constructed language. The Dwarves had a great reverence for Aulë; because of this, Khuzdul remained unchanged. As a result, all Dwarven clans could speak with each other without difficulty despite the great distances that separated them and the more than 12,000-year history of the language. Khuzdul was to the dwarves “a tongue of lore rather than a cradle-speech”, was learned through reverent study as they matured, to make sure Khuzdul was passed down unaltered from one generation to the next.
The changeability of Khuzdul versus other languages was compared to "the weathering of hard rock and the melting of snow". Dwarves were unwilling to teach outsiders Khuzdul to their non-dwarf friends. Dwarves would speak the languages of the region "but with an accent due to their own private tongue...", being careful not to speak Khuzdul around non-dwarves. Only a few non-Dwarves are recorded as having learnt Khuzdul, most notably the Elves Eöl, Fëanor's son Curufin, reluctantly the Noldor loremasters of the Second Age: "They understood and respected the disinterested desire for knowledge, some of the Ñoldorin loremasters were allowed to learn enough of both their "aglâb" and their "iglishmêk" to understand their systems". There were many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of Men of the Far-East of Middle-earth; this is because in the early days of Middle-earth, Men of these regions had friendly contact with the Dwarves, who "were not unwilling to teach their own tongue to Men with whom they had special friendship, but Men found it difficult and were slow to learn more than isolated words, many of which they adapted and took into their own language".
Adûnaic, the language of Númenor, retained some Khuzdul influences and was said to have been influenced by Khuzdul's basic structure. Dwarves were however, willing to reveal the names of places in Khuzdul, with Gimli revealing the names of the landmarks of Moria: "I know them and their names, for under them lies Khazad-dûm, the Dwarrowdelf... Yonder stands Barazinbar, the Redhorn...and beyond him are Silvertine and Cloudyhead:...that we call Zirakzigil and Bundushathûr.". Khuzdul is written with the Cirth script, with two known modes used, Cirth Moria and Cirth Erebor. Besides their aglâb, spoken tongue, the Dwarves used a sign language, or iglishmêk, just as secretive as Khuzdul. According to The War of the Jewels, it was learned with the aglâb from childhood; the Dwarvish sign language was much more varied between communities than Khuzdul, which remained "astonishingly uniform and unchanged both in time and in locality". Tolkien described of their structure and use among the dwarves: "The component sign-elements of any such code were so slight and so swift that they could hardly be detected, still less interpreted by uninitiated onlookers.
As the Eldar discovered in their dealings with the Naugrim, they could speak with their voices but at the same time by ‘gesture’ convey to their own folk modifications of what was being said. Or they could stand silent considering some proposition, yet confer among themselves meanwhile". Tolkien only gave a few examples of the Iglishmêk sign language in his unpublished notes; the command to "Listen!" Involved a slight raising of both forefingers simultaneously. The acknowledgment "I am listening" involved a slight raising of the right-hand forefinger, followed by a similar raising of the left-hand forefinger; the following phonemes are attested in Tolkien's Khuzdul vocabulary. Only one diphthong is attested in Khuzdul: ai. 1 Often at the start of words that begin with a vowel not written in the Latin alphabet, but has its own rune in An
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor