Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design and study of armorial bearings, as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement; the achievement, or armorial bearings includes a coat of arms on an shield and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, heraldic banners, mottoes. Although the use of various devices to signify individuals and groups goes back to antiquity, both the form and use of such devices varied and the concept of regular, hereditary designs, constituting the distinguishing feature of heraldry, did not develop until the High Middle Ages, it is often that the use of helmets with face guards during this period made it difficult to recognize one's commanders in the field when large armies gathered together for extended periods, necessitating the development of heraldry as a symbolic language but there is little actual support for this view.
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as "the handmaid of history", "the shorthand of history", "the floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, individuals and private organizations, cities and regions use heraldry and its conventions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent groups for thousands of years; the earliest representations of distinct persons and regions in Egyptian art show the use of standards topped with the images or symbols of various gods, the names of kings appear upon emblems known as serekhs, representing the king's palace, topped with a falcon representing the god Horus, of whom the king was regarded as the earthly incarnation. Similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found.
In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, who were commanded to gather beneath these emblems and declare their pedigrees. The Greek and Latin writers describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields; until the nineteenth century, it was common for heraldic writers to cite examples such as these, metaphorical symbols such as the "Lion of Judah" or "Eagle of the Caesars" as evidence of the antiquity of heraldry itself. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, but these fabulous claims have long since been dismissed as the fantasy of medieval heralds, for there is no evidence of a distinctive symbolic language akin to that of heraldry during this early period. The medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature. Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, the various arms attributed to the Nine Worthies and the Knights of the Round Table.
These too are now regarded as a fanciful invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to a single individual, time, or place. Although certain designs that are now considered heraldic were evidently in use during the eleventh century, most accounts and depictions of shields up to the beginning of the twelfth century contain little or no evidence of their heraldic character. For example, the Bayeux Tapestry, illustrating the Norman invasion of England in 1066, commissioned about 1077, when the cathedral of Bayeux was rebuilt, depicts a number of shields of various shapes and designs, many of which are plain, while others are decorated with dragons, crosses, or other heraldic figures, yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the same arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. An account of the French knights at the court of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I at the beginning of the twelfth century describes their shields of polished metal, utterly devoid of heraldic design.
A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic. The Abbey of St. Denis contained a window commemorating the knights who embarked on the Second Crusade in 1147, was made soon after the event. In England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. Beginning in the twelfth century, seals assumed a distinctly heraldic character. A notable example of an early armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders, in 1164. Seals from the latter part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism, but by t
In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth called Middle-earth, set in the remote past, they appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, but their complex history is described more in The Silmarillion. Tolkien had been writing about Elves; the modern English word elf derives from the Old English word ælf. Numerous types of elves appear in Germanic mythology, the West Germanic concept appears to have come to differ from the Scandinavian notion in the early Middle Ages, Anglo-Saxon concept diverged further under Celtic influence. Tolkien would make it clear in a letter that his Elves differ from those "of the better known lore", referring to Scandinavian mythology. By 1915 when Tolkien was writing his first elven poems, the words elf and gnome had many divergent and contradictory associations. Tolkien had been warned against using the term'fairy', which John Garth supposes may have been due to the word becoming used to indicate homosexuality, although despite this warning Tolkien continued to use it.
By the late 19th century, the term'fairy' had been taken up as a utopian theme, was used to critique social and religious values, a tradition which Tolkien along with T. H. White are seen to continue. One of the last of the Victorian Fairy-paintings, The Piper of Dreams by Estella Canziani, sold 250,000 copies and was well known within the trenches of World War I where Tolkien saw active service. Illustrated posters of Robert Louis Stevenson's poem Land of Nod had been sent out by a philanthropist to brighten servicemen's quarters, Faery was used in other contexts as an image of "Old England" to inspire patriotism. According to Marjorie Burns, Tolkien chose the term elf over fairy, but still retained some doubts. In his 1939 essay On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien wrote that "English words such as elf have long been influenced by French. Traditional Victorian dancing fairies and elves appear in much of Tolkien's early poetry, have influence upon his works in part due to the influence of a production of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham in 1910 and his familiarity with the work of Catholic mystic poet, Francis Thompson which Tolkien had acquired in 1914.
O! I hear the tiny horns Of enchanted leprechauns And the padded feet of many gnomes a-coming! As a philologist, Tolkien's interest in languages led him to invent several languages of his own as a pastime. In considering the nature of who might speak these languages, what stories they might tell, Tolkien again turned to the concept of elves. In his The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien develops a theme that the diminutive fairy-like race of Elves had once been a great and mighty people, that as Men took over the world, these Elves had "diminished" themselves; this theme was influenced by the god-like and human-sized Ljósálfar of Norse mythology, medieval works such as Sir Orfeo, the Welsh Mabinogion, Arthurian romances and the legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Some of the stories Tolkien wrote as elven history have been seen to be directly influenced by Celtic mythology. For example, "Flight of The Noldoli" is based on the Tuatha Dé Danann and Lebor Gabála Érenn, their migratory nature comes from early Irish/Celtic history.
John Garth sees that with the underground enslavement of the Noldoli to Melkor, Tolkien was rewriting Irish myth regarding the Tuatha Dé Danann into a Christian eschatology. The name Inwe, given by Tolkien to the eldest of the elves and his clan, is similar to the name found in Norse mythology as that of the god Ingwi-Freyr, a god, gifted the elf world Álfheimr. Terry Gunnell claims that the relationship between beautiful ships and the Elves is reminiscent of the god Njörðr and the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, he retains the usage of the French derived term "fairy" for the same creatures. The larger Elves are inspired by Tolkien's personal Catholic theology—as representing the state of Men in Eden who have not yet "fallen", similar to humans but fairer and wiser, with greater spiritual powers, keener senses, a closer empathy with nature. Tolkien wrote of them: "They are made by man in his own likeness, they are immortal, their will is directly effective for the achievement of imagination and desire."In The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien includes both the more serious "medieval" type of elves such as Fëanor and Turgon alongside the frivolous, Jacobean type of elves such as the Solosimpi and Tinúviel.
Alongside the idea of the greater Elves, Tolkien developed the idea of children visiting Valinor, the island-homeland of the Elves in their sleep. Elves would visit children at night and comfort them if they had been chided or were upset; this theme, linking elves with children's dreams and nocturnal travelling was abandoned in Tolkien's writing. Along with Book of Lost Tales, Douglas Anderson shows that in The Hobbit, Tolkien again includes both the more serious'medieval' type of elves, such as Elrond and the Wood-elf king, frivolous elves, such as those at Rivendell. In 1937, having had his manuscript for The Silmarillion rejected by a publisher who disparaged all the "eye-splitting Celtic names" that Tolkien had given his Elves, Tolkien denied the names had a Celtic origin: Needless t
Idril Celebrindal is a fictional character in English author J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, she appears in one of his chief works of literature, The Silmarillion, published posthumously by Christopher Tolkien, as an elvish princess. Idril Celebrindal was the only child of Turgon, whose wife Elenwë died at the Helcaraxë, she was the wife of Tuor, the mother of Eärendil the Mariner, who sailed to Valinor and brought about the War of Wrath in which Morgoth was defeated. Together with Angrod's son Orodreth and Curufin's son Celebrimbor, she was one of the three Noldor in the third generation to come into exile. Idril was loved in secret by her cousin Maeglin, the son of Eöl the Dark Elf and Aredhel, Turgon's sister, but scorned his advances because of his dark character, as well as the fact that they were too related. In Tolkien's fictional language of Sindarin, the name Idril was a form of the name Itarillë, which means "sparkling brilliance" in Quenya, another of Tolkien's invented languages.
When the mortal man Tuor, son of Huor, arrived in the Elvish city of Gondolin as a messenger of the Vala Ulmo, he fell in love with the King's daughter Idril and she with him. In contrast to the first union of Elves and Men, which came about through much hardship and unimaginable sacrifice and Idril were allowed to marry without difficulty; this was because King Turgon had grown to love Tuor as a son, remembering the last words of Huor which prophesied that a "star" would arise out of both his and Turgon's lineage which would redeem the Children of Ilúvatar from Morgoth he permitted Idril and Tuor to wed, thus bringing about the second union of Men and Elves, after Beren and Lúthien. Their wedding was celebrated with great mirth and joy and of their love was born in Gondolin Eärendil the Mariner, to become the saviour of Elves and Men and their mediator to the Valar. Afterwards Idril had a secret passage built, known as Idril's Secret Way, thus enabled many to escape the Fall of Gondolin; when Tuor came, carrying Ulmo's warning of the danger to Gondolin, Maeglin the King's nephew sat on the right hand of Turgon and argued against Tuor.
Tuor's marriage with Idril further incensed Maeglin, who rebelled against Tuor. Seeking after metals, Maeglin defied Turgon's order to stay within the mountains, was captured by Orcs and brought to Angband. Morgoth promised both Gondolin and Idril in return for the location of the hidden city, thus luring Maeglin into the greatest treachery done in the Elder Days, he gave him a token. Maeglin returned to Gondolin saying nothing about his encounter. Most thought it was for the better, though Idril suspected something and began work on Idril's Secret Way, he managed to turn some of the roguish to his side. During Gondolin's fall when the hosts of Morgoth surrounded the city, Maeglin counselled Turgon against flight, because of his place in the King's heart, he swayed him to his advantage. Maeglin took hold of both Idril and her son and threatened to murder the child by throwing him over the edge of the city walls; however Tuor fought with him and after a vicious battle defeated Maeglin and thrust him over the edge to his death.
After the fall of Gondolin and Tuor became leaders of the exiles at the Mouths of Sirion, where they received Elwing daughter of Dior son of Beren and Lúthien. When Tuor grew old he departed in his ship for the West, Idril went with him, it is believed by the Elves and Dúnedain that Idril and Tuor arrived in Valinor, bypassing the Ban of the Valar, that Tuor was reckoned in the kindred of the Elves, so that Tuor and Idril now live in Valinor. In an early and undeveloped version of the "Fall of Gondolin" published in the second part of The Book of Lost Tales the love story and marriage of Idril and Tuor is given as the first union of Elves and Men rather than the second; this was because at this time Tolkien regarded both Lúthien as being Elves. Although there are many differences between the narrative and its predecessor, the characters of Idril and Tuor are consistent in many respects to how they are presented in The Silmarillion and literature. UnknownTelerilineage FingolfinAnairë FingonTurgonElenwëAredhelEölArgon IDRILTuorMaeglin ElwingEärendil ElrosElrondCelebrían Kings of Nùmenor Lords of Andúnië Kings of ArnorKings of Gondor AragornArwenElladanElrohir Eldarion Arwen Half-elven "Idril".
Elu Thingol is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, he appears in The Silmarillion, The Lays of Beleriand and Children of Húrin as well as in numerous stories in the many volumes of The History of Middle-earth. He is notably a major character in many of the stories about the First Age of Tolkien's Middle-earth and he is an essential part of the ancestral backgrounding of the romance between Aragorn and Arwen in The Lord of the Rings. Thingol is introduced as the King of King of the Sindar, High-king and Lord of Beleriand, he is said to be "the tallest of all the Children of Ilúvatar" and the "mightiest of the Eldar save Fëanor only". In The Silmarillion as Elwë, he is introduced as one of the three chieftains of the Elves who depart from Cuiviénen with Oromë as ambassadors of Valinor and become Kings. Upon his return, he persuades many of the Nelyar, to follow him back to that country; this host becomes known as the Teleri. On the Great Journey to the West the Teleri lag behind, loving Middle-earth and having mixed feelings about leaving it for Valinor, do not arrive at the coast until after the departure of the moving island of Tol Eressëa.
Thus, they stay in Beleriand for many years. During this time Elwë encounters Melian the Maia in the woods of Nan Elmoth and, enchanted by her, he falls in love with her, they remain entranced together for some 200 years. Many of the Teleri would not leave without him. After Thingol awoke from the trance, many of the Teleri had grown to like Beleriand and decided to stay there. Thingol and Melian become queen of the Sindar, the Teleri who stay in Beleriand. Thingol's brother Olwë becomes the King of Alqualondë and High King of the Teleri who do journey to Aman. Thingol visited Valinor as an ambassador and is, both of the Sindar and of the Calaquendi, his and Melian's daughter, Lúthien, is said to be the fairest of the Children of Ilúvatar to live. Thingol's heir is son of Beren and Lúthien. Other kin of Thingol, stated by Tolkien, for which the family relation is unrecorded or unexplained in the tales are Círdan, Celeborn, Eöl, he is the ancestor of many prominent characters and Men, including Elros, Elrond and Arwen.
He is family to Galadriel, as she is the child of his niece, Eärwen. When the War of the Jewels began Thingol fought the First Battle of Beleriand defeating Morgoth's invading east host. After that battle Thingol realised that he could not match Morgoth in open battle and adopted a defensive strategy for his kingdom by closing the borders with a military March Ward and Melian's magical Girdle, a maze of mists and shadows. Sensing unspoken, dire causes for the arrival of the Noldor, he denied entry to Doriath without his leave to all except the house of Finarfin, for they were descended from Olwë; the lords of the Noldor concealed from Thingol the Kinslaying at Alqualondë, where Thingol's Telerin kinsmen in Valinor were slaughtered and their ships stolen by Fëanor's followers. Those Noldor who bore no direct responsibility for the crime felt the shame of it, they grew angry at the sons of Fëanor for their pride. Círdan the Shipwright heard rumour of the Kinslaying, sent word to Thingol. Outraged, Thingol confronted Finrod Felagund with this news, but Finrod made no reply rather than accuse his kinsmen.
His brother Angrod could not bear the blame any longer. In great anger, he revealed Fëanor and Fëanor's sons' responsibility for the Kinslaying, for the misery of the long passage of the Helcaraxë which Finarfin's and Fingolfin's kin suffered. Thingol forgave the houses of Fingolfin and Finarfin, but he decreed that their language would never again be heard or spoken in Beleriand and still bore hatred for the Fëanorian Noldor. Following the Dagor Bragollach, a Man named Beren fled to Doriath, driven by a destiny that thwarted Melian's power, Lúthien, Thingol's daughter, fell in love with him. Thingol did not wish them to marry, he demanded as a bride-price a Silmaril, which jewels were at that time set in Morgoth's crown, thinking it would be death to make the attempt to recover them. Though intended by Thingol as a way to get rid of this presumptuous mortal, as the quest was deemed impossible, the quest he laid on Beren had the effect of placing Doriath under the sway of the Oath of Fëanor, since against all odds, Beren succeeded in retrieving the Silmaril after many difficult adventures and married Lúthien.
As was required by their oath, the sons of Fëanor demanded. In spite of Melian's counsel to the contrary, he refused, remembering the sacrifices that his daughter and son-in-law had to endure to retrieve it, being enamoured of its beauty. Maedhros remained silent, since he was attempting to build an alliance to assault Angband, but his brothers Celegorm and Curufin vowed to slay Thingol and lay waste to Doriath should they return from battle victorious. Thingol thus fortified his borders and sent no aid to the Union of Maedhros, but gave permission to his marchwardens Beleg Cúthalion and Mablung to participate, under the condition that they not serve the sons of Fëanor. After the disastrous defeat of the Eldar at the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, Beleg returned to Doriath with the young Túrin Turambar, a grand-nephew of Beren, sent by his mother Morwen Eledhwen from Dor-lómin, soon to be overrun by Morgoth's forces, Thingol received him gladly. Túrin caused the death of the Nandorin elf Saeros, after the latter gave him a mortal insult.
Thingol was at first outraged, but pardoned Túrin after hearing the whole story. However, Túr
Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in his Middle-earth legendarium, she appears in The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales. She was a royal Elf of both the Noldor and the Teleri, being a grandchild of both King Finwë and King Olwë, was close kin of King Ingwë of the Vanyar through her grandmother Indis, she was one of the leaders in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor during the First Age, she was the only prominent Noldo to survive and return, at the end of the Third Age. Towards the end of her stay in Middle-earth she was co-ruler of Lothlórien with her husband, Lord Celeborn, was referred to variously as the Lady of Lórien, the Lady of the Galadhrim, the Lady of Light, or the Lady of the Golden Wood, her daughter Celebrían was the wife of Elrond and mother of Arwen and Elrohir. Tolkien describes Galadriel as "the mightiest and fairest of all the Elves that remained in Middle-earth" and the "greatest of elven women".
Stories of Galadriel's life prior to The Lord of the Rings appear in both The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Galadriel was the only daughter and youngest child of Finarfin, prince of the Noldor, of Eärwen, cousin to Lúthien, her elder brothers were Finrod Felagund and Aegnor. She was born in Valinor during the Years of the Trees. Galadriel is described as having been "blessed with the ability to peer into the minds of others and she judged them so fairly, but in Fëanor, she only sees darkness". As one of the members of the royal house of Finwë and having the blood of the Vanyar from her paternal grandmother, she was called the fairest of all Elves, either in Aman or Middle-earth. According to the older account of her story, sketched by Tolkien in The Road Goes Ever On and used in The Silmarillion, Galadriel was an eager participant and leader in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor, she had, long since parted ways with Fëanor and his sons, did not participate in the Kinslaying at Alqualondë.
In Beleriand she lived with her brother Finrod Felagund at Nargothrond and at the court of Thingol and Melian in Doriath. In this account she met a kinsman of Thingol, in Doriath. After the War of Wrath, the Valar prohibited the leaders of the Exiles from returning to the Undying Lands, so as one of those leaders Galadriel remained an Exile in Middle-earth. At the end of the Third Age, when she refused the One Ring, she was allowed to return to Valinor. Unfinished Tales gathers many other accounts of Celeborn. One of these highlights a second version of, she lived with her mother's kindred in the Telerin port of Alqualondë and there met Celeborn, who would become her husband and co-ruler. Celeborn, by this account, was Olwë's grandson. Galadriel and Celeborn sailed from the West and came to Beleriand separately from the two main hosts of the Noldor. Galadriel was thus not directly involved in the revolt of the Noldorin princes in this version, indeed fought against them at Alqualondë during the kinslaying.
In Beleriand she and Celeborn were lived in Doriath. When the Noldor arrived in Beleriand, Galadriel re-established contact with her brothers. In this version of the story, she is offered a pardon by the Valar, but refused it out of pride and therefore remained under the Ban. In later accounts from Unfinished Tales, written not long before Tolkien died, Galadriel was not subject to the Ban, remained in Middle-earth of her own volition. In both versions Celeborn and Galadriel play no important role in the Battles of Beleriand, as they judge the War of the Jewels to be hopeless against Morgoth's strength. Little is told of their subsequent activities in the First Age, they leave Beleriand before the War of Wrath, they travelled first to Lindon, where they ruled over a group of Elves as a fiefdom under Gil-galad, the last High King of the Noldor. According to Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn, they removed to the shores of Lake Nenuial, were accounted the Lord and Lady of all the Elves of Eriador.
Around SA 700, they moved eastward and established the realm of Eregion or Hollin. At this time they made contact with a Nandorin settlement in the valley of the Anduin, which became Lothlórien. At some point Celeborn and Galadriel settled in Lothlórien. According to some accounts, they became rulers of Lothlórien for a time during the Second Age. Early in the Second Age, the Númenórean King Tar-Aldarion presented some Mallorn seeds to Gil-galad, High-King of the Noldor in Middle-earth, ruler of the Kingdom of Lindon, the westernmost realm in Middle-earth. "Under her power" the mellyrn had sprouted in the land of Lothlórien, but "they did not reach the height or girth of the groves of Númenor."Celeborn and Galadriel had a daughter, Celebrían, who married Elrond Half-elven of Rivendell, thus making Galadriel and her husband Celeborn the grandparents of the twins Elladan and Elrohir and their younger sister Arwen Undómiel, future Queen of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor. During the Second Age, when the Rings
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Fingolfin is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, appearing in The Silmarillion. Fingolfin was a High King of the Noldor in Beleriand, second eldest son of Finwë, full brother of Finarfin, half-brother of Fëanor, the eldest of Finwë's sons, he founded the House of Fingolfin. His wife was Anairë and his children were Fingon, Turgon and Argon. Fingolfin was said to be the strongest, most steadfast, most valiant of Finwë's sons, his name in Quenya—one of Tolkien's fictional languages—was Nolofinwë, or "wise Finwë". This was his father-name. Fingolfin was born to Finwë's second wife, after Míriel died, as was Finarfin. While they lived in Aman, there was always strife between the sons of Indis and the son of Míriel due to Melkor's treachery. However, Fingolfin would seek to forge a better relationship with Fëanor at every chance. After Fëanor threatened him with swords and was banished from Tirion, Fingolfin forgave him and tried to mend their relationship; this occurred soon before destruction of the Two Trees and the Darkening of Valinor.
After this event and Fëanor's decision to leave Aman, Fingolfin chose to follow him into exile, so as not to abandon his people. Fingolfin led the largest host of the Noldor when they fled Aman for Middle-earth though he thought this unwise, his followers participated in the Kinslaying at the Havens, but only because they arrived after the battle was underway not knowing that Fëanor was the aggressor. He was the one who took them across the ice of the Helcaraxë, an epic and arduous journey that lasted months or years, they arrived in Middle-earth at the first rising of the Moon, sounded their trumpets. Soon after, at the first rising of the Sun, he came to the gates of Angband and smote upon them, but Melkor—now known as Morgoth—stayed hidden inside. Fingolfin and the Noldor came to the northern shores of Lake Mithrim, from which the Fëanorian part of the host had withdrawn, his son Fingon rescued Maedhros, son of Fëanor, who in gratitude waived his claim to kingship: thus, Fingolfin became High-King of the Noldor.
He ruled from Hithlum, by the northern shores of Lake Mithrim. After defeating the Orcs in the Dagor Aglareb, Fingolfin maintained the Siege of Angband for nearly 400 years, but the Siege was ended by Morgoth's sudden assaults in the Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame, many peoples of Beleriand fled. When Fingolfin learned of this, received false report that his allies had been routed on all fronts, he became filled with wrath and despair, he took his horse Rochallor and sword Ringil, rode alone to Angband. All enemies fled from him, fearing his anger, mistaking him in his fury for Oromë, the Vala patron of hunters, he challenged Morgoth to single combat. Though Morgoth feared Fingolfin, he had to accept the challenge—or face shame in the eyes of his servants. Seven times Fingolfin wounded Morgoth and seven times Morgoth cried in pain, seven times the host of Morgoth wailed in anguish, but he could not be slain for he was one of the Valar. Whenever Morgoth attacked, Fingolfin would evade, avoiding Morgoth's weapon Grond, the hammer of the underworld, as it would crack the ground so violently smoke and fire darted from the craters.
However, Fingolfin grew weary and stumbled on a crater. Morgoth pinned Fingolfin with his foot, killed him, but not before he, with his last act of defiance, hewed at Morgoth's foot. Morgoth, from thence forward, always walked with a limp. An enraged Morgoth sought to desecrate the body of the valiant king but Thorondor, Lord of Eagles flew down and raked Morgoth's eyes, carried Fingolfin's body away to be placed on a cliff overlooking Gondolin, his son Turgon built a cairn over the remains of his father. Fingolfin is among those major characters whom Tolkien, who used to illustrate his writings, supplied with a distinct heraldic device; the song "Time Stands Still" of the German power-metal band Blind Guardian tells the story of the fight between Morgoth and Fingolfin. The song "Do Not Ask Me To Praise Him" by Aire and Saruman on their album "A Elberet Giltoniel" is a lament for Fingolfin by his minstrel some time after that last battle:'... do not ask me to praise him, the day won't be brighter for a candle...'.
Dagor-nuin-Giliath House of Finwë Quenta Silmarillion Fingolfin Leads the Host Across the Helcaraxë as illustrated by Ted Nasmith