Hardman & Co.
John Hardman senior, of Handsworth, in Staffordshire, was the head of a family business designing and manufacturing metalwork. He was described as the ‘opulent button maker and medallist’, when the building was consecrated in 1841 as Saint Chads Cathedral, it was the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in England since the Reformation. For the recently converted Catholic, this was a commission of great importance, Pugin first had contact with the John Hardmans during the construction of St Chads Chapel, the forerunner to the cathedral scheme. John Hardman junior, left the business in 1838 and set up on his own to manufacture ecclesiastical metalwork. Pugin employed Hardmans to provide metalwork for St Chads Cathedral, from 1845, at the urging of Pugin, John Hardman entered the burgeoning industry of stained glass manufacture. He was joined by his nephew, John Hardman Powell who married Pugin’s daughter Anne in 1850, Powell became the chief designer from about 1849, prior to Pugin’s death in 1852.
The company took part in the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London and Powell collaborated with A. W. Pugins son, E. W. Pugin, firstly in the design of the arrangements of John Talbot. The collaboration between the Hardman firm and the Pugins was to continue after E. W. Pugin’s death in 1875 with the firm and this collaboration lasted for three generations and was a major influence on Catholic church architecture and decoration in particular and the Gothic Revival in general. Under the management of J. H. Powell the metalwork design department split from the glass department in 1883 and traded under the name Hardman, Powell. The business was closed in 2008, through the influence of A. W. Pugin, John Ruskin, and the Oxford Movement, it was considered during the mid 19th century that the only appropriate style in which a church should be built was Gothic. This fashion was combined with a general renewal within the church, the result was that many designers in different fields tried to imitate the Medieval style in their work.
This was particularly the case in the glass industry. Pugin, who supplied the first designs for Hardmans, was absorbed in the Medieval and was a designer of the highest order. With his busy regime, he relied upon his talented son-in-law, Powell. The firm had many subcontractors and designers who are not well-known, for example, the Pippet family of Solihull, William John Wainwright and R. J. Powells stained glass recreates the elegance, the refinement, the brevity that is seen in some of the finest examples of glass, sculpture and he utilised the flowing, curving lines, the flourish of drapery, the calligraphic brushstrokes and pure colour. However, Powells work was not, like stained glass designers
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical and decorative usage in, for example, window panes and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are silicate glasses based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their use as window panes. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can be painted and printed with vitreous enamels and these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures, because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels, vases, bottles and drinking glasses.
In its most solid forms it has used for paperweights, marbles. Some objects historically were so commonly made of glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses and these sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica, metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass, silica is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure SiO2. It has excellent resistance to shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting-temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate, which lowers the transition temperature.
The soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass, soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties, lead glass or flint glass is more brilliant because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium increases the refractive index, iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared energy, for example in heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths
Bormioli Rocco is a formerly all-Italian manufacturer of household goods now operating under international holding company Vision Capital. The company has been Italys largest glass manufacturer and one of the leading suppliers of tableware/glassware. Founded in 1825 in Fidenza, Bormioli Rocco produces glassware and plastic containers as well as focused on pharmaceutical use. Bormioli Rocco operates 9 plants,2 decorative ateliers and 9 stores and one store with a presence in over 100 countries. The Bormioli family was originally from Altare, in the hinterland of Savona, the family name Bormioli di Altare can be tracked back to AD1300, in the archives of Savona, for the purchase of soda. In 1825, Luigi Bormioli left Altare and moved to Borgo San Donnino in the province of Parma, with the money inherited from his father, Luigi started a glassware company. In 1832, after his death, the business was continued by his wife Petronilla, a mother of six children, together with her sons Dominic and Charles, she led the company for 22 years.
In 1854 they purchase the Royal Factory of Ceramics and Glasses Strada Farnese in Parma immediately changing its name to Brothers Bormioli Glassware, soon the brothers split, Dominic remained in Fidenza and Rocco in the capital. In the following years the company from Parma began to mechanize the production, in 1880 the company name changed to Bormioli Rocco Glass and Son. At the death Rocco, in 1893, succeeded his son Louis, joined in the period of the First World War by two sons and Rocco. At the time the company was one of the industrial company of the region. A position confirmed in the two decades. In the first post-war period and with more than 1,600 employees, Bormioli Rocco worked with his son Pier Luigi, destined to lead the company after having become general manager in 1966. During the 80s, with the acquisition of companies in Italy. In the 90s, after the death of Pier Luigi Bormioli Roccos son was forced by a financial crisis to cede a majority stake to Banca Popolare di Lodi. In the following years the company part of Gruppo Banca Popolare that in 2011 was sold to the private equity firm Vision Capital.
A factory located in Rive-de-Gier, was closed in 20041825,1880, After the acquisition of the “Royal factory of majolica and glassware” in Parma, The Bormioli family changes the business name into “Vetreria Fratelli Bormioli Rocco e Figlio spa”. 1938, The first automatic machine is assembled,1946, After the war bombings and the total destruction of the factory, the production is relaunched using the most advanced automation technologies
Based in Torrington in north Devon, Dartington Crystal manufactures crystal glassware using traditional Swedish glass blowing techniques. Many of their ranges continue to be made in their North Devon factory, the company was founded by the Dartington Hall Trust, a charity which aimed to assist the economic regeneration of rural areas through business and the arts. In the early sixties the trust had become concerned that north Devon was becoming depopulated as a lack of job opportunities forced people to move elsewhere to find work. The glass-making factory was intended to be a solution this problem, to achieve this vision the trust recruited Eskil Vilhemson, a Swedish glass manufacturer, to be the companys Managing Director. A team of Scandinavian glass blowers came with him to Torrington, some of whom are still there to this day, a year in 1969 more glass blowers followed, one Italian and a couple from Denmark. Demand outstripped production in the 1970s and the factory had to be expanded, by the 1980s the modern image of Dartington had attracted the attention of Wedgwood who took up a large stake in the business, allowing for further expansion.
In 1987, Frank Thrower MBE died of cancer, but the business boomed in the late 1980s. In 1989 Dartington Hall Trust sold a controlling interest to the Rockware Group, whose investment in the business allowed a modern batch mixing plant and new retail shop to be built. The business underwent a management buyout in 1994 from BTR, who had acquired the Rockware Group. The business was acquired by US giftware giant Enesco in 2004. Dartington Crystal underwent another Management Buy Out in April 2006, safeguarding many skilled jobs in the area, Dartington Crystal bought Scottish-based Caithness Glass out of receivership in October 2006 and owns Royal Brierley Crystal which is based in the West Midlands. Indeed, this has given Dartington a modern and contemporary image which has kept it ahead of others, todays most popular ranges include Wine Master, Florabundance as well as Sharon and Dimple which are still made today. This replica can be seen in the Visitors Centre at the Torrington site, commissions include Holland & Holland, Rolls Royce Motor, P&O Cruises and Chivas Regal as well as many others.
Dartington are one of just a few remaining large scale producers of crystal and glass in the UK, not all of their crystal is made in Devon while they design and source other glassware from European suppliers. In addition to Dartington crystal and glass products, the Company owns and markets the Caithness Glass and they sell and distribute John Beswick ceramic character sculptures
Kosta Glasbruk Swedish pronunciation, is a Swedish glassworks founded by two foreign officers in Charles XIIs army, Anders Koskull and Georg Bogislaus Stael von Holstein, in 1742. The name is a portmanteau of the surnames, Ko + Sta. It is located in Kosta, which was named for the company, the surrounding region has become known as the Kingdom of Crystal and is now a tourist site which attracts a million visitors annually. Early production consisted of glass and drinking glasses. From the 1840s, the factory was at the forefront of new trends and technical developments, producing pressed glass, having merged with Boda Glasbruk in Emmaboda Municipality, Kosta Glasbruk is still active today under the name of Kosta Boda
Pyrex is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware. Pyrex sold in the United States is made of tempered soda-lime glass, Corning no longer manufactures or markets Pyrex-branded borosilicate glass kitchenware and bakeware in the US. Borosilicate glass was first made by German chemist and glass technologist Otto Schott, Schott AG sold the product under the name Duran. In 1908, Eugene Sullivan, director of research at Corning Glass Works, developed Nonex, Sullivan had learned about Schotts borosilicate glass as a doctoral student in Leipzig, Germany. Jesse Littleton of Corning discovered the potential of borosilicate glass by giving his wife a casserole dish made from a cut-down Nonex battery jar. Corning removed the lead from Nonex and developed it as a consumer product, Pyrex made its public debut in 1915 during World War I, positioned as an American-produced alternative to Duran. While some people have thought that it was made up from the Greek pyr, actually, we had a number of prior trade-marks ending in the letters ex.
In 1958 an internal design department was started by John B. Ward and he redesigned the Pyrex ovenware and Flameware. Over the years, designers such as Penny Sparke, Betty Baugh, Smart Design, TEAMS Design, Corning divested its consumer products division in 1998, forming the company World Kitchen, LLC. Corning discontinued its production of Pyrex products, but still licensed the Pyrex brand name to other companies, including World Kitchen, france-based cookware maker Arc International acquired Newells European business in early 2006 and currently owns rights to the brand in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Older clear-glass Pyrex manufactured by Corning before 1998, Arc Internationals Pyrex products, and Pyrex laboratory glassware is made of borosilicate glass. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, borosilicate Pyrex is composed of,4. 0% boron,54. 0% oxygen,2. 8% sodium,1. 1% aluminum,37. 7% silicon, and 0. 3% potassium. According to glass supplier Pulles and Hannique, borosilicate Pyrex is made of Corning 7740 glass and is equivalent in formulation to Schott Glass 8330 glass sold under the Duran brand name.
Unlike borosilicate, it is not as heat-resistant, leading to the increase in breakage from heat stress. European Pyrex is still made from borosilicate, because of its low expansion characteristics, Pyrex borosilicate glass is often the material of choice for reflective optics in astronomy applications. In 1932, George Ellery Hale approached Corning with the challenge of fabricating the 200-inch telescope mirror for the California Institute of Technologys Palomar Observatory project, a previous effort to fabricate the optic from fused quartz had failed, the cast blank having voids. The mirror was cast by Corning during 1934–1936 out of borosilicate glass, after a year of cooling, during which it was almost lost to a flood, the blank was completed in 1935. The first blank now resides in the Corning Museum of Glass, new paper addresses causes of shattering glass cookware, margin of safety described as borderline
The Libbey-Owens-Ford Company was a producer of flat glass for the automotive and building products industries both for original equipment manufacturers and for replacement use. The companys headquarters and main factories were located in Toledo, with large glass plants in Rossford, Laurinburg, North Carolina, Illinois. The company was formed by the merger of Libbey-Owens flat-glass operation with the Edward Ford Plate Glass Company, in parallel, Michael Owens and associates completed work in 1902 on the first fully functioning automatic bottle-blowing machine, and in 1903 incorporated the Owens Bottle Machine Company. In 1912 Owens acquired rights to Irving Wightman Colburns invention for manufacturing plate glass, in June 1916, the Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Company was organized, and in 1917 the first Libbey-Owens plant opened in Charleston, West Virginia. In April 1986, LOF sold its glass business and name to the Pilkington Group, the remaining three business units of the company, Aeroquip and Sterling, were retained and the holding company was renamed TRINOVA Corporation.
As part of the Pilkington Group, the company retained the LOF name, however, in June 2006, Pilkington was acquired by Nippon Sheet Glass, and the LOF name was abandoned in an effort to rebrand globally under the Pilkington name. LOF company history, from LOF records at the University of Toledos Ward M. Canaday Center
Fenton Art Glass Company
The Fenton Art Glass Company was founded in 1905 by brothers Frank L. Fenton and John W. Fenton. The original factory was in an old factory in Martins Ferry. The factory at one time was owned by the old West Virginia Glass Company, at first they painted glass blanks from other glass makers, but started making their own glass when they became unable to buy the materials they needed. They moved across the Ohio river to Williamstown, West Virginia, the first year for glass production was 1907. In 1908 John Fenton left the company and founded the Millersburg glass company in Millersburg, Frank Fenton was the designer and decorator. From 1905 to 1920, the designs made there were heavily influenced by two other companies and Steuben. But the many different colors were the work of Jacob Rosenthal, towards the end of 1907, the Fenton brothers were the first to introduce carnival glass, which became a popular collectors item. During the Great Depression and World War II, Fenton produced practical items due to shortages, at the same time, they continued creating new colors.
Towards the end of the Great Depression they produced perfume bottles for the Wrisley Company in 1938, the bottles were made in French opalescent glass with the hobnail pattern. In 1939, Fenton started selling Hobnail items in milk glass, Hobnail milk glass would become the top-selling line and allowed the Fenton company to expand. In the late 1940s, the top three members of Fentons management died, Bill Fenton immediately stepped in and took over the positions of President and Vice President, respectively. Over the next thirty years, they continued to expand Fenton Art Glass, in 1986, George W. Fenton, Franks son, took over as President of the company. In 1970, the company added their logo to the bottom of their Original Formula Carnival Glass pieces to them from their older Carnival Glass pieces. In 1974, Fenton started putting their logo on all the pieces they made. Pieces made in the 1980s have the number eight under the letter n in the logo, pieces from the 1990s have the number nine, from June 1996 to July 1998 Fenton marked preferred seconds sold in their gift shop with a sandblasted solid or hollow star.
In August 1998 an F replaced the star, another type of mark is found on glass baskets. Where the glass handles of the baskets are attached to the base of the basket a stamp is made, each handler had a specific pattern to help identify which handler attached the handle. The marks began in the 1950s and were instituted by Frank M. Fenton used a coding system to describe the items it produced
Hoya Corporation is one of the Forbes Global 2000 Leading Companies and Industry Week 1000 Company. Hoya acquired the camera company Pentax in 2007, for the price of US$1 billion, in June 2010 the grandson of the corporations founder Yutaka Yamanaka proposed changes to the Board of Directors to prevent what he called such mistakes from happening again. On October 1,2011, Hoya sold its Pentax camera business to Ricoh, Hoya discussed a merger with Pentax into Hoya Pentax HD Corporation during 2007. It was speculated that Pentaxs camera business could be sold off after the merger, the merger was initially intended to be completed by October 1,2007. However, Pentax management decided to not pursue the originally planned share swap, on May 25, the Pentax board of directors accepted Hoyas offer for a merger. On August 6,2007, Hoya completed a takeover bid for Pentax. On October 29,2007, Hoya and Pentax announced that Pentax, as the company ceasing to exist, will merge with and into Hoya on March 31,2008.
The acquired Pentax surveying instrument business and camera business were sold to Taiwan Instrument Co. Ltd. in 2009 and Ricoh Co. Ltd. in 2011, in 2008, the glass disk subsidiary in Thailand was involved in a labour dispute. After the involvement of some customers, the workers were reinstated. List of companies of Japan Official website Company history books, wiki collection of bibliographic works on Hoya Corporation
Ardagh Group is a Luxembourg-based producer of glass and metal products. It was founded in 1932 as the Irish Glass Bottle Company, in 1999 it expanded by buying Rockware Glass and in 2007 by buying the Rexam Glass Division. In 2011 Ardagh Group bought the packaging company Impress Group for €1. 7bn. In August 2012, the company acquired Anchor Glass in an $880 million transaction, in January 2013, Ardagh Group agreed to acquire St-Gobains Verallia North America for €1.275 billion. The company operates 89 facilities in 22 countries, employs approximately 23,500 people and has approximately €7.7 billion in revenue, Ardagh Glass profits surge 150pc to €43. 6m
Franz Mayer & Co.
Franz Mayer & Co. is a famous German stained glass design and manufacturing company, based in Munich, that has been active throughout most of the world for over 150 years. Franz Mayer and Co. were stained glass artists to the Holy See and, the Mayer Co. is responsible for stained glass in at least ten of Irelands Cathedral churches. The work of Franz Mayer & Co. in Ireland is currently the subject of research at Trinity College Dublin. Patrick’s College, Cathedral of St Patrick and St Colman, Dominican Church, Loreto Convent, Church of the Sacred Heart, Co. Fethlimidh, County Cavan, St. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny, St. Matthews Church, skibbereen, Templeague, St. Peter’s Phibsborough, Park Rd. Dún Laoghaire, Abingdon, St. John’s, Sligo. Marks Church of Ireland, Ligoniel Road, Belfast, St. Nicholas Church of Ireland, Adare, Co. John the Baptist, Charleston, SC Chapel of the Rock, Saint Malo Church, St Johns Church, Acaster Selby, near York, North Yorkshire, England Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire, England - east single lancet in SE transept and east window in NE chapel.
Holy Trinity Church, France, four fine examples
Hadeland Glassverk is situated in Jevnaker, Oppland 40 km north of Oslo, at the southern tip of lake Randsfjorden. The glass works was founded in 1762 on land belonging to the Mo estate, at the time Norway did not have the necessary skilled craftsmen, and these were recruited from abroad, principally from Germany. Initially production consisted mainly of bottles, chemists’ jars, medicine bottles, berg took charge of the glass works, and the company underwent dramatic development. Production was redefined to consist of smaller crystal items and included everything from wine glasses to bowls, during the 19th century the glassworks mainly copied designs from other European countries and in the 1920s it started developing its own designs. Hadeland Glassverk is the oldest industrial company in Norway that can claim continuous operation since its foundation, in years, most of the production is done abroad. There is still a development section at the site and this, a/S Hadeland Glassverk is currently a company within the CG Holding company, which includes business activities within industry, commodity trading and investment.
In May 2012, King Harald marked the 250th anniversary of Hadeland Glassverk, Jevnaker Glassverk Hadeland Glassverk web site