Kayan people (Borneo)
Being an indigenous tribe in Borneo, the Kayan people are similar to their neighbours, the Kenyah tribe, with which they are grouped together with the Bahau people under the Apo Kayan people group. The population of the Kayan ethnic group may be around 27,000, they are part of a larger grouping of people referred collectively as the Orang Ulu, or upriver people. Like some other Dayak people, they are known for being fierce warriors, former headhunters, adept in Upland rice cultivation, having extensive tattoos and stretched earlobes amongst both sexes, they may have originated from along the Kayan river in the North Kalimantan province of Borneo. They live along the middle Kapuas and Mahakam rivers, they seem to have expanded to the south in Sarawak in historic times, generating some conflicts with the Iban that were expanding north at the same time. They have settled in Sarawak on the middle Baram River, the Bintulu River and along the Rajang River, having been pressed back a little during the late 19th century.
In 1863 West Kalimantan, Iban people migrated to the upstreams of Saribas River and Rejang River and started to attack the Kayan people in those areas and continued doing so northwards and eastwards. Wars and headhunting attacks have caused many other tribes to be displaced, including the Kayan people, who make up of 1.4% of the West Kutai Regency population. Significant expansion to the east Borneo occurred during the historical times, the conversion of the Kayan people to Islam forming the ethnogenesis of the Bulungan people; the Kayan language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. Their basic culture is similar to the other Dayak people in Borneo, their agriculture was based upon the cultivation of Upland rice. Other farming such as sago, yams and tobacco are cultivated. During the years of famine, sago is mined. Fishing plays an important role, a smaller role is played by hunting with a sumpitan; the Kayan people are engaged in breeding chickens, while dogs are kept for ritual purposes.
The Kayan people are known as boat builders and carpenters. Loom, production of tans, wood carving, making of masks and pottery are developed. Traditionally, they live in long houses on river banks, their settlement consists of one or several long houses as long as 300 meters, which can accommodate up to 100 families and consist of a common veranda and rooms. Residents of a long house constitute a tribal community; the Kayan people are divided into three endogamous caste-estate groups. Among the nobility, marriages are outside of the community with other tribes; the leader is elected from the nobility class. The settlement is bi-localized, the filiation is bilateral, while the system of kinship is of the English model; the Kayan people a developed mythology and a complex cult. The core event was the feast of collected heads, during which warrior initiations and funeral ceremonies were held. In the 20th century, the Kayan people began to convert to Christianity. Alam Lening Lung Kayaan Mendalam Into the Art of Borneo: The Kenyah-Kayan Tradition The Pagan Tribes of Borneo by Charles Hose and William McDougall from 1912
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion in a fire produces a flame, the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining. Combustion is a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion is hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction used to fuel rocket engines; this reaction releases 242 kJ/mol of heat and reduces the enthalpy accordingly: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2OCombustion of an organic fuel in air is always exothermic because the double bond in O2 is much weaker than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds, therefore the formation of the stronger bonds in the combustion products CO2 and H2O results in the release of energy.
The bond energies in the fuel play only a minor role, since they are similar to those in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is -418 kJ per mole of O2 used up in the combustion reaction, can be estimated from the elemental composition of the fuel. Uncatalyzed combustion in air requires high temperatures. Complete combustion is stoichiometric with respect to the fuel, where there is no remaining fuel, ideally, no remaining oxidant. Thermodynamically, the chemical equilibrium of combustion in air is overwhelmingly on the side of the products. However, complete combustion is impossible to achieve, since the chemical equilibrium is not reached, or may contain unburnt products such as carbon monoxide and carbon. Thus, the produced smoke is toxic and contains unburned or oxidized products. Any combustion at high temperatures in atmospheric air, 78 percent nitrogen, will create small amounts of several nitrogen oxides referred to as NO x, since the combustion of nitrogen is thermodynamically favored at high, but not low temperatures.
Since combustion is clean, flue gas cleaning or catalytic converters may be required by law. Fires occur ignited by lightning strikes or by volcanic products. Combustion was the first controlled chemical reaction discovered by humans, in the form of campfires and bonfires, continues to be the main method to produce energy for humanity; the fuel is carbon, hydrocarbons or more complicated mixtures such as wood that contains oxidized hydrocarbons. The thermal energy produced from combustion of either fossil fuels such as coal or oil, or from renewable fuels such as firewood, is harvested for diverse uses such as cooking, production of electricity or industrial or domestic heating. Combustion is currently the only reaction used to power rockets. Combustion is used to destroy waste, both nonhazardous and hazardous. Oxidants for combustion have high oxidation potential and include atmospheric or pure oxygen, fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, nitrous oxide and nitric acid. For instance, hydrogen burns in chlorine to form hydrogen chloride with the liberation of heat and light characteristic of combustion.
Although not catalyzed, combustion can be catalyzed by platinum or vanadium, as in the contact process. In complete combustion, the reactant burns in oxygen, produces a limited number of products; when a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will yield carbon dioxide and water. When elements are burned, the products are the most common oxides. Carbon will yield carbon dioxide, sulfur will yield sulfur dioxide, iron will yield iron oxide. Nitrogen is not considered to be a combustible substance when oxygen is the oxidant, but small amounts of various nitrogen oxides form when the air is the oxidant. Combustion is not favorable to the maximum degree of oxidation, it can be temperature-dependent. For example, sulfur trioxide is not produced quantitatively by the combustion of sulfur. NOx species appear in significant amounts above about 2,800 °F, more is produced at higher temperatures; the amount of NOx is a function of oxygen excess. In most industrial applications and in fires, air is the source of oxygen.
In the air, each mole of oxygen is mixed with 3.71 mol of nitrogen. Nitrogen does not take part in combustion, but at high temperatures some nitrogen will be converted to NOx. On the other hand, when there is insufficient oxygen to combust the fuel, some fuel carbon is converted to carbon monoxide and some of the hydrogen remains unreacted. A more complete set of equations for the combustion of a hydrocarbon in the air, requires an additional calculation for the distribution of oxygen between the carbon and hydrogen in the fuel; the amount of air required for complete combustion to take place is known as theoretical air. However, in practice, the air used is 2-3x. Incomplete combustion will occur when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react to produce carbon dioxide and water, it happens when the combustion is quenched by a heat sink, such as a solid surface or flame trap. Same as complete combustion, water is produced by incomplete combustion. However, carbon monoxide, and/or hydroxide are the products in
A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, candles or cigarettes. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable fluid or pressurized liquid gas, a means of ignition to produce the flame, some provision for extinguishing the flame. Alternatively, a lighter can be powered by electricity, using an electric arc or heating element to ignite the target; the first lighters were converted flintlock pistols. One of the first lighters was invented by the German chemist named Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner in 1823 and was called Döbereiner's lamp; this lighter worked by passing flammable hydrogen gas, produced within the lighter by a chemical reaction, over a platinum metal catalyst which in turn caused it to ignite and give off a great amount of heat and light. The patenting of ferrocerium by Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1903 has made modern lighters possible; when scratched it produces a large spark, responsible for lighting the fuel of many lighters, is suitably inexpensive for use in disposable items.
Using Carl Auer von Welsbach's flint, companies like Ronson were able to develop practical and easy to use lighters. In 1910, Ronson released the first Pist-O-Liter, in 1913, the company developed its first lighter, called the "Wonderlite", a permanent match style of lighter. During WWl soldiers started to create lighters of empty cartridge cases. During that time one of the soldiers came up with a means to insert a chimney cap with holes in it to make it more windproof; the Zippo lighter and company were invented and founded by George Grant Blaisdell in 1932. The Zippo was noted for its reliability, "Life Time Warranty" and marketing as "Wind-Proof". Most early Zippos used naphtha as a fuel source. In the 1950s, there was a switch in the fuel of choice from naphtha to butane, as butane allows for a controllable flame and has less odour; this led to the use of piezoelectric spark, which replaced the need for a flint wheel in some lighters and was used in many Ronson lighters. In modern times most of the world's lighters are produced in France, the United States and Thailand.
Naphtha based lighters employ a saturated cloth wick and fibre packing to absorb the fluid and prevent it from leaking. They employ an enclosed top to prevent the volatile liquid from evaporating, to conveniently extinguish the flame. Butane lighters have a valved orifice. A spark is created by striking metal against a flint, or by pressing a button that compresses a piezoelectric crystal, generating an electric arc. In naphtha lighters, the liquid is sufficiently volatile, flammable vapour is present as soon as the top of the lighter is opened. Butane lighters combine the striking action with the opening of the valve to release gas; the spark ignites the flammable gas causing a flame to come out of the lighter which continues until either the top is closed, or the valve is released. A metal enclosure with air holes surrounds the flame, is designed to allow mixing of fuel and air while making the lighter less sensitive to wind; the high energy jet in butane lighters allows mixing to be accomplished by using Bernoulli's principle, so that the air hole in this type tend to be much smaller and farther from the flame.
Specialized "windproof" butane lighters are manufactured for demanding conditions such as shipboard, high altitude, wet climates. Some dedicated; such lighters are far hotter than normal lighters and can burn in excess of 1,100 °C. The windproof capabilities are not achieved from higher pressure fuel. Instead, windproof lighters mix the fuel with air and pass the butane–air mixture through a catalytic coil. An electric spark starts the initial flame, soon the coil is hot enough to cause the fuel–air mixture to burn on contact. Arc lighters use a spark to create a plasma conduit between electrodes, maintained by a lower voltage; the arc is applied to a flammable substance to cause ignition. Some vehicles are equipped with an electric lighter located on the dashboard or in the well between the front seats, its electric heating element becomes hot in seconds upon activation. The car lighter was claimed to have been invented by Alexander Kucala, a tavern owner and inventor, on the south side of Chicago in the early 1930s called the AL Lighter.
Not to be confused with the meaning of match as in matchsticks or the "permanent match", this type of lighter consists of a length of slow match in a holder, with means to ignite and to extinguish the match. While the glowing match does not supply enough energy to start a fire without further kindling, it is sufficient to light a cigarette; the main advantage of this design shows itself in windy conditions, where the glow of the match is fanned by the wind instead of being blown out. A typical form of lighter is the permanent match or everlasting match, consisting of a naphtha fuel-filled metal shell and a separate threaded metal rod assembly —the "match"— serving as the striker and wick; this "metal match" is stored screwed into the shell. The fuel-saturated striker/wick assembly is unscrewed to remove, scratched against a flint on the side of the case to create a spark, its concealed wick catches fire. The flame is extinguished by blowing it out before screwing the "match" back into the shell, where it absorbs fuel for the next use.
An advantage over o
Wood fuel is a fuel, such as firewood, chips, sheets and sawdust. The particular form used depends upon factors such as source, quantity and application. In many areas, wood is the most available form of fuel, requiring no tools in the case of picking up dead wood, or few tools, although as in any industry, specialized tools, such as skidders and hydraulic wood splitters, have been developed to mechanize production. Sawmill waste and construction industry by-products include various forms of lumber tailings; the discovery of how to make fire for the purpose of burning wood is regarded as one of humanity's most important advances. The use of wood as a fuel source for heating is much older than civilization and is assumed to have been used by Neanderthals. Today, burning of wood is the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass. Wood fuel can be used for cooking and heating, for fueling steam engines and steam turbines that generate electricity. Wood may be used indoors in a furnace, stove, or fireplace, or outdoors in furnace, campfire, or bonfire.
Wood has been used as fuel for millennia. It was limited in use only by the distribution of technology required to make a spark. Heat derived from wood is still common throughout much of the world. Early examples included a fire constructed inside a tent. Fires were constructed on the ground, a smoke hole in the top of the tent allowed the smoke to escape by convection. In permanent structures and in caves, hearths were constructed or established—surfaces of stone or another noncombustible material upon which a fire could be built. Smoke escaped through a smoke hole in the roof. In contrast to civilizations in arid regions, the Greeks, Celts and Gauls all had access to forests suitable for using as fuel. Over the centuries there was a partial deforestation of climax forests and the evolution of the remainder to coppice with standards woodland as the primary source of wood fuel; these woodlands involved a continuous cycle of new stems harvested from old stumps, on rotations between seven and thirty years.
One of the earliest printed books on woodland management, in English, was John Evelyn's "Sylva, or a discourse on forest trees" advising landowners on the proper management of forest estates. H. L. Edlin, in "Woodland Crafts in Britain", 1949 outlines the extraordinary techniques employed, range of wood products that have been produced from these managed forests since pre-Roman times, and throughout this time the preferred form of wood fuel was the branches of cut coppice stems bundled into faggots. Larger, bent or deformed stems that were of no other use to the woodland craftsmen were converted to charcoal; as with most of Europe, these managed woodlands continued to supply their markets right up to the end of World War Two. Since much of these woodlands have been converted to broadscale agriculture. Total demand for fuel increased with the industrial revolution but most of this increased demand was met by the new fuel source coal, more compact and more suited to the larger scale of the new industries.
During the Edo period of Japan, wood was used for many purposes, the consumption of wood led Japan to develop a forest management policy during that era. Demand for timber resources was on the rise not only for fuel, but for construction of ships and buildings, deforestation was widespread; as a result, forest fires occurred, along with floods and soil erosion. Around 1666, the shōgun made it a policy to increase the planting of trees; this policy decreed that a daimyō, could authorize the use of wood. By the 18th century, Japan had developed detailed scientific knowledge about silviculture and plantation forestry; the development of the chimney and the fireplace allowed for more effective exhaustion of the smoke. Masonry heaters or stoves went a step further by capturing much of the heat of the fire and exhaust in a large thermal mass, becoming much more efficient than a fireplace alone; the metal stove was a technological development concurrent with the industrial revolution. Stoves were manufactured or constructed pieces of equipment that contained the fire on all sides and provided a means for controlling the draft—the amount of air allowed to reach the fire.
Stoves have been made of a variety of materials. Cast iron is among the more common. Soapstone and steel have all been used. Metal stoves are lined with refractory materials such as firebrick, since the hottest part of a woodburning fire will burn away steel over the course of several years' use; the Franklin stove was developed in the United States by Benjamin Franklin. More a manufactured fireplace than a stove, it had an open front and a heat exchanger in the back, designed to draw air from the cellar and heat it before releasing it out the sides; the heat exchanger was never a popular feature and was omitted in versions. So-called "Franklin" stoves today are made in a great variety of styles, though none resembles the original design; the 1800s became the high point of the cast iron stove. Each local foundry would make their own design, stoves were built for myriads of purposes—parlour stoves, box stoves, camp stoves, railroad stoves, portable stoves, cooking stoves and so on. Elaborate nickel and chrome edged models took designs to the edge, with cast ornaments and doors.
Wood or coal could be burnt in the stoves and thus. The action of the fire, combined with the causticity of the ash, ensured that the stove would disintegrate or crack over time, thus a steady supply of stoves was needed. The maintenance
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Rattan is the name for 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae. Rattan is known as manila, or malacca, named after the ports of shipment Manila and Malacca City, as manau; the climbing habit is associated with the characteristics of its flexible woody stem, derived from a secondary growth, makes rattan a liana rather than a true wood. Calamoideae includes tree palms such as Raphia and Metroxylon and shrub palms such as Salacca; the climbing habit in palms is not restricted to Calamoideae, but has evolved in three other evolutionary lines—tribes Cocoseae and Areceae in subfamily Arecoideae, tribe Hyophorbeae in subfamily Ceroxyloideae. They do not climb by means of their reflexed terminal leaflets. Of these only Desmoncus spp. furnish stems of sufficiently good quality to be used as rattan cane substitutes. There are 13 different genera of rattans; some of the species in these "rattan genera" have a different habit and do not climb, they are shrubby palms of the forest undergrowth.
The largest rattan genus is Calamus, distributed in Asia except for one species represented in Africa. From the remaining rattan genera, Ceratolobus, Plectocomia, Myrialepis, Calospatha and Retispatha, are centered in Southeast Asia with outliers eastwards and northwards; the rattan genera and their distribution: In Uhl & Dransfield, Dransfield & Manokaran, a great deal of basic introductory information is available. Available rattan floras and monographs by region: Uses by taxon; the major commercial species of rattan canes as identified for Asia by Dransfield and Manokaran and for Africa, by Tuley and Sunderland: Utilized Calamus species canes: Other traditional uses of rattans by species: Most rattans differ from other palms in having slender stems, 2–5 cm diameter, with long internodes between the leaves. Rattans are superficially similar to bamboo. Unlike bamboo, rattan stems are solid, most species need structural support and cannot stand on their own. Many rattans have spines which act as hooks to aid climbing over other plants, to deter herbivores.
Rattans have been known to grow up to hundreds of metres long. Most of the world's rattan population exist in Indonesia, distributed among the islands Borneo and Sumbawa; the rest of the world's supply comes from the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In forests where rattan grows, its economic value can help protect forest land, by providing an alternative to loggers who forgo timber logging and harvest rattan canes instead. Rattan requires simpler tools and is much easier to transport, it grows much faster than most tropical wood. This makes it a potential tool in forest maintenance, since it provides a profitable crop that depends on rather than replaces trees, it remains to be seen whether rattan can be as useful as the alternatives. Rattans are threatened with overexploitation, as harvesters are cutting stems too young and reducing their ability to resprout. Unsustainable harvesting of rattan can lead to forest degradation, affecting overall forest ecosystem services. Processing can be polluting.
The use of toxic chemicals and petrol in the processing of rattan affects soil and water resources, ultimately people's health. Meanwhile, the conventional method of rattan production is threatening the plant's long-term supply, the income of workers. Rattans are extensively used for making baskets and furniture; when cut into sections, rattan can be used as wood to make furniture. Rattan accepts paints and stains like many other kinds of wood, so it is available in many colours, it can be worked into many styles. Moreover, the inner core can be worked into wicker. Raw rattan is processed into several products to be used as materials in furniture making; the various species of rattan range from several millimetres up to 5–7 cm in diameter. From a strand of rattan, the skin is peeled off, to be used as rattan weaving material; the remaining "core" of the rattan can be used for various purposes in furniture making. Rattan is a good material because it is lightweight, suitable for outdoor use, and, to a certain extent, flexible.
Traditionally, the women of the Wemale ethnic group of Seram Island, Indonesia wore rattan girdles around their waist. Thin rattan canes were the standard implement for school corporal punishment in England and Wales, are still used for this purpose in schools in Malaysia and several African countries. In Singapore, the maximum strokes are 6 known as 6 of the best. Similar canes are used for military punishments in the Singapore Armed Forces. Heavier canes of rattan, are used for judicial corporal punishments, called "caning", in Aceh, Brunei and Singapore; some rattan fruits are edible, with a sour taste akin to