Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining. It is impossible to know the exact date that humans first began to mine gold, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria; the graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 7000 years old. A group of German and Georgian archaeologists claims the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, dating to the 3rd or 4th millennium BC, may be the world's oldest known gold mine. Bronze age gold objects are plentiful in Ireland and Spain, there are several well known possible sources. Romans used hydraulic mining methods, such as hushing and ground sluicing on a large scale to extract gold from extensive alluvial deposits, such as those at Las Medulas. Mining was under the control of the state but the mines may have been leased to civilian contractors some time later; the gold served as the primary medium of exchange within the empire, was an important motive in the Roman invasion of Britain by Claudius in the first century AD, although there is only one known Roman gold mine at Dolaucothi in west Wales.
Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. The legions were led by the emperor Trajan, their exploits are shown on Trajan's Column in Rome and the several reproductions of the column elsewhere. Under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian's rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Armenia and Nubia. In the area of the Kolar Gold Fields in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar District of Karnataka state, gold was first mined prior to the 2nd and 3rd century AD by digging small pits; the Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined to a depth of 50 metres during the Gupta period in the fifth century AD. During the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD, the scale of the operation grew; the metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, by Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore state and the British. It is estimated; the mining of the Hungarian deposit around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe.
During the 19th century, numerous gold rushes in remote regions around the globe caused large migrations of miners, such as the California Gold Rush of 1849, the Victorian Gold Rush, the Klondike Gold Rush. The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and the founding of South Africa; the Carlin Trend of Nevada, U. S. was discovered in 1961. Official estimates indicate that total world gold production since the beginning of civilization has been around 6,109,928,000 troy ounces and total gold production in Nevada is 2.5% of that, ranking Nevada as one of the Earth's primary gold producing regions. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 429.4 tonnes in that year. The second-largest producer, mined 289.0 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 273 tonnes. Despite the decreasing gold content of ores, the production is increasing; this can be achieved with industrial installations, new process, like hydrometallurgy. Placer mining is the technique.
Placer deposits are composed of loose material that makes tunneling difficult, so most means of extracting it involve the use of water or dredging. Gold panning is a manual technique of separating gold from other materials. Wide, shallow pans are filled with gravel that may contain gold; the pan is shaken, sorting the gold from the gravel and other material. As gold is much denser than rock, it settles to the bottom of the pan; the panning material is removed from stream beds at the inside turn in the stream, or from the bedrock shelf of the stream, where the density of gold allows it to concentrate, a type called placer deposits. Gold panning is the easiest and quickest technique for searching for gold, but is not commercially viable for extracting gold from large deposits, except where labor costs are low or gold traces are substantial. Panning is marketed as a tourist attraction on former gold fields. Before large production methods are used, a new source must be identified and panning is useful to identify placer gold deposits to be evaluated for commercial viability.
Using a sluice box to extract gold from placer deposits has long been a common practice in prospecting and small-scale mining. A sluice box is a man made channel with riffles set in the bottom; the riffles are designed to create dead zones in the current to allow gold to drop out of suspension. The box is placed in the stream to channel water flow. Gold-bearing material is placed at the top of the box; the material is carried by the current through the volt where gold and other dense material settles out behind the riffles. Less dense material flows out of the box as tailings. Larger commercial placer mining operations employ screening plants, or trommels, to remove the larger alluvial materials such as boulders and gravel, before concentrating the remainder in a sluice box or jig plant; these operations include diesel powered, earth moving equipment, including excavators, wheel loaders, rock trucks. Although this method has been replaced by modern m
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began in the early 16th century; the late modern period began in the mid-18th century. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from 1945 that are relevant to the present time; this article covers the 1800–1950 time period with a brief summary of 1500–1800. For a more in depth article on modern times before 1800, see Early Modern period. In the pre-modern era, many people's sense of self and purpose was expressed via a faith in some form of deity, be it that in a single God or in many gods. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, though. Religious officials, who held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person.
It was only through these intermediaries. Tradition was sacred to ancient cultures and was unchanging and the social order of ceremony and morals in a culture could be enforced; the term modern was coined in the 16th century to indicate recent times. The European Renaissance, which marked the transition between the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern times, started in Italy and was spurred in part by the rediscovery of classical art and literature, as well as the new perspectives gained from the Age of Discovery and the invention of the telescope and microscope, expanding the borders of thought and knowledge. In contrast to the pre-modern era, Western civilization made a gradual transition from pre-modernity to modernity when scientific methods were developed which led many to believe that the use of science would lead to all knowledge, thus throwing back the shroud of myth under which pre-modern peoples lived. New information about the world was discovered via empirical observation, versus the historic use of reason and innate knowledge.
The term Early Modern was introduced in the English language in the 1930s to distinguish the time between what has been called the Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note. In usage in other parts of the world, such as in Asia, in Muslim countries, the terms are applied in a different way, but in the context with their contact with European culture in the Age of Discovery. In the Contemporary era, there were various socio-technological trends. Regarding the 21st century and the late modern world, the Information Age and computers were forefront in use, not ubiquitous but present in everyday life; the development of Eastern powers was with China and India becoming more powerful. In the Eurasian theater, the European Union and Russian Federation were two forces developed. A concern for Western world, if not the whole world, was the late modern form of terrorism and the warfare that has resulted from the contemporary terrorist acts; the modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, politics and technology.
It has been an age of discovery and globalization. During this time, the European powers and their colonies, began a political and cultural colonization of the rest of the world. By the late 19th and 20th centuries, modernist art, politics and culture has come to dominate not only Western Europe and North America, but every civilized area on the globe, including movements thought of as opposed to the west and globalization; the modern era is associated with the development of individualism, urbanization and a belief in the possibilities of technological and political progress. Wars and other perceived problems of this era, many of which come from the effects of rapid change, the connected loss of strength of traditional religious and ethical norms, have led to many reactions against modern development. Optimism and belief in constant progress has been most criticized by postmodernism while the dominance of Western Europe and Anglo-America over other continents has been criticized by postcolonial theory.
One common conception of modernity is the condition of Western history since the mid-15th century, or the European development of movable type and the printing press. In this context the "modern" society is said to develop over many periods, to be influenced by important events that represent breaks in the continuity; the modern era includes the early period, called the early modern period, which lasted from c. 1500 to around c. 1800. Particular facets of early modernity include: The Renaissance in Italy The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Age of Discovery The Columbian Exchange and Colonization of the Americas The rise of mercantilism and capitalism The Golden Age of PiracyImportant events in the early modern period include: The spread of the printing press The Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia in Europe The English Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, the union
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Derbyshire lead mining history
This article details some of the history of lead mining in Derbyshire, England. On one of the walls in Wirksworth Church is a crude stone carving, found nearby at Bonsall and placed in the church in the 1870s. Executed in Anglo-Saxon times, it shows a man carrying a kibble or basket in one hand and a pick in the other, he is a lead miner. The north choir aisle of Wirksworth church is dominated by a far more ostentatious monument, a large ornate alabaster chest tomb, a memorial to Ralph Gell of Hopton, who died in 1563; the simple figure of the miner bears witness to the fact that for centuries the people of Wirksworth and their neighbours relied on lead mining. Ralph Gell's imposing tomb is evidence that a few people became powerful from the trade. While Derbyshire lead made Gell and others rich, for poor families it was both a living and an adventure, with the possibility of a better life from a lucky find; the industry was organised in a way. Mining was hard and dangerous work: death and injury came from poisonous lead dust, underground floods, falling rock, methane gas in shale workings and lack of oxygen in badly ventilated galleries.
From the years of the 17th century gunpowder introduced a further hazard. Nonetheless the thousands of shafts and ruined buildings in the limestone landscape of the old lead mining areas, the miles of galleries underground, make it plain that the veins of lead were intensively exploited. In the words of a petition to King Charles I "many thousand people are dailie imployed in the lead mynes, to the greatt proffitt of your Majestie... and to the whole Comonwealth... in getting greatt quantities of lead for the use of the Kingdome in generall, in transporting the rest to forraigne Nations...". By the 17th century lead was second in importance in the national economy only to wool, it was essential for the roofs of public buildings and the new houses being built in every part of the country by the nobility and gentry. All houses, including farmhouses and cottages by had glazed windows, with lead glazing bars, it was the only material for water piping. Every army used it as ammunition. There was a thriving export trade as well as the home market and the Wirksworth area was the main source of the ore.
Wirksworth was the administrative centre of one of the hundreds, local government units, of Derbyshire. Uniquely, the Wirksworth Hundred was still known by the archaic term Wapentake. Lead ore was Crown property in most places and the mining area of Derbyshire under royal control was known as the King's Field, with two separately administered divisions, the High and Low Peaks, each further divided into liberties, based on parishes. Wirksworth Wapentake was the Low Peak area of the King's Field. At different times there were liberties based on Wirksworth, Middleton-by-Wirksworth, Brassington, Elton, Middleton-by-Youlgreave, Bonsall and Carsington, from 1638 until 1654 there was a separate liberty for the Dovegang, 200 acres on Cromford Moor which had become productive after being drained by the first of the Derbyshire drainage schemes, or soughs. There had always been lead mining around Wirksworth; this is limestone country and the fissures characteristic of limestone contained rich deposits of minerals, of galena: lead ore.
The Romans left inscribed "pigs", or ingots, of smelted lead as evidence. In the 9th century Repton Abbey owned mines at Wirksworth and when the abbey was destroyed by Danish troops in 874 they were taken by their Mercian puppet king Ceolwulf, they remained in royal hands after the Norman conquest of England and paid royalties to the Crown for centuries afterwards. Lead mining and smelting was an established industry in 1086, when the mines at Wirksworth and Bakewell were recorded in the Domesday Book. Lead had traditionally been found by following veins from surface outcroppings in "rakes" or vertical fissures. By the 17th century, most surface lead had been mined and prospecting was achieved by less direct methods. Miners searched for surface signs that were similar to known lead-rich areas, they checked ploughed and other disturbed land for traces of ore, they checked for signs in plants and trees and poorly performing crops, since lead is poisonous to most living things, they used probes to check for signs of ore in soil a few feet under the surface and dug exploratory holes or trenches in promising places.
This was done to choose the best places to sink shafts ahead of existing working and the rules defined when and where these activities could be carried out. The miners sank their shafts in turns of up to 90 feet, each turn being a few yards away from the bottom of the preceding one, along a gallery which may have been the working level reached by the earlier shaft, they climbed up and down their shafts using either footholes in the shaft walls or stemples, wooden steps built into the sides, an exhausting and dangerous way to start and finish a day's work. These climbing shafts were within the miners' coe, the limestone-walled cabin in which they stored tools, a change of clothes and food. Where the mine was on a hillside the vein could be reached via an adit or tunnel driven into the slope. Ore was brought to the surface up a winding shaft outside the coe; the miners' equipment included picks and wedges to split the rock, wiskets or baskets to contain it, corves or sledges to drag it to the shaft bottom, windlasses or stows, to lift it to the surface.
In years underground transport was improved by replacing corves by wagons running on wooden or metal rails. A good example of an 18th-century wooden railway can be found in the Merry Tom mine
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol, it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck; the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called the smaller area is called East Tyrol; the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno to the south; the state's territory is located within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass.
The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria. In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right; when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it to his committal possessions around Gorizia.
The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck; the Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Bavarian occupiers. South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867; the County of Tyrol extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.
Since November 1918 it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955; the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Ischgl and St. Anton; the 15 largest towns in Tyrol are: Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C. Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn; the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.
Today Tyrol has international road and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many ÖPNV companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association; the state is divided into nine districts. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are: North Tyrol: Landeck District, Reutte District, Imst District, Innsbruck-Land, Innsbruck Stadt Schwaz District, Kufstein District, Kitzbühel District, East Tyrol: Lienz District, Tyrol History of Tyrol North Tyrol East Tyrol Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
Goleen is a small rural village in County Cork on the south-western tip of Ireland. Farming and construction work are the main occupations of the local people. Many are involved with some aspect of the tourist business, looking after some of the many holiday homes which surround the village; the village has four pubs, four shops, a petrol station. Goleen is located in West Cork; the land surrounding the village is of poor quality for farming, being hilly and rocky with limited soil cover. The village has a large Roman Catholic church. Mizen Head, at the southern tip of the Mizen peninsula, about five miles from the village, is claimed to be the most southerly point on the island of Ireland, but is in fact the country's most southwesterly point; the distinction of being Ireland's most southerly point belongs to nearby Brow Head, from where Guglielmo Marconi experimented with transatlantic radio signals at the beginning of the 20th century. The town boasts a community pitch on which locals play Gaelic football and soccer.
In the sports hall beside the pitch, is a table tennis club which has 26 members, some of which have played internationally. In 1852, shortly after the famine, the parish priest John Foley started to build a new parish church with the help of donations by Irish emigrants; the church was erected in the Neo-Gothic style with a cruciform aisleless ground plan, four bays, a triplet window in the chancel behind the high altar. Bishop William Delaney of the diocese of Cork consecrated the church on 11 October 1854. Bus Éireann run the 237 bus service from Cork City to Goleen; the nearest airport is Cork Airport