The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Ancestry.com LLC is a held online company based in Lehi, Utah. The largest for-profit genealogy company in the world, it operates a network of genealogical, historical record and genetic genealogy websites; as of November 2018, the company claimed to provide access to 10 billion historical records, to have 3 million paying subscribers and to have sold 14 million DNA kits to customers. In 1990, Paul B. Allen and Dan Taggart, two Brigham Young University graduates, founded Infobases and began offering Latter-day Saints publications on floppy disks. In 1988, Allen had worked at Folio Corporation, founded by his brother Curt and his brother-in-law Brad Pelo. Infobases' first products were floppy disks and compact disks sold from the back seat of the founders' car. In 1994, Infobases was named among Inc. magazine's 500 fastest-growing companies. Their first offering on CD was the LDS Collectors Edition, released in April 1995, selling for $299.95, offered in an online version in August 1995. Ancestry went online with the launch of Ancestry.com in 1996.
On January 1, 1997, Infobases' parent company, Western Standard Publishing, purchased Ancestry, Inc. publisher of Ancestry magazine and genealogy books. Western Standard Publishing's CEO was Joe one of the principal owners of Geneva Steel. In July 1997, Allen and Taggart purchased Western Standard's interest in Inc.. At the time, Brad Pelo was president and CEO of Infobases, president of Western Standard. Less than six months earlier, he had been president of Folio Corporation, whose digital technology Infobases was using. In March 1997, Folio was sold to Open Market for $45 million; the first public evidence of the change in ownership of Ancestry magazine came with the July/August 1997 issue, which showed a newly reorganized Ancestry, Inc. as its publisher. That issue's masthead included the first use of the Ancestry.com web address. More growth for Infobases occurred in July 1997, when Ancestry, Inc. purchased Bookcraft, Inc. a publisher of books written by leaders and officers of the LDS Church.
Infobases had published many of Bookcraft's books as part of its LDS Collector's Library. Pelo announced that Ancestry's product line would be expanded in both CDs and online. Alan Ashton, a longtime investor in Infobases and founder of WordPerfect, was its chairman of the board. Allen and Taggart began running Ancestry, Inc. independently from Infobases in July 1997, began creating one of the largest online subscription-based genealogy database services. In April 1999, to better focus on its Ancestry.com and MyFamily.com Internet businesses, Infobases sold the Bookcraft brand name and its catalog of print books to its major competitor in the LDS book market, Deseret Book. Included in the sale were the rights to Infobases' LDS Collectors Library on CD. A year earlier, Deseret Book had released a competing product called GospeLink, the two products were combined as a single product by Deseret Book; the MyFamily.com website launched in December 1998, with additional free sites beginning in March 1999.
The site generated one million registered users within its first 140 days. The company raised more than US$90 million in venture capital from investors and changed its name on November 17, 1999, from Ancestry.com, Inc. to MyFamily.com, Inc. Its three Internet genealogy sites were called Ancestry.com, FamilyHistory.com, MyFamily.com. Sales were about US$62 million for 2002 and US$99 million for 2003. In March 2004, the company, which had outgrown its call center in Orem, opened a new call center, which accommodates about 700 agents at a time, in Provo. Heritage Makers was acquired by MyFamily.com in September 2005. While the company had been offering free access to Ancestry.com at LDS Family History Centers, that service was terminated on March 17, 2007, because the company and the LDS Church were unable to reach a mutually agreeable licensing agreement. In 2010, Ancestry restored access to its site at Family History Centers. In 2010, Ancestry sold its book publishing assets to Turner Publishing Company.
Ancestry.com became a publicly traded company on NASDAQ on November 5, 2009, with an initial public offering of 7.4 million shares priced at $13.50 per share, underwritten by Morgan Stanley, Bank of America, Merrill Lynch, Jefferies & Company, Piper Jaffray, BMO Capital Markets. In 2010, Ancestry.com expanded its domestic operations with the opening of an office in San Francisco, staffed with brand new engineering and marketing teams geared toward developing some of Ancestry's cutting-edge technology and services. In 2011, Ancestry launched an iOS app. In December 2011, Ancestry.com moved the Social Security Death Index search behind a paywall and stopped displaying the Social Security information of people who had died within the past 10 years, because of identity theft concerns. In March 2012, Ancestry.com acquired the collection of DNA assets from GeneTree. In September 2012, Ancestry.com expanded its international operations with the opening of its European headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.
The Dublin office includes a new call centre for international customers, as well as product and engineering teams. In October 2012, Ancestry.com agreed to be acquired by a private equity group consisting of Permira Advisers LLP, members of Ancestry.com's management team, including CEO Tim Sullivan and CFO Howard Hochhauser, Spectrum Equity, for $32 per share or around $1.6 billion. At the same time, Ancestry.com purchased a photo digitization and sharing service called 1000Memories. On July 16, 2015, Ancestry launched AncestryHealth, announced the appointment of Cathy A. Petti as its Chief Health Officer. In April 2016 GIC Private Limited (a sovereign wealth fund owned by the Government of S
Stanley Joseph Forman is an American former photojournalist who won the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography two years in a row while working at the Boston Herald American. Forman studied photography at the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology in Boston, from 1965 to 1966. After graduation, he was a cameraman for a political campaign before joining the Boston Herald as a photo lab technician, he was promoted to staff photographer. Forman won the first photographer to do so. In 1976, he won in the category of "Spot News Photography" for his sequence of photographs Fire Escape Collapse showing a young woman and a two-year-old girl falling from a collapsed balcony during a local fire; the next year, he was co-winner in the same category for The Soiling of Old Glory, a photograph depicting black lawyer Ted Landsmark being assaulted by a man wielding a flagpole as a weapon during the height of anti-busing unrest in Boston. In 1979, the photography staff of the Boston Herald American won yet another Pulitzer Prize for "Feature Photography" category for coverage of the blizzard of 1978.
However, Forman was on crutches following an Achilles tendon injury during the blizzard, so did not take any of the photographs which led to the award. He has worked as a cameraman at Boston station WCVB-TV since 1983. 1976: Winner, Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography, for Fire Escape Collapse 1977: Co-winner, Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography, for The Soiling of Old Glory 1980: Nieman Fellow 1980: Joseph A. Sprague Memorial Award from the National Press Photographers Association
Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography
The Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography is one of the American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism. From 2000 it has used the "breaking news" name but it is considered a continuation of the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography, awarded from 1968 to 1999. Prior to 1968, a single Prize was awarded for photojournalism, the Pulitzer Prize for Photography, replaced in that year by Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography and Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography. There were 33 Spot News Photography prizes awarded in 32 years including two in 1977. 1968: Rocco Morabito, Jacksonville Journal, for his photograph of telephone linemen, "The Kiss of Life". 1969: Edward T. Adams, Associated Press, for his photograph, "Saigon Execution". 1970: Steve Starr, Associated Press, for his news photo taken at Cornell University, "Campus Guns". 1971: John Paul Filo, Valley Daily News/Daily Dispatch, of the Pittsburgh suburbs of Tarentum and New Kensington, for his pictorial coverage of the Kent State University tragedy on May 4, 1970.
1972: Horst Faas and Michel Laurent, Associated Press, for their picture series, "Death in Dacca". 1973: Huynh Cong Ut, Associated Press, for his photograph, "The Terror of War", depicting children in flight from a napalm bombing. 1974: Anthony K. Roberts, a freelance photographer of Beverly Hills, for his picture series, "Fatal Hollywood Drama", in which an alleged kidnapper was killed. 1975: Gerald H. Gay, Seattle Times, for his photograph of four exhausted firefighters, "Lull in the Battle". 1976: Stanley Forman, Boston Herald-American, for his sequence of photographs of a fire in Boston, including Fire Escape Collapse, on July 22, 1975. 1977: Stanley Forman, Boston Herald-American, for his photograph The Soiling of Old Glory, which depicts Joseph Rakes attacking Theodore Landsmark — using an American flag as a lance — during a desegregation busing demonstration at Boston City Hall. 1977: Neal Ulevich, of the Associated Press, for a series of photographs of disorder and brutality in the streets of Bangkok.
1978: John Blair, a special assignment photographer for United Press International, for a photograph of Tony Kiritsis holding an Indianapolis broker hostage at gunpoint. 1979: Thomas J. Kelly III, Pottstown Mercury, for a series called "Tragedy on Sanatoga Road." 1980: Anonymous, Ettela'at, United Press International, for "Firing Squad in Iran". In 2006, the photographer's identity was revealed to be Jahangir Razmi. 1981: Larry C. Price, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, for his photographs from Liberia. 1982: Ron Edmonds, Associated Press, for his coverage of the Reagan assassination attempt. 1983: Bill Foley, Associated Press, for his series of pictures of victims and survivors of the massacre in the Sabra Camp in Beirut. 1984: Stan Grossfeld, Boston Globe, for his series of photographs which reveal the effects of war on the people of Lebanon. 1985: Photography staff, Santa Ana, for their coverage of the Olympic Games. 1986: Carol Guzy and Michel du Cille, Miami Herald, for their photographs of the devastation caused by the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia.
1987: Kim Komenich, San Francisco Examiner, for his photographic coverage of the fall of Ferdinand Marcos. 1988: Scott Shaw, Odessa American, for his photograph of the child Jessica McClure being rescued from the well into which she had fallen. 1989: Ron Olshwanger, a freelance photographer, for a picture published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of a firefighter giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to a child pulled from a burning building. 1990: Photo staff of the Oakland Tribune, for their photographs of devastation caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989. The Oakland Tribune team consisted of Tom Duncan, Angela Pancrazio, Pat Greenhouse, Reginald Pearman, Matthew Lee, Gary Reyes, Michael Macor, Ron Riesterer, Paul Miller, Roy H. Williams. 1991: Greg Marinovich, Associated Press, for a series of photographs of supporters of South Africa's African National Congress murdering a man they believed to be a Zulu spy. 1992: Staff, Associated Press, for photographs of the attempted coup in Russia and the subsequent collapse of the Communist regime.
1993: Ken Geiger and William Snyder, Dallas Morning News, for their photographs of the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. 1994: Paul Watson, Toronto Star, for his photograph, published around the world, of a U. S. soldier's body being dragged by Somalis through the streets of Mogadishu. 1995: Carol Guzy, Washington Post, for her series of photographs illustrating the crisis in Haiti and its aftermath. 1996: Charles Porter IV, a freelancer, for his photographs taken after the Oklahoma City bombing and distributed by the Associated Press, showing a one-year-old victim handed to and cradled by a fireman. 1997: Annie Wells, Press Democrat, Santa Rosa, for her photograph of a firefighter rescuing a teenager from raging floodwaters. 1998: Martha Rial, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, for her portraits of survivors of the conflicts in Rwanda and Burundi. 1999: Staff, Associated Press, for its portfolio of images following the embassy bombing in Kenya and Tanzania. One Breaking News Pulitzer has been awarded annually from 2000 without exception.
2000: Photographic staff of the Denver Rocky Mountain News, "for its photographic coverage of students following the shooting at Columbine High School near Denver." 2001: Alan Diaz, The Associated Press, "for his photograph of federal agents removing Elián González from his uncle's home." 2002: Staff of The New York Times, "for its coverage of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center." 2003: Photographic staff of the Rocky Mountain News, "for its powerful, imaginative coverage of Colorado's raging forest fires."