Carl von Clausewitz
Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the moral and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege, was unfinished at his death, Clausewitz was a realist in many different senses and, while in some respects a romantic, drew heavily on the rationalist ideas of the European Enlightenment. He stressed the dialectical interaction of factors, noting how unexpected developments unfolding under the fog of war call for rapid decisions by alert commanders. He saw history as a check on erudite abstractions that did not accord with experience. In contrast to the work of Antoine-Henri Jomini, he argued that war could not be quantified or reduced to mapwork, geometry. Clausewitz had many aphorisms, of which the most famous is War is the continuation of politics by other means, Clausewitzs Christian names are sometimes given in non-German sources as Karl, Carl Philipp Gottlieb, or Carl Maria. He spelled his own name with a C in order to identify with the classical Western tradition.
Carl Philipp Gottfried appears on Clausewitzs tombstone, Clausewitzs family claimed descent from the Barons of Clausewitz in Upper Silesia, though scholars question the connection. His grandfather, the son of a Lutheran pastor, had been a professor of theology, Clausewitzs father, once a lieutenant in the Prussian army of Frederick II of Prussia, held a minor post in the Prussian internal-revenue service. Clausewitz entered the Prussian military service at the age of twelve as a Lance-Corporal, Clausewitz served in the Rhine Campaigns including the Siege of Mainz, when the Prussian army invaded France during the French Revolution, and fought in the Napoleonic Wars from 1806 to 1815. Clausewitz, Hermann von Boyen and Karl von Grolman were among Scharnhorsts primary allies in his efforts to reform the Prussian army between 1807 and 1814, Clausewitz served during the Jena Campaign as aide-de-camp to Prince August. Clausewitz was held prisoner with his prince in France from 1807 to 1808, returning to Prussia, he assisted in the reform of the Prussian army and state.
On December 10,1810 he married the socially prominent Countess Marie von Brühl and she was a member of the noble German von Brühl family originating in Thuringia. The couple moved in the highest circles, socializing with Berlins political, Marie was well-educated and politically well-connected—she played an important role in her husbands career progress and intellectual evolution. She edited and introduced his collected works, like many Prussian officers serving in Russia, he joined the Russian-German Legion in 1813. In 1815 the Russian-German Legion became integrated into the Prussian Army and he was soon appointed chief-of-staff of Johann von Thielmanns III Corps. In that capacity he served at the Battle of Ligny and the Battle of Wavre during the Waterloo Campaign in 1815, Clausewitzs unit fought at Wavre, preventing large reinforcements from reaching Napoleon at Waterloo. After the war Clausewitz served as the director of the Kriegsakademie, in that year he returned to duty with the army
Ryazan is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, located on the Oka River 196 kilometers southeast of Moscow. It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, initially it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the dates back to the 12th century. However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, at that time, the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan, by the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan, on December 21,1237, it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, the site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan, close to Spassk-Ryazansky.
Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, the principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521. Immediately after World War II, rapid development of the city began, Ryazan became a major industrial and military center of the European part of Russia. Massive factories were constructed in the city, occupying the urban areas. Leading areas of industry are heavy and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining and machine-tool industry, mechanical engineering, more than half of the plants produce for export. Several positioned MANPADS protect the urban sky, besides the Airborne School, Ryazan hosts the Automobile School and Institute of Communications, a regiment of railway troops, airbase strategic bombers, and a training center in Diaghilev. Ryazan developed particularly rapidly while Nadezhda Nikolaevna Chumakova served as Chair of the Council of Peoples Deputies of Ryazan and Ryazan mayor, under Chumakova, the citys population increased more than seven times, from 72 to 520 thousand people.
Chumakova oversaw the construction of social and cultural amenities, more than 20 urban areas, landscaping became a fundamental strategy for the development of the city at that time. Ryazan repeatedly won recognition among the cities of the Soviet Union for its landscaping, during her 26 years in office, Nadezhda Chumakova often accepted awards of the Red Banner of the USSR on behalf of Ryazan. In September 1999, Ryazan became one of the involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode. In the Political system of Ryazan, the legislature, a city council is the Ryazan City Duma, kind of the lower house of the municipality - Youth Parliament, preparing draft legislative initiatives. Executive power in the city of Ryazan carried by the administration headed by the city manager, control over the activities of the authorities is administered by the Public Chamber of the city of Ryazan, work with youth involved in the headquarters of youth activists
Fili is a former suburban village, now a neighborhood in the western section of Moscow, notable for the events of September 1812, following the Battle of Borodino. The village was located between the Moskva River and Poklonnaya Hill, near the present-day Fili station of Moscow Metro, the territory is administered by Filyovsky park District. The first mention of Fili is dated 1627, from 1689, Fili and adjacent settlements were owned by Lev Naryshkin, brother of tsaritsa Natalia Naryshkina. By 1694, he completed the Intercession Church, with donations by Peter I, Naryshkin established a new Fili village, closer to present-day Kutuzovsky Prospekt, the old Fili was remodelled into his personal estate. After the Battle of Borodino, the Russian army retreated east and they marched through Moscow on September 14, followed by Murats vanguard. Fili was heavily industrialized between the 1900s and the 1930s, and by 1926 it had 396 households and 1,342 residents, in 1935, a notable feature of Fili is the Khrunichev aerospace plant, its first stage was built before World War I by Roman Klein.
In the 1920s, renamed State Aircraft Plant No,7, it acquired German technology in a joint venture with Junkers, producing local copies of Junkers K30 bomber, and vastly expanded afterwards. In 1926, this became Zavod 22, where the aircraft of Andrey Tupolev were developed, Church of the Intercession at Fili French invasion of Russia Kutuzovsky Prospekt District administration, official site
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Arbat Street, mainly referred to in English as the Arbat, is a pedestrian street about one kilometer long in the historical centre of Moscow, Russia. The Arbat has existed since at least the 15th century, which makes it one of the oldest surviving streets of the Russian capital and it forms the heart of the Arbat District of Moscow. Originally the street formed part of an important trade-route and was home to a number of craftsmen. In the 18th century, the Russian nobility came to regard the Arbat as the most prestigious living area in Moscow, almost completely destroyed by the great fire of 1812 associated with Napoleons occupation of Moscow, the street required rebuilding. In the 19th and early 20th centuries it became known as the a place where petty nobility, artists, in the Soviet period, it housed many high-ranking government officials. As of 2016, the street and its surroundings are undergoing gentrification, because of the many historic buildings, and due to the numerous artists who have lived and worked in the street, the Arbat has become an important tourist attraction.
The Arbat is in the centre of Moscow. It begins at Arbatskaya square,800 metres west of the walls of the Moscow Kremlin, Arbatskaya square is the meeting point of the Boulevard Ring and Vozdvizhenka Street. The part of this square which is adjacent to the Arbat is called Arbat Gate, the wall, which was intact from the 16th to the 18th centuries, followed the path of the current Boulevard Ring. From this point the Arbat runs southwest, with a dozen side streets leading off, and ends at Smolenskaya Square, continuing on from the Arbat in a westerly direction is the eight-lane Smolenskaya Street. This street changes its name several times within the city limits, ultimately crossing the MKAD ring road, until the middle of the 20th century, the Arbat remained part of the main road from the Moscow Kremlin westwards. In the 1960s a parallel road, the New Arbat was built, the New Arbat with its wide sidewalks and 1960s tower blocks has no sidestreets. Two decades the Arbat was made into the first pedestrian zone in Moscow, in order to avoid confusion with the New Arbat, people began to refer to the Arbat as the Old Arbat.
The Arbat is one of the oldest surviving streets in Moscow, exactly when it came into existence is not recorded, but a document from July 28,1493 mentions it. The document describes a fire started in the wooden Church of Nicholas on the Sand. The fire spread throughout Moscow, devastating areas of the city. The original meaning of the place name Arbat remains unknown, several hypotheses attempt to explain it, Probably the most widespread hypothesis states that the name comes from the Arabic word أرباض arbāḍ, meaning suburb or outskirts. This fits with the fact that from the 16th century the surrounding the Arbat did form the outer district of the city
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
The Boulevard Ring is Moscows second centremost ring road. The first of the boulevards, Tverskoy Boulevard, emerged in 1796 but the ring was developed in 1820s. The Ring replaced the walls of the White City in the 1820s. The wall itself was razed in 1760, and despite the royal decrees to keep the site clear, the Fire of Moscow destroyed many of those buildings, allowing the city planners to replace them with wide green boulevards. In the 20th century, the width of the Boulevard Ring was expanded, as the paved areas along the Pokrovsky Boulevard. Plans to complete the ring through Zamoskvorechye never materialized and these plans to properly terminate the ring through Yakimanka and Zamoskvorechye districts, proposed in 1935, periodically resurface in city planners discussions. Garden Ring in Moscow Third Ring Road in Moscow MKAD in Moscow
The Tale of Igor's Campaign
The Tale of Igors Campaign is an anonymous epic poem written in the Old East Slavic language. The title is translated as The Tale of the Campaign of Igor, The Song of Igors Campaign, The Lay of Igors Campaign, The Lay of the Host of Igor. The poem gives an account of a raid of Igor Svyatoslavich against the Polovtsians of the Don River region. While some have disputed the authenticity of the poem, the current scholarly consensus is that the poem is authentic, the Tale of Igors Campaign was adapted by Alexander Borodin as an opera and became one of the great classics of Russian theatre. Entitled Prince Igor, it was first performed in 1890, the story describes a failed raid made in year 1185 by Kniaz Igor Svyatoslavich, Prince of Novgorod-Seversk on the Polovtsians tribe living in the southern part of the Don region. Other Rus historical figures are mentioned, including skald Boyan, the princes Vseslav of Polotsk, Yaroslav Osmomysl of Halych, the author appeals to the warring Rus princes and pleads for unity in the face of the constant threat from the Turkic East.
The descriptions show coexistence between Christianity and ancient Slavic religion, Igors wife Yaroslavna invokes natural forces from the walls of Putyvl. Christian motifs are presented along with depersonalised pagan gods as among the artistic images, the Tale has been compared to other national epics, including The Song of Roland and The Song of the Nibelungs. The book however differs from contemporary Western epics on account of its numerous and vivid descriptions of nature, monastery superior Joel sold the manuscript to a local landowner, Aleksei Musin-Pushkin, as a part of a collection of ten texts. Aleksei realised the value of the book and made a transcription for the empress Catherine the Great in 1795 or 1796 and he published it in 1800 with the help of Alexei Malinovsky and Nikolai Bantysh-Kamensky, leading Russian paleographers of the time. The original manuscript was claimed to have burned in the great Moscow fire of 1812, the Russian-American author Vladimir Nabokov translated the work into English in 1960.
Other notable editions include the standard Soviet edition, prepared with an extended commentary, according to the majority view, the poem is a composition of the late 12th century, perhaps composed orally and fixed in written form at some point during the 13th century. Some scholars consider the possibility that the poem in its current form is a national Romanticist compilation and it was not until 1951 that scholars discovered ancient birch bark documents with content in this medieval language. There are almost identical passages in both texts where only the names are different. The traditional point of view considers Zadonschina to be a late imitation, the forgery version claims the reverse, that Igors Tale was written using Zadonschina as a source. This fact is taken as evidence of Slovo being the original with respect to Zadonschina, proponents of the forgery thesis give sometimes contradictory arguments, some authors see numerous Gallicisms in the text, while others see Germanisms, yet others Bohemisms.
Zimin is certain that the author could only be Ioil Bykovsky, current dialectology upholds Pskov and Polotsk as the two cities where the Tale was most likely written. Numerous persons have been proposed as its authors, including Prince Igor, other authors consider the epic to have emerged in Southern Rus, with many elements corresponding to modern Ukrainian language
Yevgeny Viktorovich Tarle was a Soviet historian and academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is known for his books about Napoleons invasion of Russia and on the Crimean War, yevgeny Tarle was one of the founders of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Russias diplomatic university. Tarle was a historian who lived and worked both under Tsarist and Soviet regimes and he witnessed the whole period in which Joseph Stalin held power. The Stalinist era had exceedingly strict ideological pressure on scholarly research in the Soviet Union in science, together with art, education, thus, it was inevitable for historians to face that pressure while doing their scholarly works. The secrecy of the made the historical study of the Soviet Union, especially Stalin. In the Stalin era the Party’s total control of archives, publishing houses, historians’ appointments, “History was the handmaiden of ideology and politics. The leader and his intimates could manipulate the historical record as it suited them in their struggle to gain and maintain power.
”When the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917, Tarle was born in Ukraine in a Jewish family on 8 November 1874. His father was a government official and he completed Gymnasium in Kherson in 1892 and afterward entered the University of Kiev to study history and philosophy. He was “the most distinguished student of Ivan Vasilevich Luchitski of the University of Kiev. ”After finishing his education at the University of Kiev. He defended his master’s thesis in 1901 and became a lecturer at the University of St. Petersburg in 1903, to achieve his doctoral degree, he completed a two-volume dissertation about France. His interest in France increased in time, he completed work on the economic history of France in 1916. Tarle was able to travel outside of Russia several times before the Revolution in 1917 and he had done research in the libraries and archives of Western Europe for all his early works. He even read a paper at the World Congress of Historical Studies held in London in 1913, the number of his works prior to the Revolution amounted to 211.
The second and last time that Soviet historians appeared abroad was at the “Sixth International Congress of Historians” in Oslo in September,1928, Tarle had been proposed as a participant at the latter, but did not appear, as at the last moment he was recalled. Tarle’s Soviet biographers did not mention his political views prior the Bolshevik Revolution, “He had even held a rather negative attitude towards it at first. ”Russian historical scholarship was deeply affected by the Revolution. Despite this, Tarle remained at the University of St. Petersburg, however, in RAINON, “most researchers were specialists who had been trained under the old regime. The historians among them had to change their fields and study the movement or socio-economic problems. In 1921, he became a “corresponding member” of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, from 1922 to 1924, with F
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51