A fire-saw is a firelighting tool. It is an object "sawed" against a piece of wood, using friction to create an ember, it is divided into two components: a "saw" and a "hearth". Two forms of the fire-saw have been documented in western Australia. One model is a split, notched stick as a hearth, a knife-like hardwood stick as the saw; the other model makes use of defensive shield that natives carried. In the Philippines and Oceania, a fire-saw from bamboo pieces is common. A fire thong is a form of fire-saw, it is common in Southeast Oceania. Fire plough Hand drill
Prehistoric technology is technology that predates recorded history. History is the study of the past using written records. Anything prior to the first written accounts of history is prehistoric, including earlier technologies. About 2.5 million years before writing was developed, technology began with the earliest hominids who used stone tools, which they may have used to start fires and bury their dead. There are several factors that made the evolution of prehistoric technology necessary. One of the key factors is behavioral modernity of the developed brain of Homo sapiens capable of abstract reasoning, language and problem solving; the advent of agriculture resulted in lifestyle changes from nomadic lifestyles to ones lived in homes, with domesticated animals, land farmed using more varied and sophisticated tools. Art, architecture and religion evolved over the course of the prehistoric periods; the Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period during which stone was used in the manufacture of implements with a sharp edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The period lasted 2.5 million years, from the time of early hominids to Homo sapiens in the Pleistocene era, ended between 6000 and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. The Stone Age lifestyle was that of hunter-gatherers who traveled to hunt game and gather wild plants, with minimal changes in technology; as the last glacial period of the current ice age neared its end, large animals like the mammoth and bison antiquus became extinct and the climate changed. Humans adapted by maximizing the resources in local environments and eating a wider range of wild plants and hunting or catching smaller game. Domestication of plants and animals with early stages in the Old World Mesolithic and New World Archaic periods led to significant changes and reliance on agriculture in the Old World Neolithic and New World Formative stage; the agricultural life led to significant technological advancements. Although Paleolithic cultures left no written records, the shift from nomadic life to settlement and agriculture can be inferred from a range of archaeological evidence.
Such evidence includes ancient tools, cave paintings, other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Human remains provide direct evidence, both through the examination of bones, the study of mummies. Though concrete evidence is limited and historians have been able to form significant inferences about the lifestyle and culture of various prehistoric peoples, the role technology played in their lives; the Lower Paleolithic period was the earliest subdivision of the Old Stone Age. It spans the time from around 2.5 million years ago when the first evidence of craft and use of stone tools by hominids appears in the current archaeological record, until around 300,000 years ago, spanning the Oldowan and Acheulean lithic technology. Early human used stone tool technology, such as a hand axe, similar to that used by primates, which are found to have intelligence levels of modern children aged 3 to 5 years. Intelligence and use of technology did not change much for millions of years; the first "Homo" species began with Homo habilis about 2.4 to 1.5 million years ago.
Homo habilis created. Homo ergaster lived in eastern and southern Africa about 2.5 to 1.7 million years ago and used more diverse and sophisticated stone tools than its predecessor, Homo habilis, including having refined the inherited Oldowan tools and developed the first Acheulean bifacial axes. Homo erectus lived about 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago in West Asia and Africa and is thought to be the first hominid to hunt in coordinated groups, use complex tools, care for infirm or weaker companions. Homo antecessor the earliest hominid in Northern Europe lived from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago and used stone tools. Homo heidelbergensis lived between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago and used stone tool technology similar the Acheulean tools used by Homo erectus. European and Asian sites dating back 1.5 million years ago seem to indicate controlled use of fire by Homo erectus. A northern Israel site from about 690,000 to 790,000 years ago suggests. Homo heidelbergensis may have been the first species to bury their dead about 500,000 years ago.
The Middle Paleolithic period occurred in Europe and the Near East, during which the Neanderthals lived. The earliest evidence of settlement in Australia dates to around 40,000 years ago when modern humans crossed from Asia by island-hopping; the Bhimbetka rock shelters exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India, some of which are 30,000 years old. Homo neanderthalensis used Mousterian Stone tools that date back to around 300,000 years ago and include smaller, knife-like and scraper tools, they buried their dead in shallow graves along with stone tools and animal bones, although the reasons and significance of the burials are disputed. Homo sapiens, the only living species in the genus Homo, originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago; as compared to their predecessors, Homo sapiens had greater mental capability and ability to walk erect, which provided freed hands for manipulating objects and far greater use of tools. There was art created during this period. Intentional burial with grave goods, may be one of the earliest detectable forms of religious practice since it may signify a "concern for the dead that transcends daily life."
The earliest undisputed human burial so far dates back 130,000 years. Human skeletal remains stained with red ochre w
A matchbook is a small paperboard folder enclosing a quantity of matches and having a coarse striking surface on the exterior. The folder is opened to access the matches, which are attached in a comb-like arrangement and must be torn away before use in contrast to a matchbox where the matches are loosely packed in the interior tray; the exterior of the matchcover is imprinted with a producer's logo with artistic decorations, or serves as an advertising/promotional medium for the undertaking by which it is sold or given away. The ease of making matchcovers of different shapes made them quite a popular cheap promotional item or anniversary souvenir. Manufacturing of matchbooks peaked during the 1940s and 1950s steadily declined because of the availability of disposable lighters and various anti-smoking health campaigns. Matchbooks have begun to regain some of their popularity as a "retro" advertising item in high-end restaurants. Although paper matches were patented in the 1880s, an early paper match "folder" was patented in September 1892 by Philadelphia patent attorney Joshua Pusey.
However, the matchbook as we know it was patented a few weeks by Charles Bowman of Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Pusey challenged Bowman's patent. Pusey sold his patent to the Diamond Match Trust in 1896 and served as the company's patent attorney. Bowman's company, the American Safety Head Match Company of Lebanon, PA did not last long, Diamond Match Co. adapted his design into their product, becoming the first mass-producer of paper matchbooks. Collecting of matchboxes, match labels and other match-related items is called phillumeny. A "matchcover", or "matchbook cover", is a thin cardboard covering that folds over match sticks in a "book" or "pack" of matches. Covers have been used as a form of advertising since 1894, two years after they were patented, since have attracted people who enjoy the hobby of collecting. Many historians point to the Mendelson Opera as the first to use matchbooks for advertising purposes. Inspired by the Opera's innovation, Diamond Match salesman Henry Traute began approaching manufacturers to advertise their products on his company's matches, promoting them as something that would be viewed by their users many times a day.
Among the first companies to order advertising matchbooks were Pabst beer, American Tobacco Company and Wrigley's Chewing Gum. He encouraged his customers to give away matchbooks as a promotional item. Collectors are known as phillumenists, or "lovers of light", include people who have a shoe box or fish bowl filled with packs from local stores and restaurants, to serious collectors with covers organized in hundreds of different topics. In 2005, there were over 1800 active collectors in The Rathkamp Matchcover Society, spread over 20 countries worldwide. On March 7, 2015 the highest price realized. In a private sale, a rare Lion Match Co. Safety First matchbook dated June 14, 1927 celebrating Charles Lindbergh's flight across the Atlantic sold for $6,000 USD, it is estimated 200 of these books were handed out at a dinner in his honor at the Astor Hotel in New York. At last count there were about twelve known to exist. US patent 483,166 Flexible Match patent, 27 September 1892 - set of 2 match combs shown enclosed folding paper match cover.
Matchbox - another method of delivering matches Prero, Mike. "2005 Demographics". RMS Bulletin No. 512, January/February, pp. 1–4. Steele, H. Thomas. Close Cover Before Striking: The Golden Age of Matchbook Art NY: Abbeville Press, ISBN 0-89659-695-8 The Boston Public Library's Boston Matchcovers Collection on Flickr.com
An electric match is a device that uses an externally applied electric current to ignite a combustible compound. Electric matches use a bridgewire consisting of a heating element to ignite a pyrogen, a quantity of ignited pyrotechnic initiator composition. Electric matches can be used in any application where source of heat is needed at a controlled point in time to ignite a propellant or explosive. Examples include airbags and military or commercial explosives. Electric matches consist of a bridgewire and a pyrogen; the bridgewire is a heating element in the form of a loop or coil of thin wire, encased in the pyrogen, a quantity of ignited pyrotechnic initiator composition. If the pyrogen is sufficiently conductive, it can act as the bridgewire as well. Electric matches come with provisions for attaching an electric current source, they may be provided with a protective cover and/or a means to attach them to the device to be ignited. To operate an electric match, a source of electricity of appropriate voltage and current is needed to provide current to the match.
When sufficient electric current is passed through the bridgewire, the resistive heating causes the element to rise above the ignition temperature of the pyrogen, the pyrogen begins to burn. Commercial electric match manufacturers specify 3 key parameters of an electric match: the resistance, a recommended firing current, a maximum no-fire current; the "test" button on a firing systems tests a setup by sending a current limited to well below the no-fire current to detect common problems. A partial list of applications is: Airbag deployment Pyrotechnics Military or commercial explosives Model rocketry Fireplaces: natural gas, propane Gas stoves and barbecuesElectric matches, or electronic ignition, is used in natural gas and propane fueled commercial and household appliances and amenities; some examples are gas stoves and barbecues and swimming pool hot water heaters and boilers and garden fire pits, clothes dryers and central heating systems. Electric matches may be regulated. Kits include the thin wire needed for the bridgewire, such as nichrome wire, along with components for mixing the pyrogen.
Scratch-built matches use thin wire which may be purchased or salvaged from sources such as light bulb filaments, copper wiring. In addition to the ignitable component of the electric match pyrogen, some matches may add additional components to provide a hotter, longer-lasting flame, for igniting items that are difficult to ignite. For example, igniters for solid fuel model rocket motors include powdered metals, which provide more heat and duration to the match flame, a more reliable ignition of the motor. Tubes and primers for ammunition Primers Blasting cap Micro combined heat and power Renewable natural gas Squib Pyrotechnic fastener Exploding-bridgewire detonator
Smouldering or smoldering is the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, sustained by the heat evolved when oxygen directly attacks the surface of a condensed-phase fuel. Many solid materials can sustain a smouldering reaction, including coal, wood, tobacco, peat, plant litter, synthetic foams, charring polymers including polyurethane foam and some types of dust. Common examples of smouldering phenomena are the initiation of residential fires on upholstered furniture by weak heat sources, the persistent combustion of biomass behind the flaming front of wildfires; the fundamental difference between smouldering and flaming combustion is that smouldering occurs on the surface of the solid rather than in the gas phase. Smouldering is a surface phenomenon but can propagate to the interior of a porous fuel if it is permeable to flow; the characteristic temperature and heat released during smouldering are low compared to those in the flaming combustion. Smouldering propagates in a creeping fashion, around 0.1 mm/s, about ten times slower than flames spread over a solid.
In spite of its weak combustion characteristics, smouldering is a significant fire hazard. Smouldering emits toxic gases at a higher yield than flaming fires and leaves behind a significant amount of solid residue; the emitted gases are flammable and could be ignited in the gas phase, triggering the transition to flaming combustion. Many materials can sustain a smouldering reaction, including coal, decaying wood and sawdust, biomass fuels on the forest surface and subsurface, cotton clothing and string, polymeric foams. Smouldering fuels are porous, permeable to flow and formed by aggregates; these aggregates facilitate the surface reaction with oxygen by allowing gas flow through the fuel and providing a large surface area per unit volume. They act as thermal insulation, reducing heat losses; the most studied materials to date are polyurethane foams. The characteristics of smouldering fires make them a threat of new dimensions, taking the form of colossal underground fires or silent fire safety risks, as summarized below.
Fire safety: The main hazards posed by smouldering arise from the fact that it can be initiated and is difficult to detect. Fire statistics draw attention to the magnitude of smouldering combustion as the leading cause of fire deaths in residential areas. A common fire scenario is a cigarette igniting a piece of upholstered furniture; this ignition leads to a smouldering fire that lasts for a long period of time and silently until critical conditions are attained and flames erupt. Smouldering combustion is a fire-safety concern aboard space facilities, because the absence of gravity is thought to promote smouldering ignition and propagation. Wildfires: Smouldering combustion of the forest ground does not have the visual impact of flaming combustion. Smouldering of biomass can linger for days or weeks after flaming has ceased, resulting in large quantities of fuels consumed and becoming a global source of emissions to the atmosphere; the slow propagation leads to prolonged heating and might cause sterilizations of the soil or the killing of roots and plant stems at the ground level.
Subsurface fires: Fires occurring many meters below the surface are a type of smouldering event of colossal magnitude. Subsurface fires in coal mines, peat lands and landfills are rare events, but when active they can smoulder for long periods of time, emitting enormous quantities of combustion gases into the atmosphere, causing deterioration of air quality and subsequent health problems; the oldest and largest fires in the world, burning for centuries, are smouldering fires. These fires are fed by the oxygen in the small but continuous flow of air through natural pipe networks, fractured strata, openings or abandoned mine shafts which permit the air to circulate into the subsurface; the reduced heat losses and high thermal inertia of the underground together with high fuel availability promote long-term smouldering combustion and allow for creeping but extensive propagation. These fires prove difficult to detect, frustrate most efforts to extinguish them; the dramatic 1997 peatland fires in Borneo caused the recognition of subsurface smouldering fires as a global threat with significant economic and ecological impacts.
The summer of 2006 saw the resurgence of the Borneo peat fires. World Trade Center debris: After the attack and subsequent collapse of the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001, the colossal pile of debris left on the site smouldered for more than five months, it resisted attempts by fire fighters to extinguish it. The effects of the gaseous and aerosolized products of smouldering on the health of the emergency workers were significant but the details are still a matter of debate. Smouldering combustion has some beneficial applications. Biochar is the charcoal produced from the smouldering and/or pyrolysis of biomass, it has the potential to be a short-term
Fire making, fire lighting or fire craft is the process of starting a fire artificially. It requires completing the fire triangle by heating tinder above its autoignition temperature. Fire was important in early human cultural development. Today, it is a key component of bushcraft. At the Neolithic site of La Draga, researchers have found. Hearths are one of the most common features found at archaeological sites. Fires start from increasing tinder's temperature. Tinder is a material. Fine tinder is characterized by its ability to combust from a spark, friction, or other action from the below methods. Many forms of tinder are available – charcloth is preferred by many. Autognition temperatures of common tinder: Tinder is preserved within a Tinderbox, which today is a plastic bag. Tinder when formed into a tight bundle can be used to preserve/carry an ember. In the form of a cigar and made of compacted tinder materials held within a tinderbox, a smouldering ember could safely be saved inside. Fire occurs as a result of volcanic activity and lightning strikes.
Many animals adapt their behavior to it. Plants, have adapted to the natural occurrence of fire. Thus, humans encountered and were aware of fire, its beneficial uses, long before they could make fire on demand; the first and easiest way to make a fire would have been to use the hot ashes or burning wood from a forest or grass fire, to keep the fire or coals going for as long as possible by adding more combustible material. Fire can be created through friction by grinding pieces of solid combustible material against each other which are heated and create an ember. Creating fire by friction involves skill, fitness and acceptable environmental conditions; some techniques involve crafting a system of interlocking pieces that give the practitioner an improved mechanical advantage. Once hot enough, the ember is introduced to the tinder, more oxygen is added by blowing and the result is ignition; the hand drill is the most widespread among indigenous cultures, characterized by the use of a thin, straightened wooden shaft or reed to be spun with the hands, grinding within a notch against the soft wooden base of a fire board.
This repeated spinning and downward pressure causes black dust to form in the notch of the fireboard creating a hot, glowing coal. The coal is carefully placed among dense, fine tinder, pressed against it as one blows directly onto the coal until the tinder begins burning and catches into flame; the advantage of the hand drill technique is. The bow drill uses the same principle as the hand drill but the spindle is shorter and driven by a bow, which allows longer, easier strokes and protects the palms. Additional downward pressure is generated by the handhold. A pump drill is a variant of the bow drill that uses a coiled rope around a cross-section of wooden stake spin the shaft by pumping up and down a cross-member; the fire plough or fireplow consists of a stick cut to a dull point, a long piece of wood with a groove cut down its length. The stake is pressed down hard and rubbed against the groove of the second piece in a "plowing" motion, to produce hot dust creates an ember. A split is made down the length of the grooved piece, so that oxygen can flow to the coal/ember.
A fire-saw is a method by which a piece of wood is sawed through a notch in a second piece or pieces to generate friction. The tinder may be placed between two slats of wood with the third piece or "saw" drawn over them above the tinder so as to catch a coal, but there is more than one configuration. A fire-thong uses a non-melting cord, ratan, or flexibe strip of wood to'saw' the wood creating friction. On the board, opposite side the cord, is a well with a hole through the board to gathered the charred, soon-to-smoke, wood dust; the Rudiger roll friction fire method known as the "fire roll" method, is believed to have been invented by World War 2 POWs. A German survival expert named. A small amount of wood ash is rolled up inside of cotton like a cigar; the cotton is placed between two boards and rolled back and forth. Pressure and speed are both increased. With proper technique ignition can occur in seconds. A fire striker or firesteel when hit by a hard, glassy stone such as quartz, agate or flint cleaves small, oxidizing metal particles that can ignite tinder.
The steel should be high carbon, non-alloyed, hardened. Two pieces of iron pyrite or marcasite when struck together can create sparks; the use of flint in particular became the most common method of producing flames in pre-industrial societies. Travelers up to the late 19th century would use self-contained kits known as tinderboxes to start fires; some fire-starting systems use a ferrocerium rod
Glossary of firelighting
This is an alphabetized glossary of terms pertaining to lighting fires, along with their definitions. Firelighting is the process of starting a fire artificially. Fire was an essential tool in early human cultural development, it requires completing the fire triangle by initiating the combustion of a suitably flammable material. Amadou – a spongy, flammable substance prepared from bracket fungi. Arson – the crime of intentionally or maliciously lighting structures, wildland areas, cars or other property on fire, it is the deliberate setting of fires for monetary or political gain. Auto reignition – a process used in gas burners to control ignition devices based on whether a burner flame is lit. Autoignition temperature – the lowest temperature at which a substance will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. Batoning – the technique of cutting or splitting wood by using a baton-sized stick or mallet to strike the spine of a sturdy knife, chisel or blade in order to drive it through wood.
The batoning method can be used to make desired forms such as boards, slats or notches. The practice is most useful for obtaining dry wood from the inside of logs for the purpose of fire making. Black match – in pyrotechnics, a type of crude fuse, constructed of cotton string fibers intimately coated with a dried black powder slurry. Blow George – an implement used in fire lighting, used to increase the efficiency of firelighting through acceleration of the chimney draw. Bow drill – an ancient tool used to make fire, it was used for primitive woodworking and dentistry. Bridgewire – a thin resistance wire used to set off a pyrotechnic composition serving as pyrotechnic initiator. Bryant and May – a United Kingdom company created in the mid-nineteenth century to make matches. Burning glass – a large convex lens that can concentrate the sun's rays onto a small area, heating up the area and thus resulting in ignition of the exposed surface. Campfire – a fire lit at a campsite, to serve the following functions: light, warmth, a beacon, an insect and/or apex predator deterrent, to cook, for a psychological sense of security.
Char cloth – a swatch of fabric made from vegetable fiber, converted via pyrolysis into a slow-burning fuel of low ignition temperature. Combustion – the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species; the release of heat can result in the production of light in the form of a flame. Control of fire by early humans – A turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution that allowed humans to cook food and obtain warmth and protection. Making fire allowed the expansion of human activity into the colder hours of the night, provided protection from predators and insects. Dickheads – a brand of matches released by Australian businessman Dick Smith in 1999; the name is a pun on the Redheads brand of matches. Döbereiner's lamp – a lighter invented in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, it is based on the Fürstenberger lighter, was in production until circa 1880. Zinc metal reacts with sulfuric acid in its jar to produce hydrogen gas.
When a valve is opened, a jet of hydrogen bursts into flame. The ignition is catalyzed by platinum metal. Electric match – a device that uses an externally applied electric current to ignite a combustible compound. Ember – a glowing, hot coal made of heated wood, coal, or other carbon-based material that remain after, or sometimes precede a fire. England's Glory – a brand of matches, available in the United Kingdom, using an iconic image of a Victorian battleship, HMS Devastation. Feather stick – a length of wood, shaved to produce a head of thin curls, it is sometimes used when starting an outdoor campfire when dry tinder is difficult to find. It is used in conjunction with charcloth. Ferrocerium – a man-made metallic material that gives off a large number of hot sparks at temperatures at 3,000 °F when scraped against a rough surface, such as ridged steel. Fire piston – a device used to kindle fire, it uses the principle of the heating of a gas by its rapid compression to ignite a piece of tinder, used to set light to kindling.
Fire ring – a construction or device used to contain campfires and prevent them from spreading and turning into wildfires. Fire striker – a piece of high-carbon steel used for striking a spark kept in a tinderbox together with flint and tinder. Fire triangle – simple model for understanding the necessary ingredients for most fires; the triangle illustrates the three elements a fire needs to ignite: heat, an oxidizing agent. A fire occurs when the elements are present and combined in the right mixture, meaning that fire is an event rather than a thing. A fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements in the fire triangle. Firelighter – small solid fuel tablets sold as a consumer product and designed to replace kindling in starting a fire. Firewood – any wooden material, gathered and used for fuel. Flint – a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert, it occurs chiefly as nodules and masses such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is dark grey, green, white, or brown in color, has a glassy or waxy appearance.
A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is different in colour white