Kretek are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco and other flavors. The word "kretek" itself is an onomatopoetic term for the crackling sound of burning cloves. Due to favorable taxation compared to "white" cigarettes, kreteks are by far the most smoked form of cigarettes in Indonesia, where they are preferred by about 90% of smokers. In Indonesia, there are hundreds of kretek manufacturers, including small local makers and major brands. Most of the known international brands, including Dji Sam Soe 234, Minak Djinggo, Gudang Garam, Wismilak originate from Indonesia. Nat Sherman of the United States produces cigarettes branded as "A Touch of Clove" but they are not true kreteks since there is clove flavoring infused into small crystals located inside the filter, rather than actual clove spice mixed with the tobacco; the origin of kretek cigarettes can be traced to the late 19th century. The creator of kretek was a native of Kudus in Indonesia's Central Java region. Suffering from chest pains, Jamhari attempted to reduce the pain by rubbing clove oil on his chest.
Jamhari sought a means of achieving a deeper relief and smoked his hand-rolled cigarettes after adding dried clove buds and rubber tree sap. According to the story, his asthma and chest pains vanished immediately. Word of Jamhari's product spread among his neighbors, the product soon became available in pharmacies as rokok cengkeh. First marketed as a medicinal product, kreteks became popular. In those years, the locals used to hand-roll kreteks to sell on order without any specific brand, packing, or limits on ingredients used in production. A resident of Kudus named Nitisemito had the idea of starting serial production and selling kreteks under a proprietary brand name. Unlike other manufacturers, who first created the Bal Tiga brand in 1906, enjoyed great success by implementing unprecedented marketing techniques, such as using embossed packs or offering free-of-charge promotional materials. Commercial manufacture did not start in earnest until the 1930s. Furthermore, he developed a means of production called the abon system which offered opportunities for other entrepreneurs with insufficient capital.
In this system, a person called an "abon" assumes the job of delivering finished products to the company which pays the price of piecework done whereas the company is liable to supply the necessary production materials to the "abons". Most manufacturers have since opted to have their workers working under the roof of their own factories, to maintain quality standards. Nowadays, only a few kretek manufacturers make use of the abon system. During the period from 1960 until 1970, kreteks became a national symbol against "white cigarettes". In the mid-1980s, the number of machine-produced cigarettes exceeded that of hand-rolled ones. One of the largest income sources of Indonesia, the kretek industry comprises 500 large and small manufacturers employing a total of around 10 million people. Since 2009, kreteks are not legal for sale in the United States. A variation of the kretek is sold: "cigars" that are similar in size and shape to the original kreteks with a filter and the original tobacco/clove blend, but in a tobacco-based paper.
The quality and variety of tobacco play an important role in kretek production. One kretek brand can contain more than 30 types of tobacco. Minced dried. Sometimes, the last process which machine-made or hand-rolled kreteks go through is the spraying of sweetener at the butt end of the cigarette. Djarum Black cigarettes sold in Europe, South Africa and South American countries have 10–12 mg tar and 1 mg nicotine, as indicated on the pack; this level of tar and nicotine is comparable to the majority of other regular or "full-flavor" cigarettes available. Djarum Black cigarettes produced for consumption in Indonesia contain a higher quantity of tar and nicotine, 25 mg and 1.6 mg respectively. In Canada, Djarum Black cigarettes are listed as containing 44.2–86 mg of tar and 1.73–3.24 mg of nicotine, a significant amount more than most other cigarettes. The venous plasma nicotine and carbon monoxide levels from 10 smokers were tested after smoking kreteks and were found to be similar to non-clove brands of cigarettes, such as Marlboro.
Rats were given equal inhalation doses of conventional tobacco cigarettes and kreteks over a short period. Those that had inhaled kreteks did not appear to show worse health effects compared to those that had inhaled conventional cigarettes; the study was repeated with a 14-day exposure and kreteks again did not produce worse health effects than conventional cigarettes. The eugenol in clove smoke causes a numbing of the throat which can diminish the gag reflex in users, leading researchers to recommend caution for individuals with respiratory infections. There have been a few cases of aspiration pneumonia in individuals with normal respiratory tracts because of the diminished gag reflex. In the United States, cigarettes were the subject of legal restrictions and political debate, including a proposed 2009 US Senate bill that would have prohibited cigarettes from having a "characterizing flavor" of certain ingredients other than tobacco and menthol. A study by the U. S. Centers for Disease Control found kreteks account for a small percentage of underage smoking, their use was declining among high school students.
Critics of the bill argued that support of the bill by the large U. S. tobacco maker Philip Morris, which makes only conventional and menthol cigarettes, indicated that the bill was an attempt to protect the company from competition. Some U. S. states, including Utah, New Mexico, Maryland, passed laws that prohibit the sale of kreteks. On 14 Marc
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette". Smoking is practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue. In the case of cigarette smoking these substances are contained in a mixture of aerosol particles and gasses and include the pharmacologically active alkaloid nicotine. In some cultures, smoking is carried out as a part of various rituals, where participants use it to help induce trance-like states that, they believe, can lead them to spiritual enlightenment. Smoking has negative health effects, because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various physiologic processes such as respiration.
Diseases related to tobacco smoking have been shown to kill half of long-term smokers when compared to average mortality rates faced by non-smokers. Smoking caused over five million deaths a year from 1990 to 2015. Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Tobacco smoking is the most popular form, being practiced by over one billion people globally, of whom the majority are in the developing countries. Less common drugs for smoking include opium; some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics, like heroin, but the use of these is limited as they are not commercially available. Cigarettes are industrially manufactured but can be hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Other smoking implements include pipes, bidis and bongs. Smoking can be dated to as early as 5000 BCE, has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking evolved in association with religious ceremonies. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, the practice of smoking tobacco spread to the rest of the world.
In regions like India and Sub-Saharan Africa, it merged with existing practices of smoking. In Europe, it introduced a new type of social activity and a form of drug intake, unknown. Perception surrounding smoking has varied over time and from one place to another: holy and sinful and vulgar, a panacea and deadly health hazard. In the 20th century, smoking came to be viewed in a decidedly negative light in Western countries; this is due to smoking tobacco being among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attack, COPD, erectile dysfunction, birth defects. The health hazards of smoking have caused many countries to institute high taxes on tobacco products, run ads to discourage use, limit ads that promote use, provide help with quitting for those who do smoke; the history of smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BCE in shamanistic rituals. Many ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians and Chinese, burnt incense as a part of religious rituals, as did the Israelites and the Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches.
Smoking in the Americas had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was adopted for pleasure, or as a social tool. The smoking of tobacco, as well as various hallucinogenic drugs, was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit world. Substances such as cannabis, clarified butter, fish offal, dried snake skins and various pastes molded around incense sticks dates back at least 2000 years. Fumigation and fire offerings are prescribed in the Ayurveda for medical purposes, have been practiced for at least 3,000 years while smoking, has been practiced for at least 2,000 years. Before modern times these substances have been consumed through pipes, with stems of various lengths or chillums. Cannabis smoking was common in the Middle East before the arrival of tobacco, was early on a common social activity that centered around the type of water pipe called a hookah. Smoking after the introduction of tobacco, was an essential component of Muslim society and culture and became integrated with important traditions such as weddings and was expressed in architecture, clothing and poetry.
Cannabis smoking was introduced to Sub-Saharan Africa through Ethiopia and the east African coast by either Indian or Arab traders in the 13th century or earlier and spread on the same trade routes as those that carried coffee, which originated in the highlands of Ethiopia. It was smoked in calabash water pipes with terracotta smoking bowls an Ethiopian invention, conveyed to eastern and central Africa. Reports from the first European explorers and conquistadors to reach the Americas tell of rituals where native priests smoked themselves into such high degrees of intoxication that it is unlikely that the rituals were limited to just tobacco. In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to raise tobacco as a cash crop; the demand grew as tobacco, referred to as "golden weed", revived the Virginia Company from its failed gold expeditions. In order to meet de
A beedi is a thin cigarette or mini-cigar filled with tobacco flake and wrapped in a Tendu or Piliostigma racemosum leaf tied with a string or adhesive at one end. It originates from the Indian subcontinent; the name is derived from the Marwari word beeda—a mixture of betel nuts and spices wrapped in a leaf. A traditional method of tobacco use throughout South Asia and parts of the Middle East, today beedies are popular and inexpensive in India, where beedi consumption outpaces that of conventional cigarettes, accounting for 48% of Indian tobacco consumption in 2008. Beedies deliver more nicotine, carbon monoxide, tar and carry a greater risk of oral cancers; as with many other types of smoking, beedis increase the risk of certain kinds of cancers, heart disease, lung disease. They may be more harmful than other forms of tobacco consumption. Frequency of ventilatory abnormalities was highest in the cigarette smokers. A lower prevalence of chronic bronchitis and abnormal ventilatory measurements in beedi smokers, as compared with cigarette smokers, was thought to be due to low total consumption of tobacco.
Some added influence of smoke produced by burning of the wrapper leaf and type of tobacco used in beedis could not be ruled out. Indian tobacco cultivation began in the late 17th century, beedies were first created when tobacco workers took leftover tobacco and rolled it in leaves; the commercial Indian beedi industry saw rapid growth during the 1930s driven by an expansion of tobacco cultivation at the time but helped by Gandhi's support of Indian industry and Indian products. Due to this, educated classes in India grew to prefer beedies to cigarettes although this is no longer the case. Muslim leaders, calling cigarettes foreign products, have endorsed beedies at times. By the middle of the 20th century beedi manufacture had grown into a competitive industry; this stage of commercial production—at the height of the beedi's popularity—saw the creation of many new beedi brands as well as beedi factories employing upwards of one hundred male, beedi rollers. Factory-based beedi production declined as a result of increased regulation during the 1940s,'50s, and'60s, beedi-making became a cottage industry with a home-based women workforce predominantly employed only in the beedi rolling.
In contrast, males continue to be employed in other aspects of beedi production. Unlike cigarettes, beedies must be puffed to keep them lit, doing so requires effort. Beedi smoking tends to be associated with a lower social standing, these tobacco-filled leaves are inexpensive when compared to regular cigarettes; those with a high social standing who do smoke beedies do so out of the public eye. In the United States, beedies are treated like conventional cigarettes, they are taxed at the same rates, are required to have a tax stamp, must carry the Surgeon General's warning. However, a study done in San Francisco showed that about four in ten packs of beedies did not contain the required warning label and seven in ten did not carry the tax stamp. 2006 statistics on beedi usage show that 2.9% of high school students in the United States take part in beedi smoking compared to 1.4% of those aged 18 to 24. Beedis are legal in the UK and are subject to the same taxation as cigarettes. One must be aged 18 or over to purchase them.
Some beedies are flavoured. Both Canada and the US have banned flavoured cigarettes. Over 8 million Indians are employed in the manufacture of beedies, a cottage industry, done by women in their homes. Workers roll an average of 500–1000 beedies per day, handling 225–450 grams of tobacco flake. Studies have shown that nicotine levels in the bodily fluids of beedi workers are elevated among those who do not use tobacco; the production of beedies is popular in Bangladesh. According to the 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor published by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs, the informal sector in these countries employs underage children in the production of beedies "in response to consumer preferences". Tendu leaves make excellent wrappers, the success of the beedi is due, in part, to this leaf; the leaves are in abundance shortly after the tobacco crop is cured and so are ready to be used in beedi manufacture. Collected in the summer and made into bundles, the leaves are dried in the sun for three to six days before being used as wrappers.
Paan Gutka Desi daru Action Plan for Beedi Women Workers The International Labor Office Beedi Beedi-making tutorial
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
MacArthur Fellows Program
The MacArthur Fellows Program, MacArthur Fellowship but unofficially known as a "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation to between 20 and 30 individuals, working in any field, who have shown "extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction" and are citizens or residents of the United States. According to the Foundation's website, "the fellowship is not a reward for past accomplishment, but rather an investment in a person's originality and potential"; the current prize is $625,000 paid over five years in quarterly installments. This figure was increased from $500,000 in 2013 with the release of a review of the MacArthur Fellows Program. Since 1981, 942 people have been named MacArthur Fellows, ranging in age from 18 to 82; the award has been called "one of the most significant awards, truly'no strings attached'". The program allows no applications. Anonymous and confidential nominations are invited by the Foundation and reviewed by an anonymous and confidential selection committee of about a dozen people.
The committee reviews all nominees and recommends recipients to the president and board of directors. Most new Fellows first learn of their nomination and award upon receiving a congratulatory phone call. MacArthur Fellow Jim Collins described this experience in an editorial column of The New York Times. Cecilia Conrad is the managing director leading the MacArthur Fellows Program. In the 2008 Charlie Kaufman film Synecdoche, New York, The main character Caden Cotard was a recipient of the Grant, used it to fund his immersive play. Guggenheim Fellowship Thomas J. Watson Fellowship MacArthur Fellows Program website
Cigarette cards are trade cards issued by tobacco manufacturers to stiffen cigarette packaging and advertise cigarette brands. Between 1875 and the 1940s, cigarette companies included collectible cards with their packages of cigarettes. Cigarette card sets document popular culture from the turn of the century depicting the period's actresses and sports, as well as offering insights into mainstream humor and cultural norms. Beginning in 1875, cards depicting actresses, baseball players, Indian chiefs, national flags or wild animals were issued by the U. S.-based Allen & Ginter tobacco company. These are considered to be some of the first cigarette cards. Other tobacco companies such as Goodwin & Co. soon followed suit. They first emerged in the U. S. the UK eventually, in many other countries. In the UK, W. D. & H. O. Wills in 1887 were one of the first companies to include advertising cards with their cigarettes, but it was John Player & Sons in 1893 that produced one of the first general interest sets'Castles and Abbeys'.
Thomas Ogden soon followed in 1894 and in 1895, Wills produced their first set'Ships and Sailors', followed by'Cricketers' in 1896. In 1906, Ogden's produced a set of association football cards depicting footballers in their club colours, in one of the first full-colour sets; each set of cards consisted of 25 or 50 related subjects, but series of over 100 cards per issue are known. Popular themes were'beauties', nature, military heroes and uniforms and city views. Imperial Tobacco Canada manufactured the first ice hockey cards for the inaugural NHL season. There were a total of 36 cards in the set, each one featured an illustration of a player. After World War I, only one more cigarette set was issued, during the 1924-25 Today, for example and military historians study these cards for details on uniform design; some early cigarette cards were printed on silk, attached to a paper backing. They were discontinued in order to save paper during World War II, never reintroduced thereafter. Doral, an R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company brand, started printing cigarette cards in the year 2000.
These were the first cigarette cards from a major manufacturer since the 1940s. Although the small company Carreras in the UK issued cigarette cards with Turf brand cigarettes for a short period in the 1950s and 1960s, Black Cat brand in 1976. Furthermore, card-like coupons with special offers have been included in cigarette packets over the years; the first set of "Doral Celebrate America" cards featured the 50 states in two releases, 2000 and 2001. Themes include American festivals, national parks, 20th century events. Natural American Spirit, another R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company brand includes cigarette cards on their packs, with information on such things as windpower and their farmers. Philip Morris USA started including "Information For Smokers" cigarette cards in certain packs. One provides information on quitting smoking and the other states that "Light, "Ultra Light", "Mild", "Medium", "Low Tar" cigarettes are just as harmful as "Full Flavor" ones. Early in 2007, a world record price was paid in America for a single card – $2,350,000.
This card was resold in the year for another world record price, $2,800,000. The card in question featured Honus Wagner, one of the great names in U. S. baseball at the turn of the 20th century. Wagner was a dedicated non-smoker and objected when America's biggest tobacco corporation planned to picture him on a cigarette card without his permission. Threats of legal action prevented its release, but a few slipped out, it was one of these that stunned the collecting world when it was auctioned. Another notable and sought-after set of cards is the untitled series issued by Taddy and known by collectors as "Clowns and Circus Artistes". While not the rarest cards in existence, they are still rare and command high prices whenever they come up for auction; the Mecca cigarette trading card for George Sutton is notable for it depicts him with hands. Sutton was known as "the handless billiard player" for mastering the game with such a handicap; the system devised to codify 19th Century American tobacco issues has its origin in the'American Card Catalog', written by Jefferson Burdick.
Burdick listed the American Tobacco cards in one section, broken down by companies that issued the card series and by the types of cards. The 19th Century issues were prefixed with'N' and the 20th with'T'.. The World Tobacco Index, published by the Cartophilic Society of Great Britain, lists all known tobacco issues from around the world and is still being updated today on reports of new finds. Using a similar alphanumeric system, it assigns a code based on the name of manufacturer, rather than the century in which the cards were issued. For example, Burdick's N2'Celebrated American Indian Chiefs' by Allen & Ginter is listed as A400-030, with the larger N42 series listed as A400-030; the catalogue contains details of cigarette cards and silks issued at home and abroad from the 19th century to the present day, quoting up-to-date values for cards in top condition. The original price guide now in its 84th year of publication; the catalogue has reference numbers to cross reference with the British Tobacco Issues Handbook, Ogdens, G Phillips and Wills reference books giving information for British Tobacco series which will be a great help to collectors to identify cards unnumbered or untitled series.
The catalogue gives an up-to-date price guide for od