New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a building's plumbing system; the usual working pressure of a firehose can vary between 8 and 20 bar while per the NFPA 1961 Fire Hose Standard, its bursting pressure is in excess of 110 bar, After use, a fire hose is hung to dry, because standing water that remains in a hose for a long time can deteriorate the material and render it unreliable or unusable. Therefore, the typical fire station has a high structure to accommodate the length of a hose for such preventative maintenance. On occasion, fire hoses are used for crowd control, including most notably by Bull Connor in the Birmingham campaign against protestors during the Civil Rights Movement in 1963; until the mid-19th century, most fires were fought by water transported to the scene in buckets. Original hand pumpers discharged their water through a small pipe or monitor attached to the top of the pump tub.
It was not until the late 1860s that hoses became available to convey water more from the hand pumps, steam pumpers, to the fire. In Amsterdam in the Dutch Republic, the Superintendent of the Fire Brigade, Jan van der Heyden, his son Nicholaas took firefighting to its next step with the fashioning of the first fire hose in 1673; these 50-foot lengths of leather were sewn together like a boot leg. With the limitations of pressure, the attachment of the hose to the gooseneck nozzle allowed closer approaches and more accurate water application. Van der Heyden was credited with an early version of a suction hose using wire to keep it rigid. In the United States, the fire hose was introduced in Philadelphia in 1794; this canvas hose proved insufficiently durable, sewn leather hose was used. The sewn leather hose tended to burst, so a hose fabricated of leather fastened together with copper rivets and washers was invented by members of Philadelphia's Humane Hose Company. Around 1890, unlined fire hoses made of circular woven linen yarns began to replace leather hoses.
They were much lighter. As the hose fibers, made of flax, became wet, they swelled up and tightened the weave, causing the hose to become watertight. Unlined hoses, because of their lack of durability, were replaced with rubber hoses in municipal fire service use, they continued to be used on interior hose lines and hose racks until the 1960s, are still used in some areas for forestry applications. Following the invention of the vulcanization process as a means of curing raw soft rubber into a harder, more useful product, the fire service made the transition from bulky and unreliable leather hose to the unlined linen hose to a multi-layer, rubber lined and coated hose with interior fabric reinforcement; this rubber hose was as bulky and stiff as a leather hose, but was not prone to leaking. It proved more durable than unlined linen hose, its wrapped construction resembled some hoses used today by industry, for example, fuel delivery hoses used to service airliners. Modern fire hoses use a variety of natural and synthetic fabrics and elastomers in their construction.
These materials allow the hoses to be stored wet without rotting and to resist the damaging effects of exposure to sunlight and chemicals. Modern hoses are lighter weight than older designs, this has helped reduce the physical strain on firefighters. Various devices are becoming more prevalent that remove the air from the interior of fire hose referred to as fire hose vacuums; this process makes hoses smaller and somewhat rigid, thus allowing more fire hose to be packed or loaded into the same compartment on a fire fighting apparatus. There are several types of hose designed for the fire service; those designed to operate under positive pressure are called discharge hoses. They include attack hose, supply hose, relay hose, forestry hose, booster hose; those designed to operate under negative pressure are called suction hoses. Another suction hose, called a soft suction, is a short length of fabric-covered, flexible discharge hose used to connect the fire pumper suction inlet with a pressurized hydrant.
It is not a true suction hose. In the past, cotton was the most common natural fiber used in fire hoses, but most modern hoses use a synthetic fiber like polyester or nylon filament; the synthetic fibers provide better resistance to abrasion. The fiber yarns may be left natural. Coatings and liners include synthetic rubbers, which provide various degrees of resistance to chemicals, ozone, ultraviolet radiation, mold and abrasion. Different coatings and liners are chosen for specific applications. Hard suction hose consists of multiple layers of rubber and woven fabric encapsulating an internal helix of steel wire; some flexible hard suction hose uses a thin polyvinyl chloride cover with a polyvinyl chloride plastic helix. Fire hose is manufactured in a plant that specializes in providing hose products to municipal and forestry fire departments. Here is a typical sequence of operations used to manufacture a double jacket, rubber-lined fire hose. Preparing the yarnThere are two different fiber yarns that are woven together to form a hose jacket.
The yarns that run lengthwise down the hose are called warp yarns and are made from spun polyester or filament nylon. They provide abrasion resistance for the hose; the yarns that
A firefighting apparatus describes any vehicle, customized for use during firefighting operations. These vehicles are customized depending on their needs and the duty they will be performing; these duties can include emergency medical services. Due to the need for firefighting apparatus to be visible, they are, similar to other emergency vehicles, painted in conspicuous colors, such as white, orange, or, most and famously, fire engine red. While red remains the most common color for firefighting apparatus, it is not required and depends on individual needs and safety research. For example, the Chicago Fire Department has a long-standing tradition of painting their apparatus black over red, a practice that has caught on far beyond Illinois. Neighboring departments will often use different colors to distinguish their apparatus. For example, the Santa Barbara Fire Department uses the traditional fire engine red while the neighboring Santa Barbara County Fire Department elects to use blue over white.
Some, like the Denver Fire Department use less common colors like all-over white with stripes, gold in Denver's case. Most fire apparatus use retroreflective markings to increase their visibility in poor light. Others still, such as the Munich Fire Department have replaced red with similar but more visible colors, such as fluorescent orange. A study by the American Psychological Association published in February 2014 indicated that lime-yellow is a safer color for emergency vehicles because of its increased visibility; the study showed that lime-yellow fire apparatus were half as to be involved in accidents as red vehicles. Aerial fire apparatus Airtanker - fixed-wing aircraft fitted with tanks for dropping water or Phos-Chek Helitack - helicopters used in aerial firefighting Airport crash tender - engine used at aerodromes for aircraft emergencies Fireboat Fire engine Wildland-urban interface engine Type 1 fire engine Type 2 fire engine Fire truck Tiller truck Platform truck - truck with a platform mounted on the aerial Quint - a hybrid fire truck/fire engine Hazardous materials apparatus - vehicle used for investigations of dangerous goods Heavy rescue vehicle Light and air unit Rehab unit - a vehicle used to re-hydrate and provide medical monitoring to firefighters and other emergency personnel.
See Fire Department Rehab Water tender - known as a tanker, carries large quantities of water to the fire scene. Wildland fire engine Type 3 fire engine Type 4 fire engine Type 5 fire engine Type 6 fire engine Type 7 fire engine Wildland water tender An early device used to squirt water onto a fire is a squirt or fire syringe. Hand squirts and hand pumps are noted before Ctesibius of Alexandria invented the first fire pump around the 2nd century B. C. and an example of a force-pump used for a fire-engine is mentioned by Heron of Alexandria. The fire pump was reinvented in Europe during the 16th century used in Augsburg in 1518 and Nuremberg in 1657. A book of 1655 inventions mentions a steam engine pump used to "raise a column of water 40 feet ", but there was no mention of whether it was portable. Colonial laws in America required each house to have a bucket of water on the front stoop during fires at night; these buckets were intended for use by the initial bucket brigade that would supply the water at fires.
Philadelphia obtained a hand-pumped fire engine in 1719, years after Lynn's 1654 model appeared there, made by Joseph Jencks, but before New York's two engines arrived from London. By 1730, Richard Newsham, in London, had made successful fire engines; the amount of manpower and skill necessary for firefighting prompted the institution of an organized fire company by Benjamin Franklin in 1737. Thomas Lote built the first fire engine made in America in 1743; these earliest engines are called hand tubs because they are manually powered and the water was supplied by bucket brigade dumped into a tub where the pump had a permanent intake pipe. An important advancement around 1822 was the invention of an engine which could draft water from a water source doing away with the bucket brigade. Philadelphia fire engine manufacturers Sellers and Pennock model the Hydraulion is said to be the first suction engine produced in 1822; some models had the hard, suction hose fixed to the intake and curled up over the apparatus known as a squirrel tail engine.
The earliest engines were small and were carried by four men or mounted on skids and dragged to a fire. The earliest four-wheel carriage mounted; as the engines grew larger they became horse-drawn and self-propelled by steam engines. John Ericsson is credited with building the first American steam-powered fire engine. John Braithwaite built the first steam fire-engine in Britain; until the mid-19th century, most fire engines were maneuvered by men, but the introduction of horse-drawn fire engines improved the response time to incidents. The first self-propelled steam-driven fire engine was built in New York in 1841, it was the target of sabotage by firefighters and its use was discontinued, motorized fire engines did not become commonplace until the early 1900's. The dawn of the 20th Century brought about the age of the motorized fire apparatus. One of the fir
Upernavik is a small town in the Avannaata municipality in northwestern Greenland, located on a small island of the same name. With 1,055 inhabitants as of 2017, it is the thirteenth-largest town in Greenland, it contains the Upernavik Museum. It is the northern-most town in Greenland with a population of over 1,000; the town was founded as Upernavik in 1772. From the former name of its island, it was sometimes known as Women's Island. In 1824, the Kingittorsuaq Runestone was found outside the town, it bears runic characters left by Norsemen from the late 13th century. The runic characters list the names of three Norsemen and mention the construction of a rock cairn nearby; this is the furthest north that any Norse artifacts have been found, other than those small artifacts that could have been carried north by Inuit traders, marks the northern known limit of Viking exploration. Upernavik is served by Air Greenland, with scheduled flights from Upernavik Airport to Qaanaaq and Ilulissat. Most settlements in the archipelago are served during weekdays with the Bell 212 helicopter.
AUL ferries have ceased passenger services north of Ilulissat, leaving Upernavik dependent on Air Greenland services, which are cancelled due to weather conditions. Cargo arrives several times a year on Royal Arctic Line when sea ice permits beginning in early to mid May annually. Upernavik is located within Upernavik Archipelago, a vast archipelago of small islands on the coast of northeastern Baffin Bay; the archipelago extends from the northwestern coast of Sigguup Nunaa peninsula in the south at 71°50′N 56°00′W to the southern end of Melville Bay in the north at 74°50′N 57°30′W. With 1,055 inhabitants as of 2017, Upernavik is the third-largest town in the Avannaata municipality; the population has been stable over the last two decades and has increased by more than 28% relative to the 1990 levels, with migrants from the smaller settlements in the archipelago helping keep the population level stable. Cyclist Hanne Malmberg was born in Upernavik, she represented Denmark at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
Upernavik has a tundra climate. Winters are cold and snowy and summers are quite cool. With a mean of just 5.2 in July, trees are unable to grow. Fall and winter are the wettest time of the year and spring is the driest. Schools in Upernavik, Greenland
Wagga Wagga is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Straddling the Murrumbidgee River, with an urban population of more than 54,000 as at the 2016 census, Wagga Wagga is the state's largest inland city, is an important agricultural and transport hub of Australia; the ninth fastest growing inland city in Australia, Wagga Wagga is located midway between the two largest cities in Australia–Sydney and Melbourne–and is the major regional centre for the Riverina and South West Slopes regions. The central business district is focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River and the Sturt Highway; the main shopping street of Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end. The city is in an alluvial valley and much of the city has a problem with urban salinity; the original inhabitants of the Wagga Wagga region were the Wiradjuri people. In 1829, Charles Sturt became the first European explorer to visit the future site of the city.
Squatters arrived soon after. The town, positioned on the site of a ford across the Murrumbidgee, was surveyed and gazetted as a village in 1849 and the town grew after. In 1870, the town was gazetted as a municipality. During the negotiations leading to the federation of the Australian colonies, Wagga Wagga was a contender for the site of the capital for the new nation. During World War I the town was the starting point for the Kangaroo recruitment march; the Great Depression and the resulting hardship saw Wagga Wagga become the centre of a secession movement for the Riverina region. Wagga Wagga became a garrison town during World War II with the establishment of a military base at Kapooka and Royal Australian Air Force bases at Forest Hill and Uranquinty. After the war, Wagga Wagga was proclaimed as a city in 1946 and new suburbs were developed to the south of the city. In 1982 the city was amalgamated with the neighbouring Kyeamba and Mitchell Shires to form the City of Wagga Wagga local government area.
Wagga Wagga is at the eastern end of the Riverina region where the slopes of the Great Dividing Range flatten and form the Riverina plain. The city straddles the Murrumbidgee River, one of the great rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin, the city centre is on the southern bank, protected by a levee from potential flooding; the city sits halfway between the largest cities in Australia, being 452 kilometres southwest of Sydney and 456 kilometres northeast of Melbourne with the Sydney–Melbourne railway line passing through. The Sturt Highway, part of Australia's National Highway network, passes through the city on its way from Adelaide to its junction with the main Sydney–Melbourne route, the Hume Highway, a further 45 kilometres east; this location astride some of the major transport routes in the nation has made Wagga Wagga an important heavy truck depot for a number of companies including Toll Holdings. Wagga Wagga itself is the major regional centre for the Riverina and for much of the South West Slopes regions, providing education and other services to a region extending as far as Griffith to the west, Cootamundra to the north and Tumut to the east.
Wagga Wagga is upstream from the Riverina plain in the mid-catchment range of the Murrumbidgee River in an alluvial valley confined by low bedrock hills. Much of Wagga Wagga is on heavy clay soils in a large drainage basin with a small catchment discharge point. Groundwater therefore cannot leave leading to Wagga Wagga having a problem with waterlogged soil and soil salination. Urban salination in Wagga Wagga is now the subject of a large multi-pronged approach to prevent further salination and reclaim salt-affected areas; the location of Wagga Wagga's Central business district was well established by the late 1800s and remains focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River and the Sturt Highway. The main shopping street of Wagga Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end; the Wollundry Lagoon is the water focus of the city centre and has been a key element in the development and separation of the north and south parts of the city centre.
Most residential growth in Wagga Wagga has been on the higher ground to the south of the city centre, with the only residential areas north of the Murrumbidgee being the flood prone suburb of North Wagga Wagga and the university suburb of Estella. Major industrial areas of Wagga Wagga include the northern suburb of Bomen and the eastern suburb of East Wagga Wagga. Thomas Mitchell, the surveyor who served under Lord Wellington named many of the streets after Peninsula War veterans. Wagga Wagga cool to cold winters. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a humid subtropical climate, albeit having a semi-arid influence due to its vegetation. At an elevation of 147 metres above sea level, Wagga Wagga has four distinct seasons. Winters can be cold by Australian standards with the mean maximum temperature falling in July to 12.7 °C and a mean minimum of 2.8 °C. The lowest temperature recorded at Wagga was −6.3 °C on 21 August 1982. Fog and heavy frosts are common in the winter while snow is a rare occurrence.
By contrast, summers in Wagga Wagga are warm to hot, with mean maximum temperatures ranging between 29 and 32 °C. The hottest temperature on record is 45.2 °C on 7 February 2009. Relative humidity is low in the summer months with a 3 pm average of around 30%. Wagga Wagga has 124.3 clear days annually. In 2009 the city recorded anomalous maximum of 25.03 °C, 2.33 °C above the country's average of
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea