A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was applied to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy; the heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy or mechanical energy.
The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus nearly two million years ago. Throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans. Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals, it was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now used as a fuel for barbecue cooking. Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China. With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept development of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769, coal came into more common use as a power source. Coal was used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for street lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the primary use of coal is to generate electricity, providing 40% of the world's electrical power supply in 2005.
Fossil fuels were adopted during the Industrial Revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources, such as water power. They have become a pivotal part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power; the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols. Chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion. Most of the chemical energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel, but in the weak double bond of molecular oxygen. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways. First, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence: primary and secondary. Thus, a general classification of chemical fuels is: Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating released through combustion.
Solid fuels include wood, peat, hexamine fuel tablets, pellets made from wood, wheat and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology uses solid fuel. Solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire. Coal was the fuel source which enabled the industrial revolution, from firing furnaces, to running steam engines. Wood was extensively used to run steam locomotives. Both peat and coal are still used in electricity generation today; the use of some solid fuels is restricted or prohibited in some urban areas, due to unsafe levels of toxic emissions. The use of other solid fuels as wood is decreasing as heating technology and the availability of good quality fuel improves. In some areas, smokeless coal is the only solid fuel used. In Ireland, peat briquettes are used as smokeless fuel, they are used to start a coal fire. Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy producing kinetic energy, it is the fumes of liquid fuels.
Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust. However, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel, jet fuel and bio-diesel which are all categorized as a liquid fuel. Emulsified fuels of oil-in-water such as orimulsion have been developed a way to make heavy oil fractions usable as liquid fuels. Many liquid fuels play a primary role in the economy; some common properties of liquid fuels are that they are easy to transport, that can be handled easily. They are easy to use for all engineering applications, home use. Fuels like kerosene are rationed in some countries, for example available in government subsidized shops in India for home use. Conventional diesel is similar to gasoline in that it is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking and small engines. Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can only exist as a liquid at low temperatures, which limits its direct use as a liquid fuel in most applications.
LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of which are compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions. It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas (CN
A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces, kilns and fireplaces. A refractory brick is built to withstand high temperature, but will usually have a low thermal conductivity for greater energy efficiency. Dense firebricks are used in applications with extreme mechanical, chemical, or thermal stresses, such as the inside of a wood-fired kiln or a furnace, subject to abrasion from wood, fluxing from ash or slag, high temperatures. In other, less harsh situations, such as in an electric or natural gas fired kiln, more porous bricks known as "kiln bricks" are a better choice, they are weaker, but they are much lighter, easier to form, insulate far better than dense bricks. In any case, firebricks should not spall, their strength should hold up well during rapid temperature changes. In the making of firebrick, fireclay is fired in the kiln until it is vitrified, for special purposes may be glazed. There are two standard sizes of fire-brick.
Available are firebrick “splits” which are half the thickness and are used to line wood stoves and fireplace inserts. The dimensions of a split are 9×4½×1¼ inches. Fire brick was first invented in 1822 by William Weston Young in the Neath Valley of Wales. Fire bricks have an aluminium oxide content that can be as high as 50–80%; the silica firebricks that line steel-making furnaces are used at temperatures up to 1648°C, which would melt many other types of ceramic, in fact part of the silica firebrick liquefies. High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation, a material with the same composition, was used in the insulating tiles of the Space Shuttle. Non-ferrous metallurgical processes use basic refractory bricks because the slags used in these processes dissolve the “acidic” silica bricks; the most common basic refractory bricks used in smelting non-ferrous metal concentrates are “chrome-magnesite” or “magnesite-chrome” bricks. A range of other materials find use as firebricks for lower temperature applications.
Magnesium oxide is used as a lining for furnaces. Silica bricks are the most common type of bricks used for the inner lining of furnaces and incinerators; as the inner lining is of sacrificial nature, fire bricks of higher alumina content may be employed to lengthen the duration between re-linings. Cracks can be seen in this sacrificial inner lining shortly after being put into operation, they revealed more expansion joints should have been put in the first place, but these now become expansion joints themselves and are of no concern as long as structural integrity is not affected. Silicon carbide, with high abrasive strength, is a popular material for hearths of incinerators and cremators. Common red clay brick are used for wood-fired ovens. Harbison-Walker Refractories Company Equivalent VIII Niles Firebrick
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres
A fusible plug is a threaded metal cylinder of bronze, brass or gunmetal, with a tapered hole drilled through its length. This hole is sealed with a metal of low melting point that flows away if a pre-determined, high temperature is reached; the initial use of the fusible plug was as a safety precaution against low water levels in steam engine boilers, but applications extended its use to other closed vessels, such as air conditioning systems and tanks for transporting corrosive or liquefied petroleum gasses. A fusible plug operates as a safety valve when dangerous temperatures, rather than dangerous pressures, are reached in a closed vessel. In steam engines the fusible plug is screwed into the crown sheet of the firebox extending about an inch into the water space above it, its purpose is to act as a last-resort safety device in the event of the water level falling dangerously low: when the top of the plug is out of the water it overheats, the low-melting-point core melts away and the resulting noisy release of steam into the firebox serves to warn the operators of the danger before the top of the firebox itself runs dry, which could result in catastrophic failure of the boiler.
The temperature of the flue gases in a steam engine firebox can reach 1000 °F, at which temperature copper, from which most fireboxes were made, softens to a state which can no longer sustain the boiler pressure and a severe explosion will result if water is not put into the boiler and the fire removed or extinguished. The hole through the plug is too small to have any great effect in reducing the steam pressure and the small amount of water, if any, that passes through it is not expected to have any great impact in quenching the fire; the device was invented in 1803 by Richard Trevithick, the proponent of high-pressure steam engines, in consequence of an explosion in one of his new boilers. His detractors were eager to denounce the whole concept of high-pressure steam, but Trevithick proved that the accident happened because his fireman had neglected to keep the boiler full of water, he publicised his invention without patent, to counter these criticisms. Experiments conducted by the Franklin Institute, Boston, in the 1830s had cast doubt on the practice of adding water as soon as the escape of steam through the device was noted.
A steam boiler was fitted with a small observation window of glass and heated beyond its normal operating temperature with the water level below the top of the firebox. When water was added it was found that the pressure rose and the observation glass shattered; the report concluded that the high temperature of the metal had vaporised the added water too and that an explosion was the inevitable result. It was not until 1852 that this assumption was challenged: Thomas Redmond, one of the Institute's own inspectors ruled out this theory in his investigation into the boiler explosion on the steam ship Redstone on the Ohio River on 3 April that year. A 1907 investigation in Wales came to a similar conclusion: a steam locomotive belonging to the Rhymney Railway was inadvertently sent out with its safety valves wrongly assembled; the pressure in the boiler built up to the extent. The investigation, led by Colonel Druitt of the Railway Inspectorate, dismissed the theory that the enginemen had succeeded in starting the injectors and that the sudden flood of cold water had caused such a generation of steam that the boiler burst.
He quoted the results of experiments by the Manchester Steam Users' Association, a national boiler certification and insurance body, that proved that the weight of copper present was insufficient to generate enough steam to raise the boiler pressure at all. Indeed, the addition of cold water had caused the pressure to fall. From on it was accepted that the correct action in the event of the operation of the fusible plug was to add water; the original design was a simple solid plug filled with a slug of low-melting-point alloy. When this melts, it first melts as a narrow channel through the plug. Steam and water begins to escape through this; the cored fusible plug was developed in the 1860s to give a wide opening as soon as the alloy softens. This version has a solid brass or bronze centre, soldered into place by a layer of the low-melting-point alloy; when overheated, the plug does not release any steam or water until the alloy melts sufficiently to release the centre plug. The plug now fails opening its entire bore immediately.
This full-bore jet is more to be noticed. A drawback to the device was found on 7 March 1948, when the firebox crown sheet of Princess Alexandra, a Coronation Pacific of the London and Scottish Railway, failed while hauling a passenger train from Glasgow to London. Enquiries established that both water gauges were defective and on a journey earlier that day one or both of the fusible plugs had melted, but this had gone unnoticed by the engine crew because of the strong draught carrying the escaping steam away from them. Investigation showed the importance of the alloy on plug ageing. Alloys were favoured as they offered lower eutectic melting points than pure metals, it was found though that alloys aged poorly and could encourage the development of a matrix of oxides on the water surface of the plug, this matrix having a dangerously high melting point that made the plug inoperable. In 1888 the US Steamboat Inspection Service made a requirement that plugs were to be made of pure banca tin and replaced annually.
This avoided lead and zinc cont
Scotch marine boiler
A "Scotch" marine boiler is a design of steam boiler best known for its use on ships. The general layout is that of a squat horizontal cylinder. One or more large cylindrical furnaces are in the lower part of the boiler shell. Above this is a large number of small-diameter fire-tubes. Gases and smoke from the furnace pass to the back of the boiler return through the small tubes and up and out of the chimney; the ends of these multiple tubes are capped outside the boiler shell. The Scotch boiler is a fire-tube boiler, in that hot flue gases pass through tubes set within a tank of water; as such, it is a descendant of the earlier Lancashire boiler, like the Lancashire it uses multiple separate furnaces to give greater heating area for a given furnace capacity. It differs from the Lancashire in two aspects: a large number of small-diameter tubes are used to increase the ratio of heating area to cross-section. Secondly, the overall length of the boiler is halved by folding the gas path back on itself.
The far end of the furnace is an enclosed box called the combustion chamber which extends upwards to link up with the firetubes. The front wall of the combustion chamber is supported against steam pressure by the tubes themselves; the rear face is stayed by rod stays through the rear shell of the boiler. Above the combustion chamber and tubes is an open steam collecting space. Larger long rod stays run the length of the boiler through this space, supporting the ends of the boiler shell. With multiple furnaces, there is a separate combustion chamber for each furnace. A few small boilers did connect them into one chamber. A more serious problem is the risk of reversing the draught, where exhaust from one furnace could blow back and out of the adjacent one, injuring the stokers working in front of it; the first recorded boiler of comparable form was used in a railway locomotive, Hackworth's'Wilberforce' class of 1830. This had a long cylindrical boiler shell similar to his earlier return-flued'Royal George', but with the return flue replaced by a number of small firetubes, as had been demonstrated so by Stephenson with his'Rocket' a year earlier.
The novel feature of an internal combustion chamber was used. Unlike the Scotch boiler though, this was self-supported by its own stays, rather than using stays through the walls of the boiler shell; this allowed the entire assembly of outer tubeplate, furnace tube, combustion chamber and firetubes to all be removed from the boiler shell as one unit, simplifying manufacture and maintenance. Although a valuable feature, this became impractical for larger diameter chambers that would require the support of the shell. Typical practice for ships was to have two furnaces in each boiler. Smaller boilers might only have one, larger boilers had three; the limitation in boiler size was the amount of work each stoker could do, firing one furnace per man. Larger ships would have many boilers; as with the Lancashire boiler, the furnace was corrugated for strength. Various makers had their own particular ways of making these corrugations, leading to their classification for maintenance purposes under the broad titles of, Morrison, Purves or Brown.
The typical design is the "wet back", where the rear face of the combustion chamber is water-jacketed as a heating surface. The "dry back" variation has the rear of the combustion chamber as an open box, backed or surrounded only by a sheetmetal jacket; this simplifies construction, but loses much efficiency. It is only used for small boilers. Although the Scotch boiler is nowadays the primary steam generator on a ship, small dry-back designs such as the Minipac are still encountered, for supporting secondary demands whilst alongside in port with the main boilers cold. One interesting variant of the dry-back design has been a patent for burning ash-prone fuels; the rear of the combustion chamber is used as an access point for an ash separator, removing the ash before the small-diameter tubes. The double-ended design places two boilers back-to-back; the combustion chambers and firetubes remain separate. This design saves some structural weight, but it makes the boiler longer and more difficult to install into a ship.
For this reason they were not used, although back-to-back arrangements of multiple single-ended boilers were common. The "Inglis" modification adds an extra combustion chamber where an additional single large flue returns from the rear to the front of the boiler. Flow through the multiple tubes is thus from front to back, so the exhaust is at the rear. Multiple furnaces would share a single combustion chamber; the major advantage of the Inglis is the extra heating area it adds, for a comparable shell volume, of 20%. This is not from the additional combustion chamber, but from lengthening the narrow firetubes; these can now run the full length of the boiler shell, rather than just the rather shorter distance from the inner combustion chamber to the front tubeplate. Despite this advantage, it is used; the Scotch marine boiler achieved near-universal use throughout the heyday of steam propulsion for the most developed piston engines such as the triple-expansion compounds. It lasted from the end of the low-pressure haystack boilers in the mid-19th century through to the early 20th century and the advent of steam turbines with high-pressure water-tube boilers such as the Yarrow.
Large or fast ships could require a great many boilers. The Titanic had 29 boilers: 5 smaller single-ended; the larger boilers were 15
A camelback locomotive is a type of steam locomotive with the driving cab placed in the middle, astride the boiler. Camelbacks were fitted with wide fireboxes which would have restricted driver visibility from the normal cab location at the rear; the camel and the camelback design were developed separately by two different railroads in different eras. Though the name is incorrectly used interchangeably, they had little in common other than the placement of the cab. Unlike the Camelbacks, Camels had cabs that rode atop the boiler. Ross Winans wanted to put as much weight on the driving wheels as possible to increase traction. Camelbacks have a cab. While Camelbacks have the same idea of moving the cab forward, they had it for different reasons. Camelbacks were developed to allow for the use of larger fireboxes, such as the Wootten, which would obstruct the engineer's view from a conventionally placed cab. Camelbacks were known for being used on the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the Reading Railroad.
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began to look into developing high-powered steam locomotives in the early 1840s, in 1844–1847 built a series of locomotives nicknamed "muddiggers". As with many early B&O locomotives, a spur gear drive was used to connect the main shaft to the driving wheels; the long 0-8-0 wheelbase pushed this connection to the back of the locomotive and caused the floor of the cab to be lifted up above the whole assembly. In 1853 Ross Winans, who had designed the "muddiggers", built the first of a series of 0-8-0 camel locomotives; these had long cabs. The firebox itself sloped back on the earliest models; the fireman worked from a large platform on the tender, in some cases had a chute to allow him to deliver coal to the front of the grate. In 1853, Samuel Hayes, the Master of Machinery for the railroad, had built a series of camel 4-6-0 locomotives for passenger service; the layout of the locomotive was the same as for Winans' freight locomotives, except for the addition of the four-wheel leading bogie.
Copies and variations on these locomotives were built into the 1870s, with the last retirements coming in the 1890s. These were called the "Hayes Ten-Wheelers"; the B&O examples burned conventional bituminous coal. The large fireboxes of these locomotives were made obsolete by better boiler design; the B&O Railroad Museum has restored their Camel Locomotive and returned it to display. It now is in its original colors and markings for the first time since it left the Mt. Clare Shops in 1869; the Museum has a Central of New Jersey Camelback, the No. 592, donated to the Museum in the 1950s. John E. Wootten developed the Wootten firebox to burn anthracite waste, a plentiful, cheap source of fuel. Wootten determined that a wide firebox would work best; as the successful trailing truck used to support large fireboxes had not yet been developed, Wootten instead mounted his huge firebox above the locomotive's driving wheels. The problem now arose that with a cab floor at the standard tender deck height, it would be impossible for the locomotive's engineer to see forwards around the firebox shoulders.
Instead, a cab for the engineer was placed above and astride the boiler. The fireman, remained at the rear with minimal protection from the elements; this gave rise to the unusual shape of the camelbacks. The first camelback, a 4-6-0 "Ten Wheeler", was built in early 1877 by the P&R's Reading, Pennsylvania shops, it proved a success. More were built for other of the railroads operating in the anthracite regions. Others were constructed with different wheel arrangements; the largest ones were the only articulated Camelbacks built. By the 1920s, many Camelback Ten Wheelers with boiler pressure at 200psi were in daily use pulling passenger trains on the Lehigh Valley, the Philadelphia and Reading, the Central Railroad of New Jersey the last two. For their small size, they were powerful, quick to accelerate stable at speed, could be operated as fast as 90 miles per hour such as on the Reading's Atlantic City line; some continued in service into the 1950s. The Camelback's cab astride the boiler design raised concerns for its crew.
The engineer was perched above the side-rods of the locomotive, vulnerable to swinging and flying metal if anything rotating below should break. In addition, the fireman was exposed to the elements at the rear; the Interstate Commerce Commission banned further construction of Camelbacks but gave exceptions to allow those under construction to be completed. In 1927, further orders were prohibited; the Philadelphia and Reading's crews referred to these locomotives as Mother Hubbards. The B & O crews, who had co-use of the Reading's line from Philadelphia to Bound Brook NJ called the Camelbacks "Snappers" in reference to a possible side rod snapping and flailing into the cab. Many Camelbacks were converted into end-cab locomotives; the advent of the mechanical stoker which moved coal from the tender to the locomotive and its associated underfloor machinery placed cab floors and tender decks higher, from that vantage point the engineer was safe. Central Railroad of New Jersey 4-4-2 No. 592, at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 4-6-0 No. 173, at the Museum of Transportation, St. Louis. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 4-6-0 No. 305, at the Balt
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is rather referred to as multiple units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars. Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front. However, push-pull operation has become common, where the train may have a locomotive at the front, at the rear, or at each end; the word locomotive originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus "place", the Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in 1814 to distinguish between self-propelled and stationary steam engines. Prior to locomotives, the motive force for railways had been generated by various lower-technology methods such as human power, horse power, gravity or stationary engines that drove cable systems. Few such systems are still in existence today. Locomotives may generate their power from fuel, or they may take power from an outside source of electricity.
It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: A steam locomotive is a locomotive whose primary power source is a steam engine; the most common form of steam locomotive contains a boiler to generate the steam used by the engine. The water in the boiler is heated by burning combustible material – coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam; the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are connected to the locomotive's main wheels, known as the "drivers". Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons called "tenders" pulled behind; the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick in 1802. It was constructed for the Coalbrookdale ironworks in Shropshire in the United Kingdom though no record of it working there has survived. On 21 February 1804, the first recorded steam-hauled railway journey took place as another of Trevithick's locomotives hauled a train from the Pen-y-darren ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, to Abercynon in South Wales.
Accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations including the use of high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine and increased its efficiency. In 1812, Matthew Murray's twin-cylinder rack locomotive Salamanca first ran on the edge-railed rack-and-pinion Middleton Railway. Another well-known early locomotive was Puffing Billy, built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne; this locomotive is the oldest preserved, is on static display in the Science Museum, London. George Stephenson built Locomotion No. 1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north-east of England, the first public steam railway in the world. In 1829, his son Robert built The Rocket in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Rocket was entered into, won, the Rainhill Trials; this success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent early builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the UK, US and much of Europe.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, built by Stephenson, opened a year making exclusive use of steam power for passenger and goods trains. The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II. Steam locomotives are less efficient than modern diesel and electric locomotives, a larger workforce is required to operate and service them. British Rail figures showed that the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was about two and a half times larger than the cost of supporting an equivalent diesel locomotive, the daily mileage they could run was lower. Between about 1950 and 1970, the majority of steam locomotives were retired from commercial service and replaced with electric and diesel-electric locomotives. While North America transitioned from steam during the 1950s, continental Europe by the 1970s, in other parts of the world, the transition happened later. Steam was a familiar technology that used widely-available fuels and in low-wage economies did not suffer as wide a cost disparity.
It continued to be used in many countries until the end of the 20th century. By the end of the 20th century the only steam power remaining in regular use around the world was on heritage railways. Internal combustion locomotives use an internal combustion engine, connected to the driving wheels by a transmission, they keep the engine running at a near-constant speed whether the locomotive is stationary or moving. Kerosene locomotives use kerosene as the fuel, they were the world's first oil locomotives, preceding diesel and other oil locomotives by some years. The first known kerosene locomotive was a draisine built by Daimler in 1887. A kerosene locomotive was built in 1894 by the Priestman Brothers of Kingston upon Hull for use on Hull docks; this locomotive was built using a 12 hp double-acting marine type engine, running at 300 rpm, mounted on a 4-wheel wagon chassis. It was only able to haul one loaded wagon at a time, due to its low power output, was not a great success; the first successful kerosene locomotive was "Lachesis" built by Richard Hornsby & Sons Ltd. and delivered to Woolwich Arsenal railway in 1896.
The company built a series of kerosene locomotives between 1896 and 1903, for use by the British military. Petrol locomotives use petrol as their fuel. Most petrol locomotives built were petrol-mechanical, using a mechanical transmission to deliver the power output of the engine t