Leave No Trace
Leave No Trace is a set of outdoor ethics promoting conservation in the outdoors. It consists of seven principles: plan ahead and prepare and camp on durable surfaces, dispose of waste properly, leave what you find, minimize campfire impacts, respect wildlife, be considerate of other visitors; these principles have been adapted to different activities and environments. Since 1994, Leave No Trace Center For Outdoor Ethics, a non-profit organization known as Leave No Trace, exists to educate people about their recreational impact on nature as well as the principles of Leave No Trace to prevent and minimize such impacts. In the mid 20th-century there was a cultural shift in wilderness ethics from woodcraft where wilderness travelers prided themselves on their ability to rely on the resources of wild lands to a post-WWII ethics of minimal impact on the environment. Leave No Trace began in the 1960s and 1970s. There was a large increase of wilderness visitation following the creation of new recreational equipment such as white gas stoves, synthetic tents, sleeping pads.
This began a commercial interest in outdoor recreation which in turn caused more visitors to national parks. In those decades, the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service started to teach their non-motorized visitors how to have a minimal impact on the land. Wilderness Informational Specialists were trained to educate visitors on minimal impact camping in the different parks. In 1987 the three departments cooperatively developed a pamphlet titled "Leave No Trace Land Ethics". In the 1970s, groups such as the Sierra Club were advocating minimum impact camping techniques; the Boy Scouts of America had been advocating training and implementation of Leave No Trace and outdoor ethics principles early in the 1970s at such places as Philmont Scout Ranch in Northern New Mexico. A pilot program in the 1980s between the BSA and the Bureau of Land Management in the High Uintas Wilderness tried to reach a wide audience; the national education program of Leave No Trace was developed in 1990 by the United States Forest Service in conjunction with the National Outdoor Leadership School.
At the time the USFS created other programs such as Smokey Bear, Woodsy Owl, in 1985 the Tread Lightly! program, geared towards motorized recreation. The Bureau of Land Management joined the program in 1993 followed by the National Park Service and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1994. Leave No Trace provides a framework for outdoor recreation decision making, summarized in the following seven principles. Developed for the "backcountry", there are now seven "frontcountry" principles as well: Plan ahead and prepare: Poorly prepared people, when presented with unexpected situations resort to high-impact solutions that degrade the outdoors or put themselves at risk. Proper planning leads to less impact. Travel and camp on durable surfaces: Damage to land occurs when surface vegetation or communities of organisms are trampled beyond repair; the resulting barren area leads to unusable trails and soil erosion. Dispose of waste properly: Trash and litter in the backcountry ranks high as a problem in the minds of many backcountry visitors.
This will detract from the naturalness of an area and could cause greater environmental damage. If no trash receptacles are available, visitors should carry out all trash from what they have brought in. Furthermore, backcountry campers create waste water from certain activities and fecal waste which requires proper disposal according to Leave No Trace principles.. Leave what you find: Leave No Trace directs people to minimize site alterations by avoiding actions such as digging tent trenches, cutting branches from live trees, hammering nails into trees, permanently clearing an area of rocks or twigs, or removing other natural items. Minimize campfire impacts: Because the naturalness of many areas has been degraded by overuse of fires, Leave No Trace teaches to seek alternatives to fires or use low-impact fires. Respect wildlife: minimizing impact on wildlife and ecosystems. Be considerate of other visitors: Following hiking etiquette and maintaining quiet allows visitors to go through the wilderness with minimal impact on other users.
Know before you go Stick to trails and camp overnight right Stash your trash and pick up waste Leave it as you find it Be careful with fire Keep wildlife wild Share our trails and manage your pet Two primary scientific disciplines form the foundation of the Leave No Trace program: recreation ecology and human dimensions of natural resources. Recreation ecology research, "a field of study that examines and monitors visitor impacts to protected natural areas, their relationships to influential factors" has provided the foundation for Leave No Trace messaging because of its focus on recreational impacts. Recreation ecology has dominated most minimum-impact research, reviews suggest that there have been over one thousand recreation ecology articles published within recent decades. Examples include both social impacts of visitors. Yet, the behavior of outdoor enthusiasts is the largest determinant of impact, human dimensions research, which focuses on the sociological, psychological and economic aspects of recreationists is limited but growing with regard to Leave No Trace-related studies.
The majority of human dimensions research related to Leave No Trace has evaluated educational effectiveness through various communication strategies
A burning glass or burning lens is a large convex lens that can concentrate the sun's rays onto a small area, heating up the area and thus resulting in ignition of the exposed surface. Burning mirrors achieve a similar effect by using reflecting surfaces to focus the light, they were used in 18th-century chemical studies for burning materials in closed glass vessels where the products of combustion could be trapped for analysis. The burning glass was a useful contrivance in the days before electrical ignition was achieved; the technology of the burning glass has been known since antiquity. Vases filled with water used to start fires were known in the ancient world. Burning lenses were used to light sacred fires in temples. Plutarch refers to a burning mirror made of joined triangular metal mirrors installed at the temple of the Vestal Virgins. Aristophanes mentions the burning lens in his play The Clouds. "Strepsiades. Have you seen a beautiful, transparent stone at the druggists', with which you may kindle fire?"Archimedes, the renowned mathematician, was said to have used a burning glass as a weapon in 212 BC, when Syracuse was besieged by Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
The Roman fleet was incinerated, though the city was taken and Archimedes was slain. The legend of Archimedes gave rise to a considerable amount of research on burning glasses and lenses until the late 17th century. Various researchers worked with burning glasses, including Anthemius of Tralles, Ibn Sahl in his On Burning Mirrors and Lenses, Alhazen in his Book of Optics, Roger Bacon, Giambattista della Porta and his friends, Athanasius Kircher and Gaspar Schott, the Comte de Buffon in 1740 in Paris; the pop science TV program MythBusters attempted to model Archimedes' feat by using mirrors to ignite a small wooden boat covered with tar, with little success—they found it too difficult to focus light from their hand-held mirrors onto a point small enough to ignite the boat. However, an episode of Richard Hammond's Engineering Connections relating to the Keck Observatory did use a much smaller curved mirror to burn a wooden model, though not made of the same quality of materials as in the MythBusters effort.
Burning lenses were used both by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier in their experiments to obtain oxides contained in closed vessels under high temperatures. These included carbon dioxide by burning diamond, mercuric oxide by heating mercury; this type of experiment contributed to the discovery of "dephlogisticated air" by Priestley, which became better known as oxygen, following Lavoisier's investigations. In 1796, during the French Revolution and three years after the declaration of war between France and Great Britain, Étienne-Gaspard Robert met with the French government and proposed the use of mirrors to burn the invading ships of the British Royal Navy, they decided not to take up his proposal. Chapter 17 of William Bates' 1920 book Perfect Sight Without Glasses, in which the author argues that observation of the sun is beneficial to those with poor vision, includes a figure of somebody "Focussing the Rays of the Sun Upon the Eye of a Patient by Means of a Burning Glass." Burning glasses are still used to light fires in primitive settings.
Large burning lenses sometimes take the form of Fresnel lenses, similar to lighthouse lenses, including those for use in solar furnaces. Solar furnaces are used in industry to produce high temperatures without the need for fuel or large supplies of electricity, they sometimes employ a large parabolic array of mirrors to focus light to a high intensity. The Olympic torch, carried around the host country of the Olympic Games is lit by a burning glass, at the site of ancient Olympia in Greece. Diocles Nimrud lens Pyreliophorus Visby lenses Temple, Robert; the Crystal Sun, ISBN 0-7126-7888-3
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion in a fire produces a flame, the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining. Combustion is a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion is hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction used to fuel rocket engines; this reaction releases 242 kJ/mol of heat and reduces the enthalpy accordingly: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2OCombustion of an organic fuel in air is always exothermic because the double bond in O2 is much weaker than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds, therefore the formation of the stronger bonds in the combustion products CO2 and H2O results in the release of energy.
The bond energies in the fuel play only a minor role, since they are similar to those in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is -418 kJ per mole of O2 used up in the combustion reaction, can be estimated from the elemental composition of the fuel. Uncatalyzed combustion in air requires high temperatures. Complete combustion is stoichiometric with respect to the fuel, where there is no remaining fuel, ideally, no remaining oxidant. Thermodynamically, the chemical equilibrium of combustion in air is overwhelmingly on the side of the products. However, complete combustion is impossible to achieve, since the chemical equilibrium is not reached, or may contain unburnt products such as carbon monoxide and carbon. Thus, the produced smoke is toxic and contains unburned or oxidized products. Any combustion at high temperatures in atmospheric air, 78 percent nitrogen, will create small amounts of several nitrogen oxides referred to as NO x, since the combustion of nitrogen is thermodynamically favored at high, but not low temperatures.
Since combustion is clean, flue gas cleaning or catalytic converters may be required by law. Fires occur ignited by lightning strikes or by volcanic products. Combustion was the first controlled chemical reaction discovered by humans, in the form of campfires and bonfires, continues to be the main method to produce energy for humanity; the fuel is carbon, hydrocarbons or more complicated mixtures such as wood that contains oxidized hydrocarbons. The thermal energy produced from combustion of either fossil fuels such as coal or oil, or from renewable fuels such as firewood, is harvested for diverse uses such as cooking, production of electricity or industrial or domestic heating. Combustion is currently the only reaction used to power rockets. Combustion is used to destroy waste, both nonhazardous and hazardous. Oxidants for combustion have high oxidation potential and include atmospheric or pure oxygen, fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, nitrous oxide and nitric acid. For instance, hydrogen burns in chlorine to form hydrogen chloride with the liberation of heat and light characteristic of combustion.
Although not catalyzed, combustion can be catalyzed by platinum or vanadium, as in the contact process. In complete combustion, the reactant burns in oxygen, produces a limited number of products; when a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will yield carbon dioxide and water. When elements are burned, the products are the most common oxides. Carbon will yield carbon dioxide, sulfur will yield sulfur dioxide, iron will yield iron oxide. Nitrogen is not considered to be a combustible substance when oxygen is the oxidant, but small amounts of various nitrogen oxides form when the air is the oxidant. Combustion is not favorable to the maximum degree of oxidation, it can be temperature-dependent. For example, sulfur trioxide is not produced quantitatively by the combustion of sulfur. NOx species appear in significant amounts above about 2,800 °F, more is produced at higher temperatures; the amount of NOx is a function of oxygen excess. In most industrial applications and in fires, air is the source of oxygen.
In the air, each mole of oxygen is mixed with 3.71 mol of nitrogen. Nitrogen does not take part in combustion, but at high temperatures some nitrogen will be converted to NOx. On the other hand, when there is insufficient oxygen to combust the fuel, some fuel carbon is converted to carbon monoxide and some of the hydrogen remains unreacted. A more complete set of equations for the combustion of a hydrocarbon in the air, requires an additional calculation for the distribution of oxygen between the carbon and hydrogen in the fuel; the amount of air required for complete combustion to take place is known as theoretical air. However, in practice, the air used is 2-3x. Incomplete combustion will occur when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react to produce carbon dioxide and water, it happens when the combustion is quenched by a heat sink, such as a solid surface or flame trap. Same as complete combustion, water is produced by incomplete combustion. However, carbon monoxide, and/or hydroxide are the products in
A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, candles or cigarettes. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with a flammable fluid or pressurized liquid gas, a means of ignition to produce the flame, some provision for extinguishing the flame. Alternatively, a lighter can be powered by electricity, using an electric arc or heating element to ignite the target; the first lighters were converted flintlock pistols. One of the first lighters was invented by the German chemist named Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner in 1823 and was called Döbereiner's lamp; this lighter worked by passing flammable hydrogen gas, produced within the lighter by a chemical reaction, over a platinum metal catalyst which in turn caused it to ignite and give off a great amount of heat and light. The patenting of ferrocerium by Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1903 has made modern lighters possible; when scratched it produces a large spark, responsible for lighting the fuel of many lighters, is suitably inexpensive for use in disposable items.
Using Carl Auer von Welsbach's flint, companies like Ronson were able to develop practical and easy to use lighters. In 1910, Ronson released the first Pist-O-Liter, in 1913, the company developed its first lighter, called the "Wonderlite", a permanent match style of lighter. During WWl soldiers started to create lighters of empty cartridge cases. During that time one of the soldiers came up with a means to insert a chimney cap with holes in it to make it more windproof; the Zippo lighter and company were invented and founded by George Grant Blaisdell in 1932. The Zippo was noted for its reliability, "Life Time Warranty" and marketing as "Wind-Proof". Most early Zippos used naphtha as a fuel source. In the 1950s, there was a switch in the fuel of choice from naphtha to butane, as butane allows for a controllable flame and has less odour; this led to the use of piezoelectric spark, which replaced the need for a flint wheel in some lighters and was used in many Ronson lighters. In modern times most of the world's lighters are produced in France, the United States and Thailand.
Naphtha based lighters employ a saturated cloth wick and fibre packing to absorb the fluid and prevent it from leaking. They employ an enclosed top to prevent the volatile liquid from evaporating, to conveniently extinguish the flame. Butane lighters have a valved orifice. A spark is created by striking metal against a flint, or by pressing a button that compresses a piezoelectric crystal, generating an electric arc. In naphtha lighters, the liquid is sufficiently volatile, flammable vapour is present as soon as the top of the lighter is opened. Butane lighters combine the striking action with the opening of the valve to release gas; the spark ignites the flammable gas causing a flame to come out of the lighter which continues until either the top is closed, or the valve is released. A metal enclosure with air holes surrounds the flame, is designed to allow mixing of fuel and air while making the lighter less sensitive to wind; the high energy jet in butane lighters allows mixing to be accomplished by using Bernoulli's principle, so that the air hole in this type tend to be much smaller and farther from the flame.
Specialized "windproof" butane lighters are manufactured for demanding conditions such as shipboard, high altitude, wet climates. Some dedicated; such lighters are far hotter than normal lighters and can burn in excess of 1,100 °C. The windproof capabilities are not achieved from higher pressure fuel. Instead, windproof lighters mix the fuel with air and pass the butane–air mixture through a catalytic coil. An electric spark starts the initial flame, soon the coil is hot enough to cause the fuel–air mixture to burn on contact. Arc lighters use a spark to create a plasma conduit between electrodes, maintained by a lower voltage; the arc is applied to a flammable substance to cause ignition. Some vehicles are equipped with an electric lighter located on the dashboard or in the well between the front seats, its electric heating element becomes hot in seconds upon activation. The car lighter was claimed to have been invented by Alexander Kucala, a tavern owner and inventor, on the south side of Chicago in the early 1930s called the AL Lighter.
Not to be confused with the meaning of match as in matchsticks or the "permanent match", this type of lighter consists of a length of slow match in a holder, with means to ignite and to extinguish the match. While the glowing match does not supply enough energy to start a fire without further kindling, it is sufficient to light a cigarette; the main advantage of this design shows itself in windy conditions, where the glow of the match is fanned by the wind instead of being blown out. A typical form of lighter is the permanent match or everlasting match, consisting of a naphtha fuel-filled metal shell and a separate threaded metal rod assembly —the "match"— serving as the striker and wick; this "metal match" is stored screwed into the shell. The fuel-saturated striker/wick assembly is unscrewed to remove, scratched against a flint on the side of the case to create a spark, its concealed wick catches fire. The flame is extinguished by blowing it out before screwing the "match" back into the shell, where it absorbs fuel for the next use.
An advantage over o
A matchbook is a small paperboard folder enclosing a quantity of matches and having a coarse striking surface on the exterior. The folder is opened to access the matches, which are attached in a comb-like arrangement and must be torn away before use in contrast to a matchbox where the matches are loosely packed in the interior tray; the exterior of the matchcover is imprinted with a producer's logo with artistic decorations, or serves as an advertising/promotional medium for the undertaking by which it is sold or given away. The ease of making matchcovers of different shapes made them quite a popular cheap promotional item or anniversary souvenir. Manufacturing of matchbooks peaked during the 1940s and 1950s steadily declined because of the availability of disposable lighters and various anti-smoking health campaigns. Matchbooks have begun to regain some of their popularity as a "retro" advertising item in high-end restaurants. Although paper matches were patented in the 1880s, an early paper match "folder" was patented in September 1892 by Philadelphia patent attorney Joshua Pusey.
However, the matchbook as we know it was patented a few weeks by Charles Bowman of Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Pusey challenged Bowman's patent. Pusey sold his patent to the Diamond Match Trust in 1896 and served as the company's patent attorney. Bowman's company, the American Safety Head Match Company of Lebanon, PA did not last long, Diamond Match Co. adapted his design into their product, becoming the first mass-producer of paper matchbooks. Collecting of matchboxes, match labels and other match-related items is called phillumeny. A "matchcover", or "matchbook cover", is a thin cardboard covering that folds over match sticks in a "book" or "pack" of matches. Covers have been used as a form of advertising since 1894, two years after they were patented, since have attracted people who enjoy the hobby of collecting. Many historians point to the Mendelson Opera as the first to use matchbooks for advertising purposes. Inspired by the Opera's innovation, Diamond Match salesman Henry Traute began approaching manufacturers to advertise their products on his company's matches, promoting them as something that would be viewed by their users many times a day.
Among the first companies to order advertising matchbooks were Pabst beer, American Tobacco Company and Wrigley's Chewing Gum. He encouraged his customers to give away matchbooks as a promotional item. Collectors are known as phillumenists, or "lovers of light", include people who have a shoe box or fish bowl filled with packs from local stores and restaurants, to serious collectors with covers organized in hundreds of different topics. In 2005, there were over 1800 active collectors in The Rathkamp Matchcover Society, spread over 20 countries worldwide. On March 7, 2015 the highest price realized. In a private sale, a rare Lion Match Co. Safety First matchbook dated June 14, 1927 celebrating Charles Lindbergh's flight across the Atlantic sold for $6,000 USD, it is estimated 200 of these books were handed out at a dinner in his honor at the Astor Hotel in New York. At last count there were about twelve known to exist. US patent 483,166 Flexible Match patent, 27 September 1892 - set of 2 match combs shown enclosed folding paper match cover.
Matchbox - another method of delivering matches Prero, Mike. "2005 Demographics". RMS Bulletin No. 512, January/February, pp. 1–4. Steele, H. Thomas. Close Cover Before Striking: The Golden Age of Matchbook Art NY: Abbeville Press, ISBN 0-89659-695-8 The Boston Public Library's Boston Matchcovers Collection on Flickr.com
An electric match is a device that uses an externally applied electric current to ignite a combustible compound. Electric matches use a bridgewire consisting of a heating element to ignite a pyrogen, a quantity of ignited pyrotechnic initiator composition. Electric matches can be used in any application where source of heat is needed at a controlled point in time to ignite a propellant or explosive. Examples include airbags and military or commercial explosives. Electric matches consist of a bridgewire and a pyrogen; the bridgewire is a heating element in the form of a loop or coil of thin wire, encased in the pyrogen, a quantity of ignited pyrotechnic initiator composition. If the pyrogen is sufficiently conductive, it can act as the bridgewire as well. Electric matches come with provisions for attaching an electric current source, they may be provided with a protective cover and/or a means to attach them to the device to be ignited. To operate an electric match, a source of electricity of appropriate voltage and current is needed to provide current to the match.
When sufficient electric current is passed through the bridgewire, the resistive heating causes the element to rise above the ignition temperature of the pyrogen, the pyrogen begins to burn. Commercial electric match manufacturers specify 3 key parameters of an electric match: the resistance, a recommended firing current, a maximum no-fire current; the "test" button on a firing systems tests a setup by sending a current limited to well below the no-fire current to detect common problems. A partial list of applications is: Airbag deployment Pyrotechnics Military or commercial explosives Model rocketry Fireplaces: natural gas, propane Gas stoves and barbecuesElectric matches, or electronic ignition, is used in natural gas and propane fueled commercial and household appliances and amenities; some examples are gas stoves and barbecues and swimming pool hot water heaters and boilers and garden fire pits, clothes dryers and central heating systems. Electric matches may be regulated. Kits include the thin wire needed for the bridgewire, such as nichrome wire, along with components for mixing the pyrogen.
Scratch-built matches use thin wire which may be purchased or salvaged from sources such as light bulb filaments, copper wiring. In addition to the ignitable component of the electric match pyrogen, some matches may add additional components to provide a hotter, longer-lasting flame, for igniting items that are difficult to ignite. For example, igniters for solid fuel model rocket motors include powdered metals, which provide more heat and duration to the match flame, a more reliable ignition of the motor. Tubes and primers for ammunition Primers Blasting cap Micro combined heat and power Renewable natural gas Squib Pyrotechnic fastener Exploding-bridgewire detonator