Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, woodlands, etc. A firefighter suppresses fires to protect lives and the environment. Firefighters undergo a high degree of technical training; this involves wildland firefighting. Specialized training includes aircraft firefighting, shipboard firefighting, aerial firefighting, maritime firefighting, proximity firefighting. One of the major hazards associated with firefighting operations is the toxic environment created by combustible materials; the four major risks are smoke, oxygen deficiency, elevated temperatures, poisonous atmospheres. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment. To combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment; the first step in a firefighting operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire and to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by fuel or oxidant removal, or chemical flame inhibition.
The earliest known firefighters were in the city of Rome. In 60 A. D. emperor Nero established a Corps of Vigils to protect Rome after a disastrous fire. It consisted of 7,000 people equipped with buckets and axes, they fought fires and served as police. In the 4th century B. C. an Alexandrian Greek named Ctesibius made a double force pump called a siphona. As water rose in the chamber, it compressed the air inside, which forced the water to eject in a steady stream through a pipe and nozzle. In the 16th century, syringes were used as firefighting tools, the larger ones being mounted on wheels. Another traditional method that survived was the bucket brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire. Men in one of the lines would pass along the full buckets of water toward the fire while in the other line women and children would pass back the empty buckets to be refilled. In the 17th century,'fire engines' were made, notably in Amsterdam. In 1721, the English inventor Richard Newsham made a popular fire engine, a rectangular box on wheels filled using a bucket brigade to provide a reservoir while hand-powered pumps supplied sufficient water pressure to douse fires at a distance.
Ancient Rome did not have municipal firefighters. Instead, private individuals relied on their supporters to take action, they would not only form bucket brigades or attempt to smother smaller fires, but would demolish or raze nearby buildings to slow the spread of the fire. However, there is no mention of fires being extinguished, rather they were contained and burned themselves out. Ancient Rome did not have an organized firefighting force until the Vigiles were formed in the reign of Augustus. Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting. After the Great Fire, Nicholas Barbon introduced the first fire insurance. In order to reduce insurance costs, Barbon formed his own fire brigade, other companies followed suit. By the start of the 1800s, insured buildings were identified with a badge or mark indicating that they were eligible for a company's firefighting services. Buildings not insured with a particular company were left by its firefighters to burn, unless they happened to be adjacent to an insured building, in which case it was in the company's interest to prevent the fire from spreading.
In 1833 fire insurance companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. Steam-powered apparatuses were first introduced in the 1850s, allowing a greater quantity of water to be directed onto a fire. In World War II the Auxiliary Fire Service, the National Fire Service, were established to supplement local fire services. At that time, there was no countrywide standard for firefighting terms, ranks, or equipment; these were standardized after the war. In January 1608, a fire destroyed many of the colonists' provisions and lodgings in Jamestown, Virginia. Boston, New York City, Philadelphia were all plagued by fires, volunteer fire brigades formed soon after such disasters. In 1736, Benjamin Franklin founded the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia, which became the standard for volunteer fire organizations; these firefighters had two critical tools: so-called bed keys. Salvage bags were used to collect and save valuables, bed keys were used to separate the wooden frame of a bed into pieces for safe and rapid removal from the fire.
The first American attempt at fire insurance failed after a large fire in Charlestown, Massachusetts in 1736. In 1740, Benjamin Franklin organized the Philadelphia Contributionship to provide fire insurance, more successful; the Contributionship adopted "fire marks" to identify insured buildings. Firefighting started to become formalized with rules for providing buckets and hooks, with the formation of volunteer companies. A chain of command was established. A firefighter's goals are to save lives and the environment. A fire can spread and endanger many lives, but with modern firefighting techniques, catastrophe can be avoided. To prevent fires from starting, a firefighter's duties may include public education about fire safety and conducting fire inspections of locations to verify their adherence to local fire codes. Firefighting requires skills in fire suppression and hazardous materials mitigation. Firefighters must have, or be able to acquire, kno
The supine position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, face down. When used in surgical procedures, it allows access to the peritoneal and pericardial regions. Using anatomical terms of location, the dorsal side is down, the ventral side is up, when supine. In scientific literature "semi-supine" refers to positions where the upper body is tilted and not horizontal; the decline in death due to sudden infant death syndrome is said to be attributable to having babies sleep in the supine position. It is believed that in the prone position babies are more at risk to re-breathe their own carbon dioxide; because of the immature state of their central chemoreceptors, infants do not respond to the subsequent respiratory acidosis that develops. Obstructive sleep apnea is a form of sleep apnea that occurs more and is most severe when individuals are sleeping in the supine position. Studies and evidence show that OSA related to sleeping in the supine position is related to the airway positioning, reduced lung volume, the inability of airway muscles to dilate enough to compensate as the airway collapses.
With individuals who have OSA, many health care providers encourage their patients to avoid the supine position while asleep and sleep laterally or sleep with the head of their bed up in a 30 or 45 degree angle. Anatomical position Lying position Prone position Sleep paralysis
65th Airborne Special Forces Brigade
65th Airborne Special Forces Brigade, or the NOHED Brigade, is an airborne, special forces unit of the Iranian Army established in 1959. The unit's first operation was during the Dhofar Rebellion in Oman. After the 1979 Revolution in Iran, it was a participant in the post-Revolution clashes; as part of the 23rd Commando Division, the unit was extensively used in various operations of the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s. Some members have been active in the Syrian Civil War; the brigade has been employed for hostage rescue and counter-terrorism purposes inside Iran. In 1953, 10 Imperial Iranian Army officers were sent to France for parachute training. After returning to Iran, they established the Parachute Unit in 1955, which evolved into the Parachute Battalion in 1959. In the same year, the 23rd Special Forces Brigade was established, consisting of 5 operational battalions, one support battalion, one communication platoon, one base company, an unconventional warfare school. In 1970, the unit was renamed the 23rd Airborne Special Forces Brigade.
A year a hostage rescue unit and a mental warfare company were added to the structure of the brigade. The establishment of the brigade was under supervision of American advisors from John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center & School; the legacy is still evident in the brigade’s green berets and qualification badge, nearly identical to the US Army Special Forces’ De oppresso liber unit insignia. After the 1979 Revolution, the brigade turned into the 23rd Division known as the 23rd Commando Division. In 1991, the 3rd Brigade was separated from the division and the 65th Airborne Special Forces Brigade, or the 65th NOHED Brigade was formed with Afsariyeh as its headquarters, it is sometimes called NOHED Brigade. The word NOHED transliterated as NOWHED, is the Persian acronym for Nīrūhāye Vīzheye Havābord, meaning "Airborne Special Forces". After the Nojeh coup plot in 1980, planned to be done using the NOHED unit, then-Parliament-member Hassan Rouhani called for disbanding the unit in the parliament, saying that "they are dangerous".
Defense minister Mostafa Chamran opposed. During the Dhofar Rebellion in Oman, the unit, being called 23rd Airborne Special Forces Brigade, was one of the Iranian units participated in the war, it was stationed at the Mantson Dhofar military base in Oman. The brigade is reported to be involved in the Vietnam War as well, but this has not been confirmed. According to Brig. Gen. Alireza Sanjabi, most of the training of the brigade was conducted through joint operations with the British SAS. According to an Al-Monitor article, he shared a story before his death about him operating as a sniper in the war. After the 1979 Revolution, the brigade participated in various clashes in provinces of Khuzestan, Sistan-o-Baluchestan, Kordestan; when Iraq invaded Iran, the brigade, 23rd Airborne Special Forces Brigade back and turned into 23rd Division, was stationed in southern and north western regions. They participated in various operations, including Breaking of the Siege of Abadan, Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas, Operation Karbala-5, Operation Qader.
The brigade was active in strategic mountains of Dopaza and Laklak in Sardasht, which Iraq, despite conducting chemical attacks in the area, never managed to capture the area during the eight-year war. Some personnel of the brigade were involved in special operations under direct command of Defense Minister Mostafa Chamran, who founded the Irregular Warfare Headquarters. In the 1990s, there was a mock military operation in Tehran, planned by Army's commander Ali Sayyad Shirazi, where two battalions from the 65th Brigade were asked to infiltrate and take hold of specific important military and political centers in the capital city; the mission was accomplished in less than two hours. Since, the unit's members have been known as the “Powerful Ghosts". Jane's Sentinel Security Assessments reported that the 23rd Special Forces Division is amongst the most professional formations in the Iranian Army, with 5,000 personnel, all of whom are believed to be regulars. There have been unconfirmed reports of members of the 65th Brigade conducting reconnaissance operations in Iraq and Pakistan.
On April 4, 2016, it was announced that the 65th Brigade is in Syria to support the government in regards to the Syrian Civil War, where two have been killed in action against al-Nusra Front: Second Lieutenant Mohsen Ghitaslou and Second Lieutenant Mojtaba Yadollahi Monfared. Jerusalem Post, citing unofficial Syrian sources, reported that as of 13 April 2016 the unit has lost 30 soldiers during operations in Syria, but this is not confirmed. One of the training camps is located in jungles of Kelardasht, in which jungle warfare is trained during spring; the winter training camp is in Emamzadeh Hashem, in which there is a ski resort dedicated to the brigade, used for training snow warfare. The summer camp is located at Karaj Dam. Another camp is located in the desert of Qom; the Hostage Rescue Unit is one of the units of the brigade, which has its own base in Mehrabad International Airport. It is known as Unit-110. According to the brigade commander Khosravi, the hostage rescue forces of the brigade are "our most elite forces".
This unit cooperates with security organizations. The unit has a special insignia, they are recognizable due to their use of safariflage DPM pattern camouflage. They wear a tactical vest and a green b
Kanō Jigorō was a Japanese educator and athlete, the founder of Judo. Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking among members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include "maximum efficiency with minimum effort" and "mutual welfare and benefit". In his professional life, Kanō was an educator. Important postings included serving as director of primary education for the Ministry of Education from 1898 to 1901, as president of Tokyo Higher Normal School from 1901 until 1920, he played a key role in making judo and kendo part of the Japanese public school programs of the 1910s. Kanō was a pioneer of international sports. Accomplishments included being the first Asian member of the International Olympic Committee, his official honors and decorations included the First Order of Merit and Grand Order of the Rising Sun and the Third Imperial Degree.
Kanō was inducted as the first member of the International Judo Federation Hall of Fame on 14 May 1999. Kanō Jigorō was born to a sake-brewing family in the town of Mikage, Japan; the family sake brands included "Hakushika", "Hakutsuru", "Kiku-Masamune". But Kanō's father Kanō Jirōsaku was an adopted son and he did not go into the family business. Instead he worked as a lay priest and as a senior clerk for a shipping line. Kanō's father was a great believer in the power of education, he provided Jigorō, his third son, with an excellent education; the boy's early teachers included the neo-Confucian scholars Yamamoto Chikuun and Akita Shusetsu. Kanō's mother died when the boy was nine years old, his father moved the family to Tokyo; the young Kanō was enrolled in private schools, had his own English language tutor. In 1874 he was sent to a private school run by Europeans to improve his English and German language skills. At the time of his early adulthood, Kanō stood 1.57 m but weighed only 41 kg.
He was bullied at school due to his size, so he wished he were stronger. One day, Nakai Baisei, mentioned that jūjutsu was an excellent form of both self defense and physical training, he showed Kanō a few techniques by which a smaller man might overcome a larger and stronger opponent. Kanō decided he wanted to learn the art despite Nakai's insistence that such training was out of date and somewhat dangerous. Kanō's father discouraged him from jūjutsu, telling him to pursue a modern sport instead; when Kanō attended the Tokyo Imperial University in 1877, he started looking for jūjutsu teachers. He first looked for bonesetters, called seifukushi, his assumption was that doctors who knew the martial art were better teachers. His search brought him to Yagi Teinosuke, a student of Emon Isomata in the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school of jūjutsu. Yagi, in turn, referred Kanō to Fukuda Hachinosuke, a bonesetter who taught Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū in a 10-mat room adjacent to his practice. Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū was itself a combination of two older schools: the Yōshin-ryū and Shin no Shindō-ryū.
Fukuda's training method consisted of the student taking fall after fall for the teacher or senior student until he began to understand the mechanics of the technique. Fukuda stressed applied technique over ritual form, he gave beginners a short description of the technique and had them engage in free practice in order to teach through experience. It was only after the student had attained some proficiency that he taught them traditional forms; this method was difficult, as there were no special mats for falling, only the standard straw mats laid over wooden floors. Kanō had trouble defeating Fukushima Kanekichi, one of his seniors at the school. Therefore, Kanō started trying unfamiliar techniques on his rival, he first tried techniques from sumo. When these did not help, he studied more, tried a technique that he learned from a book on western wrestling; this worked, kataguruma, or "shoulder wheel", remains part of the judo repertoire, although at this moment the judo organizations of some countries prohibit this throw in competition judo.
On 5 August 1879, Kanō participated in a jūjutsu demonstration given for former United States president Ulysses S. Grant; this demonstration took place at the home of the prominent businessman Shibusawa Eiichi. Other people involved in this demonstration included the jūjutsu teachers Fukuda Hachinosuke and Iso Masatomo, Kanō's training partner Godai Ryusaku. Fukuda died soon after this demonstration, at the age of 52. Kanō began studying with Iso, a friend of Fukuda. Despite being 62 years old and standing only 5 feet tall, Iso had gained a powerful build from jujitsu training, he was known for excellence in kata, was a specialist in atemi, or the striking of vital areas. In Iso's method, one began with kata and progressed to free fighting. Due to Kanō's intense practice and his solid grounding in the jujitsu taught by Fukuda, he was soon an assistant at Iso's school. In 1881, Fukuda's widow gave the scrolls of the school to Kanō 21 years old; some popular works suggest that Kanō obtained a teaching license in this school, but this has not been documented: no Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū certi
Light and air unit
A light and air unit known as a breathing support unit, is a specialized piece of firefighting apparatus used by firefighters to provide supplemental lighting and SCBA air bottles at the scene of an emergency. During prolonged emergencies structure fires, where firefighters must remain on air, these air bottles will need to be replaced and refilled; the light and air unit has the ability to refill the SCBA bottles while in the field using onboard air compressors. It carries a supply of spare air cylinders; these units are customizable and can vary between departments. These multifunctional units are equipped with diesel generators which supplies electricity to power portable lights and overall scene illumination; this is done via a roof mounted telescoping light bank. The unit has the ability to supply electrical power in an emergency to a shelter, base camp, or medical facility. In the United States, Chapter 24 of National Fire Protection Association regulation 1901 outlines specifications for any air system mounted on firefighting apparatus
A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology; the fire service known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world; the skills required for safe operations are practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighter's career. Initial firefighting skills are taught through local, regional or state-approved fire academies or training courses. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and pre-hospital medicine may be acquired at this time. Firefighters work with other emergency response agencies such as the police and emergency medical service.
A firefighter's role may overlap with both. Fire investigators or fire marshals investigate the cause of a fire. If the fire was caused by arson or negligence, their work will overlap with law enforcement. Firefighters frequently provide some degree of emergency medical service, in addition to working with full-time paramedics; the basic tasks of firefighters include: fire suppression, fire prevention, basic first aid, investigations. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include: size-up, ventilation and rescue, containment, mop up and overhaul. A fire burns due to the presence of three elements: fuel and heat — referred to as the fire triangle. Sometimes it is known as the fire tetrahedron if a fourth element is added: a chemical chain reaction which can help sustain certain types of fire; the aim of firefighting is to deprive the fire of at least one of those elements. Most this is done by dousing the fire with water, though some fires require other methods such as foam. Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment for this purpose that include: ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, fire extinguishers.
While sometimes fires can be limited to small areas of a structure, wider collateral damage due to smoke and burning embers is common. Utility shutoff is an early priority for arriving fire crews. Specific procedures and equipment are needed at a property where hazardous materials are being used or stored. Structure fires may be attacked with "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two in, two out" rule, may extend fire hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows and other openings, or against any nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. Hose streams directed into the interior through exterior wall apertures may conflict and jeopardize interior fire attack crews. See Fire suppression for other techniques. Buildings that are made of flammable materials such as wood are different from fire-resistant building materials such as concrete. A "fire-resistant" building is designed to limit fire to a small area or floor.
Other floors can be safe by preventing smoke damage. All buildings on fire must be evacuated, regardless of fire rating; some fire fighting tactics may appear to be destructive, but serve specific needs. For example, during ventilation firefighters are forced to either open holes in the roof or floors of a structure, or open windows and walls to remove smoke and heated gases from the interior of the structure; such ventilation methods are used to improve interior visibility to locate victims more quickly. Ventilation helps to preserve the life of trapped or unconscious individuals as it releases the poisonous gases from inside the structure. Vertical ventilation is vital to firefighter safety in the event of a flashover or backdraft scenario. Releasing the flammable gases through the roof eliminates the possibility of a backdraft, the removal of heat can reduce the possibility of a flashover. Flashovers, due to their intense heat and explosive temperaments, are fatal to firefighter personnel. Precautionary methods, such as smashing a window, reveal backdraft situations before the firefighter enters the structure and is met with the circumstance head-on.
Firefighter safety is the number one priority. Whenever possible, property is moved into the middle of a room and covered with a salvage cover, a heavy cloth-like tarp. Various steps such as retrieving and protecting valuables found during suppression or overhaul and boarding windows and roofs can divert or prevent post-fire runoff. Wildfires require a unique set of tactics. In many countries such as Australia and the United States, these duties are carried out by local volunteer firefighters. Wildfires have some ecological role in allowing new plants to grow, therefore in some cases they will be left to burn. Priorities in fighting wildfires include preventing the loss of life and property.. Firefighters rescue people from dangerous situations such as crashed vehicles, structural collapses, trench collapses and tunnel emergencies and ice emergencies, elevator emergencies, energized electrical line emergencies, industrial accidents. In less common circumstances, Firefighters rescue victims from hazardous materials emergencies as well as steep cliffs and high rises - The latter is referred to as High Angle Rescue, or Rope Rescue