Batman (TV series)
Batman is a 1960s American live action television series, based on the DC comic book character of the same name. It stars Adam West as Bruce Wayne / Batman and Burt Ward as Dick Grayson / Robin – two crime-fighting heroes who defend Gotham City from a variety of arch villains, it is known for its camp style, upbeat theme music, its intentionally humorous, simplistic morality. This included championing the importance of using seat belts, doing homework, eating vegetables, drinking milk, it was described by executive producer William Dozier as the only situation comedy on the air without a laugh track. The 120 episodes aired on the ABC network for three seasons from January 12, 1966 to March 14, 1968, twice weekly for the first two and weekly for the third. In 2016, television critics Alan Sepinwall and Matt Zoller Seitz ranked Batman as the 82nd greatest American television show of all time; the series focused on the adventures of Robin. Although the lives of their alter-egos, millionaire Bruce Wayne and his ward Dick Grayson were shown, it was only in the context of their being called away on superhero business, or in circumstances where they needed to employ their public identities to assist in their crime-fighting.
The "Dynamic Duo" come to the aid of the Gotham City Police upon the latter being stumped by a supervillain. Throughout each episode and Robin have to follow a series of wildly improbable clues to discover the supervillain's plan figure out how to thwart that plan and capture the criminal. For the first two seasons, Batman aired twice a week on consecutive nights; every story is a two-parter, except for two three-parters featuring villainous team ups in the second season. The titles of each multi-part story rhymed. For the third season, which aired one episode a week, most episodes were self-contained stories. However, each episode would end with a teaser featuring the next episode's guest villain; the cliffhangers between multiple-parters consisted of the supervillain holding someone captive the Dynamic Duo, with the captives being threatened with some elaborate and gruesome – if unlikely – death. This would be resolved early in the follow-up episode. Ostensibly a crime series, the style of the show was in fact tongue-in-cheek.
It was a true situation comedy, in that situations were exaggerated and were played for laughs. This increased as the seasons progressed, with the addition of greater absurdity; the characters, always took the absurd situations seriously – which added to the comedy. Adam West as Bruce Wayne / Batman: A millionaire whose parents were murdered by criminals, he now secretly uses his vast fortune to fight crime as Batman. Producer William Dozier cast Adam West in the role after seeing him perform as the James Bond-like spy Captain Q in a Nestlé Quik television ad. Lyle Waggoner had screen-tested for the role, though West won out because, it was said, he was the only person who could deliver the hilarious lines with a straight face. West voiced an animated version of the title character on The New Adventures of Batman and well as Super Friends: The Legendary Super Powers Show and The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians. Burt Ward as Dick Grayson / Robin: Batman's faithful partner and "Boy Wonder", a high school student noted for his recurring interjections in the form of "Holy ________, Batman!"
Ward voiced an animated version of this character on The New Adventures of Batman. Alan Napier as Alfred Pennyworth: Batman's loyal butler and Batgirl's discreet confidant, he is the only person who knows the true identities of Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, Barbara Gordon. Neil Hamilton as Commissioner James Gordon: The Commissioner of the Gotham City Police Department and one of Batman's two major police contacts, he summons the Dynamic Duo via the Bat Signal. Stafford Repp as Chief Miles Clancy O'Hara: Gotham City's Chief of Police, Batman's other major police contact; the character was created by Semple for the series, as someone for Gordon to talk to, briefly added to the comics. Madge Blake as Aunt Harriet Cooper: Dick Grayson's maternal aunt, she first appeared in the comics, two years before the series premiered, to give Bruce and Dick a reason to be secretive about their dual identities. Yvonne Craig as Barbara Gordon / Batgirl: Commissioner Gordon's daughter, Gotham City librarian and crime fighting partner for Batman and Robin for the third season.
This threesome was nicknamed the "Terrific Trio". William Dozier – Executive producer and narrator. According to Adam West's memoir, Back to the Batcave, his first exposure to the series concept was through reading a sample script in which Batman enters a nightclub in his complete costume and requests a booth near the wall, as he "shouldn't wish to attract attention", it was the scrupulously formal dialogue, the way that Batman earnestly believed he could avoid standing out while wearing a skintight blue-and-grey costume, that convinced West of the character's comic potential. With the death of Adam West on June 9, 2017, Burt Ward is now the only surviving main Batman cast member. Today, John Julie Newmar are the only surviving cast villains. In the early 1960s, Ed Graham Productions optioned the television rights to the comic strip Batman and planned a straightforward juvenile adventure show, much like Adventures of Superman and The Lone Ranger, to air on CBS on Sat
A loft can be an upper storey or attic in a building, directly under the roof or just a storage space under the roof accessed by a ladder. A loft apartment refers to large adaptable open space converted for residential use from some other use light industrial. Adding to the confusion, some converted lofts include upper open loft areas. Within certain upper loft areas exist further lofts, which may contain loft areas of their own, so forth. In US usage a loft is an upper room or story in a building in a barn, directly under the roof, used either for storage. In this sense it is synonymous with attic, the major difference being that an attic constitutes an entire floor of the building, while a loft covers only a few rooms, leaving one or more sides open to the lower floor. In British usage, lofts are just a roof space accessed via a hatch and loft ladder, while attics tend to be rooms under the roof accessed via a staircase. Lofts may have a specific purpose, e.g. an "organ loft" in a church. In barns a hayloft is larger than the ground floor as it would contain a year's worth of hay.
An attic or loft can be converted to form functional living accommodation. Loft apartments are apartments that are built from former industrial buildings; when industrial developments are developed into condominiums instead of apartments, they may be called loft condominiums. The general term warehouse-to-loft conversions may sometimes be used for development of industrial buildings into apartments and condominiums. "Loft-style" may refer to developments where a street-level business occupies the first floor while apartment "lofts" are placed above the first floor. Sometimes, loft apartments are one component of municipal urban renewal initiatives that include renovation of industrial buildings into art galleries and studio space as well as promotion of a new part of the city as an "arts district". Popular with artists, they are now sought-after by other bohemians and hipsters, the gentrification of the former manufacturing sectors of medium to large cities is now a familiar pattern. One such sector is Manhattan's Meatpacking District.
The adoption of the Adaptive Reuse Ordinance in the City of Los Angeles is another example of such legislation to encourage the conversion of no longer economically viable industrial and commercial buildings to residential loft communities. Such is the demand for these spaces that real estate developers have taken to creating ready-made "lofts" in urban areas that are gentrifying or that seem primed to do so. While some of these units are created by developers during the renovation of old buildings, a number of them are included in the floor plans of brand new developments. Both types of pre-fab loft offer buyers or renters proximity to urban amenities afforded by traditional lofts, but without perceived safety risks of living in economically depressed industrial areas. Real estate industry distinguishes between two kinds of lofts. "Hard lofts" are former industrial buildings converted to live/work use. "Soft lofts" are loft-style residential buildings built anew. They are open-concept spaces with high ceilings, large windows and cement ceilings.
Soft lofts lack the history of hard lofts. A commercial loft refers to upper storey space in a commercial or industrial building with higher ceilings; such adaptation of loft space, can result in better operating efficiencies for ongoing light industrial and work/live use. A Live/work loft is a residential unit located in a commercially zoned building that has either been issued a certificate of residential occupancy or meets specific criteria making it eligible for the protection of loft laws, which vary state by state. In New York State, a live/work loft must meet the following criteria: The building was used for manufacturing or commercial purposes. Loft Law was designed to protect other entrepreneurs working from home. To qualify for the Loft Law protection, the unit must be residential with the commercial purpose being incidental to the residential use. Loft residents consisted of artists and other artisans taking advantage of cheap rents, large spaces and load-bearing floors. Loft residences were illegal and loft dwellers resided under commercial leases, forgoing basic residential rights such as hot water and sanitation.
To relieve their plight, many state legislatures enacted loft laws. A long building at a shipyard with a considerable floor area on which the lines produced by a naval architect can be laid off in their full dimensions. After that the full-size drawings can be copied with the aid of wooden moulds to which, in turn, the steel frames or, in the case of wooden vessels, the hull moulds, are fashioned
Paraffin wax is a soft colourless solid, derived from petroleum, coal or shale oil, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above 37 °C. Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, candles, it is distinct from other petroleum products that are sometimes called paraffin. Un-dyed, unscented paraffin candles are bluish-white. Paraffin wax was first created in 1830 in Germany, marked a major advancement in candlemaking technology, as it burned more cleanly and reliably than tallow candles and was cheaper to produce. In chemistry, paraffin is used synonymously with alkane, indicating hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2; the name is derived from Latin parum + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity", referring to paraffin's unreactive nature. Paraffin wax is found as a white, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 46 and 68 °C, a density of around 900 kg/m3.
It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether and certain esters. Paraffin burns readily, its heat of combustion is 42 MJ/kg. Paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator, with a resistivity of between 1013 and 1017 ohm metre; this is better than nearly all other materials except some plastics. It is an effective neutron moderator and was used in James Chadwick's 1932 experiments to identify the neutron. Paraffin wax is an excellent material for storing heat, with a specific heat capacity of 2.14–2.9 J g−1 K−1 and a heat of fusion of 200–220 J g−1. Paraffin wax phase-change cooling coupled with retractable radiators was used to cool the electronics of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the manned missions to the Moon in the early 1970s. Wax expands when it melts and this allows its use in wax element thermostats for industrial and automobile purposes. Paraffin wax was first created in 1830 by the German chemist Karl von Reichenbach when he tried to develop the means to efficiently separate and refine the waxy substances occurring in petroleum.
Paraffin represented a major advance in the candlemaking industry, because it burned more cleanly and reliably, was cheaper to manufacture than any other candle fuel. Paraffin wax suffered from a low melting point; the production of paraffin wax enjoyed a boom in the early 20th century as a result of the growth of the meatpacking and oil industries, which created paraffin and stearic acid as byproducts. The feedstock for paraffin is slack wax, a mixture of oil and wax, a byproduct from the refining of lubricating oil; the first step in making paraffin wax is to remove the oil from the slack wax. The oil is separated by crystallization. Most the slack wax is heated, mixed with one or more solvents such as a ketone and cooled; as it cools, wax crystallizes out of the solution. This mixture is filtered into two streams: liquid. After the solvent is recovered by distillation, the resulting products are called "product wax" and "foots oil"; the lower the percentage of oil in the wax, the more refined it is considered.
The product wax may be further processed to remove odors. The wax may be blended together to give certain desired properties such as melt point and penetration. Paraffin wax is sold in either solid form. In industrial applications, it is useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax by adding branching to the existing carbon backbone chain; the modification is done with additives, such as EVA copolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffin with a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is used for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is brittle at room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, like beeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," paraffin-based, are expressly formulated for the purpose. In a pathology laboratory, paraffin wax is used to impregnate tissue prior to sectioning thin samples of tissue.
Water is removed from the tissue through ascending strengths of alcohol and the tissue is cleared in an organic solvent such as xylene. The tissue is placed in paraffin wax for a number of hours and set in a mold with wax to cool and solidify. Candle-making Wax carving Coatings for waxed paper or cloth Food-grade paraffin wax: Shiny coating used in candy-making.
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Wayne Manor is a fictional American mansion appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. It is the personal residence of Bruce Wayne, the superhero Batman; the residence is depicted as a large mansion on the outskirts of Gotham City and is maintained by the Wayne family's butler, Alfred Pennyworth. While the earliest stories showed Bruce Wayne buying the house himself, by the 1950s at the latest, retroactive continuity established that the manor had belonged to the Wayne family for several generations. Along with serving as a personal residence, the mansion sits above the Batcave, which Batman uses as his secret headquarters; the vast majority of DC Comics references place Wayne Manor just outside of Gotham City in the state of New Jersey. In the 1960s television series, the narrator refers to the mansion as "stately Wayne Manor". For live-action films, English country house locations in Nottinghamshire and Buckinghamshire, as well as Stevenson Taylor Hall in New York, have been used to depict Wayne Manor.
Wayne Manor is depicted as being on the outskirts of Gotham City in the state of New Jersey. Comic book portrayals place the mansion within driving distance of Gotham City, close enough that the batsignal can be seen from Wayne Manor alerting Batman of distress in the city. Wayne Manor's grounds include a surrounding gate around the perimeter with a larger front gate at the main entrance. Batman's subterranean headquarters, the Batcave, is located beneath the mansion; the grounds includes a large hill, hollowed out for Batman's aerial vehicles, there is an underground river system, large enough to accommodate docking space for the Batboat and has a large opening for said vehicle. The manor grounds include an extensive subterranean cave system that Bruce Wayne discovered as a boy and used as his base of operations, the Batcave; the method used to access it from inside the mansion has varied across the different storylines in the comics and shows. In the comic books, it is accessible from a hidden door in Wayne Manor's study behind a non-functioning grandfather clock, which opens to a descending staircase when the hands on said clock are turned to 10:47, the time Thomas and Martha Wayne were killed.
The Batcave is accessible from outside the mansion through a hidden entrance on the estate's grounds. This entrance leads directly to the Batcave and has been depicted in different forms, including a waterfall, pond and camouflaged door. While these grounds are the regular home of Bruce Wayne, he temporarily vacated it in the stories from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, preferring to live in a penthouse apartment on top of the Wayne Foundation building in the city, which included a secret sub-basement acting as a Batcave. Wayne came to this decision when Dick Grayson went off to college, which led him to decide that the mansion was now impractical with only one resident and one servant. Furthermore, Wayne decided he wanted to be closer to his main field of operations in Gotham City than a home situated outside the main urban area would allow. However, by the early 1980s, Wayne came to reconsider that purpose and decided that being less accessible to the public was more advantageous for his Batman activities and returned to Wayne Manor.
During the events of Batman: Cataclysm a massive earthquake struck Gotham City, the epicenter of, less than a mile from Wayne Manor. The mansion was damaged, as was the cave network beneath; the ground beneath the mansion shifted and revealed the Batcave below, although the Bat-family were able to relocate all of Batman's equipment before official rescue came to the manor so that nobody would learn Bruce Wayne's secrets. The original Manor was damaged beyond repair, forcing Bruce Wayne to redesign the Manor along with the Batcave; the new Manor is a veritable fortress, a pastiche of Gothic architecture combined with features of castellated architecture. Solar panels are installed in the new Manor, providing environmentally-friendly electricity generation for the complex, it includes a heliport for commercial helicopters. In Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne it is revealed that Wayne Manor was designed by Nathan Van Derm for Darius Wayne, forming a stylized "W", although the additional gardens that existed at the time the manor was built add on to this symbol to create the image of a bat.
During Batman Eternal, Hush's machinations result in Wayne Enterprises being ruined and Bruce Wayne bankrupt after the villain detonates various weapons caches Batman had concealed around Gotham. As part of this bankruptcy, Wayne Manor is repossessed by the city and turned into the new Arkham Asylum following the destruction of the original, but Bruce decides to accept this new status quo, reasoning that he can at least make sure that his enemies remain contained in the new manor given his intimate knowledge of its entrances and exits; the manor is reclaimed by Bruce's lawyers, but it is temporarily left empty due to Bruce's death and amnesic resurrection as Alfred wanted to give Bruce a chance to have a life without Batman. However, Bruce returns to the manor. In Batman & Dracula: Red Rain, Wayne Manor is destroyed as part of a plan to destroy Dracula's vampire family, bombs exposing the interior of the Batcave to sunlight after Batman lured the vampires into the cave. Although the manor collapses into the cavern system after a second series of bombs are set off- thus concealing Bruce Wayne's secret - Batman and Alfred relocate to a brownstone in the center of town, Batman residing in a mausoleum in the basement while Alfred prepares his equipment in the main house.
Although Alfred and Gordon stake Batman at the conclusion of Batman: Bloodstorm after
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology; the fire service known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world; the skills required for safe operations are practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighter's career. Initial firefighting skills are taught through local, regional or state-approved fire academies or training courses. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and pre-hospital medicine may be acquired at this time. Firefighters work with other emergency response agencies such as the police and emergency medical service.
A firefighter's role may overlap with both. Fire investigators or fire marshals investigate the cause of a fire. If the fire was caused by arson or negligence, their work will overlap with law enforcement. Firefighters frequently provide some degree of emergency medical service, in addition to working with full-time paramedics; the basic tasks of firefighters include: fire suppression, fire prevention, basic first aid, investigations. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include: size-up, ventilation and rescue, containment, mop up and overhaul. A fire burns due to the presence of three elements: fuel and heat — referred to as the fire triangle. Sometimes it is known as the fire tetrahedron if a fourth element is added: a chemical chain reaction which can help sustain certain types of fire; the aim of firefighting is to deprive the fire of at least one of those elements. Most this is done by dousing the fire with water, though some fires require other methods such as foam. Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment for this purpose that include: ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, fire extinguishers.
While sometimes fires can be limited to small areas of a structure, wider collateral damage due to smoke and burning embers is common. Utility shutoff is an early priority for arriving fire crews. Specific procedures and equipment are needed at a property where hazardous materials are being used or stored. Structure fires may be attacked with "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two in, two out" rule, may extend fire hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows and other openings, or against any nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. Hose streams directed into the interior through exterior wall apertures may conflict and jeopardize interior fire attack crews. See Fire suppression for other techniques. Buildings that are made of flammable materials such as wood are different from fire-resistant building materials such as concrete. A "fire-resistant" building is designed to limit fire to a small area or floor.
Other floors can be safe by preventing smoke damage. All buildings on fire must be evacuated, regardless of fire rating; some fire fighting tactics may appear to be destructive, but serve specific needs. For example, during ventilation firefighters are forced to either open holes in the roof or floors of a structure, or open windows and walls to remove smoke and heated gases from the interior of the structure; such ventilation methods are used to improve interior visibility to locate victims more quickly. Ventilation helps to preserve the life of trapped or unconscious individuals as it releases the poisonous gases from inside the structure. Vertical ventilation is vital to firefighter safety in the event of a flashover or backdraft scenario. Releasing the flammable gases through the roof eliminates the possibility of a backdraft, the removal of heat can reduce the possibility of a flashover. Flashovers, due to their intense heat and explosive temperaments, are fatal to firefighter personnel. Precautionary methods, such as smashing a window, reveal backdraft situations before the firefighter enters the structure and is met with the circumstance head-on.
Firefighter safety is the number one priority. Whenever possible, property is moved into the middle of a room and covered with a salvage cover, a heavy cloth-like tarp. Various steps such as retrieving and protecting valuables found during suppression or overhaul and boarding windows and roofs can divert or prevent post-fire runoff. Wildfires require a unique set of tactics. In many countries such as Australia and the United States, these duties are carried out by local volunteer firefighters. Wildfires have some ecological role in allowing new plants to grow, therefore in some cases they will be left to burn. Priorities in fighting wildfires include preventing the loss of life and property.. Firefighters rescue people from dangerous situations such as crashed vehicles, structural collapses, trench collapses and tunnel emergencies and ice emergencies, elevator emergencies, energized electrical line emergencies, industrial accidents. In less common circumstances, Firefighters rescue victims from hazardous materials emergencies as well as steep cliffs and high rises - The latter is referred to as High Angle Rescue, or Rope Rescue