Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n
Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, is the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, the third largest freshwater lake by volume. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U. S. state of Minnesota to the west, Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. The farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River; the Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami, meaning "great sea." Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song, "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". According to other sources, the actual Ojibwe name is Anishinaabe Gichigami; the 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami. The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur.
Properly translated, the expression means "Upper Lake,". The lake was called Lac Tracy by 17th century Jesuit missionaries; the British, upon taking control of the region from the French in the 1760s following the French and Indian War, anglicized the lake's name to Superior, "on account of its being superior in magnitude to any of the lakes on that vast continent." Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the Soo Locks. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area, the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa; the Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface volume, is brackish. Lake Superior has a surface area of 31,700 square miles, the size of South Carolina or Austria, it has maximum breadth of 160 statute miles. Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms. Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles of water. There is enough water in Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South America to a depth of 30 centimetres.
The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles. American limnologist J. Val Klump was the first person to reach the lowest depth of Lake Superior on July 30, 1985, as part of a scientific expedition, which at 122 fathoms 1 foot below sea level is the second-lowest spot in the continental interior of the United States and the third-lowest spot in the interior of the North American continent after Iliamna Lake in Alaska and Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada at. While the temperature of the surface of Lake Superior varies seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms is an constant 39 °F; this variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic. Twice per year, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F from top to bottom, the lake waters mix; this feature makes the lake dimictic. Because of its volume, Lake Superior has a retention time of 191 years. Annual storms on Lake Superior feature wave heights of over 20 feet. Waves well over 30 feet have been recorded.
The lake is fed by over 200 rivers. The largest include the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River. There are rapids at the river's upper end where the river bed has a steep gradient; the Soo Locks were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the 25-foot height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron. The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet above sea level; until 1887, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined the outflow from Lake Superior. By 1921, development in support of transportation and hydroelectric power resulted in gates, power canals and other control structures spanning St. Marys rapids; the regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Water levels, including diversions of water from the Hudson Bay watershed, are regulated by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission.
Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007 less than the previous record low in 1926. However, the water levels returned within a few days. Historic high water The lake's water level fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels in October and November; the normal high-water mark is 1.17 feet above datum (601.1 ft
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Ottawa National Forest
The Ottawa National Forest is a national forest that covers 993,010 acres in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. It includes much of Gogebic and Ontonagon counties, as well as slices of Iron, Houghton and Marquette counties; the forest is under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Forest Service; the headquarters are in Ironwood, Michigan, on the Wisconsin border, the principal visitor center is located in Watersmeet, Michigan, in the southern section of the Forest. These and other towns within and adjacent to the Forest are served by U. S. Highway 2, one of the principal highways of the Western Upper Peninsula. There are local ranger district offices in Bessemer, Iron River, Kenton and Watersmeet. Wooded slopes mark the south shore of Lake Superior within the Ottawa National Forest within the Black River country between Little Girl's Point and the Presque Isle River; as the Black River, a National Wild and Scenic River, falls from near Copper Peak down towards the lake, it tumbles over seven separate mapped and named waterfalls.
The Presque Isle river and its major tributary, Copper Creek, have eleven waterfalls, although four of the Presque Isle falls are outside the national forest and are located within the boundaries of the adjacent Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park. Underwood Hill, at 1,867 feet in altitude is the highest elevation in the Presque Isle River drainage area. However, this is not the highest point in the national forest; that honor belongs to an unnamed 1,900-foot hill north of Lac Vieux Desert in southeastern Gogebic County. Rain or snow that falls on the north side of this hill flows through the Ontonagon River towards Lake Superior; the Ottawa National Forest is an area of high precipitation in both winter and summer. Sections of the Forest receive more than 200 inches of snow annually. In winter, Lake Superior, which does not freeze over, is itself the source of much of the water vapor that falls in the area. In many of the summer months, moist air carried by southerly winds from the faraway Gulf does not fall below the dew point in temperature until it enters the Lake Superior basin.
The forested area is poor in topsoil. The glaciers of various Ice Ages, including the most recent Wisconsonian glaciation, scraped much of the forested area down to bare rock or sand; the result is a characteristic boreal forest ecosystem. The Ottawa National Forest is home to several clans of the Ojibwa people who coexisted with the Forest's numerous rocky wetlands, they harvested many of the region's mammals beaver, for their pelts, sold them to traders from Canada and the eastern United States, such as the traders of the American Fur Company. After the fur trade declined, the nation sold most of the forest in the 1854 Treaty of La Pointe. A part of the nation used some of the proceeds from their fur trapping to purchase lands around Lac Vieux Desert, where their descendants remain today as the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa; as a result of the construction of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway in 1892-1894, the forest was opened to logging. A few parcels of old-growth white pine and red pine remain.
After the logging era ended, the heavily-exploited forest was abandoned. The U. S. federal government established the Ottawa National Forest in 1931, but the forest did not reach its full size until after two large land purchases in 1933 and 1935. In 1935 the national forest reached its maximum size of 1,026,329 acres. After some privatizations, the Forest reached its current 1.0 million acre extent. During the years after World War II, growing automobile tourism made it possible for a wider variety of people to visit the forest. Ottawa National Forest is used for fishing and lake kayaking. In winter, the Forest welcomes cross-country snowmobilers; the Ottawa National Forest contains three designated U. S. wilderness areas, managed as such by the Forest Service. They are McCormick Wilderness and the Sturgeon River Gorge Wilderness near Kenton and the Sylvania Wilderness near Watersmeet, Michigan; as of 2006, the Ottawa National Forest operates under a Resource Management Plan promulgated in 1986.
Opened in 1971, the Ottawa Visitor Center offers interpretive programs and exhibits about the natural history and resources of the Forest. The center's mission is to guide visitors to safe and caring use of the Forest. Media related to Ottawa National Forest at Wikimedia Commons U. S. Forest Service - Ottawa National Forest Ottawa Visitor Center Lac Vieux Desert Band
Ontonagon County, Michigan
Ontonagon County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 6,780, making it Michigan's third-least populous county; the county seat is Ontonagon. The county was set off in 1843, organized in 1848, its territory had been organized as part of Mackinac counties. With increasing population in the area, more counties were organized. After Ontonagon was organized, it was split to create Gogebic County, it is the westernmost U. S. county. The county is named after the Ontonagon River; the name is said to be derived from an Ojibwe language word Nondon-organ, meaning "hunting river." A French transliteration, identified the river on a 1670 French map. Alternatively, it is said to be derived from the Ojibwa onagon, which means "dish" or "bowl." See List of Michigan county name etymologies. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,741 square miles, of which 1,311 square miles is land and 2,430 square miles is water.
It is the third-largest county in Michigan by area. At a longitude of 89.5°W, it is the westernmost county in the United States contained within the Eastern Time Zone. US 45 – runs north-south through east-central part of county. Enters south line from Watersmeet, passes Paulding, Bruce Crossing, Rockland, ending at Ontonagon. M-26 – enters east line of county at 12 miles south of NE county corner. Runs SW, passing Mass City and Lake Mine, to intersection with M-38 east of Rockland. M-28 – runs east-west thru southern part of county. Enters 10.4 miles north of SE county corner. Runs westerly into Gogebic County. M-38 – enters east line of county at a point east of Mass City. Runs west to Lake Mine WNW to terminus at Ontonagon. M-64 – runs north-south through center part of county. Enters south line on west side of Lake Gogebic. Runs NE along shoreline to terminus at Ontonagon. Ontonagon County Airport serves surrounding communities. Keweenaw National Historical Park Ottawa National Forest The 2010 United States Census indicates Ontonagon County had a population of 6,780.
This decrease of 1038 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a -13.3% change in population. In 2010 there were 3,258 households and 1,954 families in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 5,672 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile. 97.3% of the population were White, 1.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.1% of some other race and 1.3% of two or more races. 0.9% were Hispanic or Latino. There were 3,258 households out of which 15.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.61. The county population contained 15.8% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 16.7% from 25 to 44, 37.0% from 45 to 64, 26.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 52.7 years. The population is 48.4 % female. The median income for a household in the county was $34,786, the median income for a family was $46,845; the per capita income for the county was $22,195. About 9.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1843, Michigan's Upper Peninsula was divided into Mackinac, Marquette, Schoolcraft and Ontonagon Counties. In 1845, a portion of Ontonagon County was partitioned to be part of Houghton County. In 1846, the village of Ontonagon was named as the county seat of Ontonagon County. Ontonagon County is balanced to Republican-leaning. Since 1876 its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 61% of the national elections through 2016. Ontonagon County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. As of September 2018 Ontonagon White Pine Adventure List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Ontonagon County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Ontonagon County, Michigan Sawyer, Alvah Littlefield. A History of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan and Its People. Lewis Publishing Co. Ontonagon Chamber Of Commerce