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Firework (song)

"Firework" is a song by American singer Katy Perry from her third studio album, Teenage Dream. Perry co-wrote its producers Stargate and Sandy Vee, it is a dance-pop self-empowerment anthem with inspirational lyrics, Perry felt it was an important song for her on the record. Capitol Records released it as the album's third single on October 26, 2010; the song was commercially successful, reaching number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 and the top five on 20 charts around the world. It has sold over 10 million copies in the United States, over 1 million in the United Kingdom. Additionally, "Firework" was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America for the shipment of 10 million copies across the United States. An accompanying music video, directed by Dave Meyers, was released on October 28, 2010, it portrays Perry singing and dancing around Budapest, with interspersed scenes of young people becoming confident in themselves. An open casting call for the music video drew an unprecedented 38,000 applicants.

On MuchMusic's top 50 videos of 2010, "Firework" reached the top position. The music video was said to be a more upbeat take on Christina Aguilera's message in "Beautiful", it was nominated for three awards at the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards winning one of those, the Video of the Year, the main and final award. "Firework" was nominated for Record of the Year and Best Pop Solo Performance at the 54th Grammy Awards. On January 5, 2012, "Firework" was elected the fifth most played single on US radio during 2011 by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, with 509,000 plays. "Firework" was written by Perry, Sandy Wilhelm, Ester Dean while produced by Stargate and Sandy Vee at Soapbox Studios in Atlanta, Georgia. It was recorded at Roc the Mic Studios in 2009, it was mixed at The Bunker Studios by Vee. Audio engineering was done by Damien Lewis. All instruments were done by Vee. Lead and background vocals were provided by Perry. Perry said, she explained that: "Now, people are coming back and adopting it as their own anthem, it's hard, I think, to write an anthem that's not cheesy, I hope that this could be something in that category.

I hope this could be one of those things where it's like,'Yeah, I want to put my fist up and feel proud and feel strong. But I don't want to be cheesy, it's a fine line, I think'Firework'... would be like the opus or my one song — if I had to pick a song to play —'cause it has a great beat. But it has a fantastic message. Many people refer to the lines'like the 4th of July; however the trend caught on and in live performances I now sing 4th of July, which happens to make great sense for the song name." "Firework" is a dance-pop song. The song is composed in the key of A♭ major and is set in time signature of common time with a tempo of 124 beats per minute. Perry's vocal range spans from A♭3 to E♭5. According to Perry, "Firework" is influenced by Jack Kerouac's novel, On the Road. MTV praised Perry's vocals, though felt the lyrics were "clunky". Slant Magazine stated that the song is "not an painful listen. Sure, the would-be inspirational lyrics are nonsensical... but the chorus gains some momentum and the song would work well enough in a club setting that you could forgive its otherwise glaring weaknesses."

Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic chose "Firework" among the top tracks on the album, Nick Levine of Digital Spy gave the song five out of five stars, calling it "a straight up self-empowerment anthem wrapped in a Coldplay-on-poppers club banger from the Stargate team." PopMatters wrote. The Washington Post described the song as "too mushy". Al Fox of BBC Music said that the song "displays a breezy maturity and serious set of pipes, a true demonstration of Perry's musicianship without contradicting the kittenish mischief of the bigger picture." The song was nominated for Record of the Year at the 54th Grammy Awards. In the United States, "Firework" debuted at position 57 on the issue dated November 6, 2010. On the issue dated December 18, 2010, it reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Perry's fourth number-one single in the US and third number-one single from the album; this made Perry the first female artist since Monica to have three consecutive singles from an album top the chart.

It spent four non-consecutive weeks at number one on the Hot 100. The song topped on Pop chart, Adult Pop Songs and Adult Contemporary chart. On the week ending January 8, 2011, "Firework" sold 509,000 digital downloads in the US, tied with Lady Gaga's "Born This Way" as the seventh highest amount sold by a female artist behind Adele's "Hello", Taylor Swift's "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together" and Kesha's "Tik Tok", Swift's "I Knew You Were Trouble", Perry's own "Roar", Swift's "Shake It Off" and ninth highest overall; the song was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America for the shipment of 10 million copies across the United States. "Firework" is one of six of Perry's songs to top 5 million paid downloads, the others being "Hot n Cold", "California Gurls", "ET", "Roar", "Dark Horse", she is the first artist in digital history to sell 5 million or more copies of six different hits. As of July 2017, the song has sold 7,239,784 copies in the United States. In Canada, "Firework" debuted at number 51 on

Primitive Love

Primitive Love is the ninth studio album and second English-language record by the Miami Sound Machine, released in August 1985, by Epic Records. A 2CD remastered version of the album was scheduled for March 31, 2017 by Vibe on Records, but it was postponed because Estefan is working on her new album. To date there is no set date for the re-release; this album was a follow-up to the band's previous releases in every sense: in the music, in the rhythms, in Gloria Estefan's vocals. Previous releases by Miami Sound Machine had failed to achieve much in the way of crossover success. However, with the release of Primitive Love in 1985, their distinctive sound was being heard by a wider audience, both in the United States and abroad; this album was the band's first appearance on the American albums chart, reaching #23 on the Billboard 200. The album ended the year on the 1986 Billboard Year End Charts at #10. Three singles released from this album reached the Top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100 chart: "Conga" peaked at #10.

By 1989, the album had exceeded 6 million copies sold worldwide

Bells Line of Road

Bells Line of Road is a 59-kilometre major road located in New South Wales, providing an alternative crossing to the Great Western Highway of the Blue Mountains. The eastern terminus of the road is in Richmond, 51 km northwest of Sydney, where the road continues eastward as Kurrajong Road, which intersects the A9; the western terminus of the road is in Bell, in the Blue Mountains, where the road continues as the Chifley Road. The route, part of the traditional Aboriginal pathway network, was shown to Archibald Bell, Jr. by Darug men Emery and Cogy in 1823. Subsequently, he was accompanied by the Government Assistant Surveyor and the route marked was known as Bell's Line, to be cleared to become the second road across the Blue Mountains. Due to its condition and the gradients around Mount Tomah it was used before World War II; the road was improved between 1939 and 1943, as an alternative to the Great Western Highway for the war effort. At the same time that it was improved the road from Bell via Scenic Hill to Lithgow was built, so that the westernmost section of Bell's Line of Road between Bell and Mount Victoria across the Darling Causeway carries little traffic, but is a significant tourist route.

Today, the route is still used as an alternative route across the Blue Mountains and is a popular tourist drive. The eastern terminus of Bells Line of Road as an identified route began at the edge of the town of Richmond, but now begins at the Richmond Bridge across the Hawkesbury River. West of the Hawkesbury River it passes through the town of North Richmond and the village of Kurmond, before bypassing Kurrajong. At Bellbird Hill it proceeds to climb onto the Bell Range of the Blue Mountains, passing through Kurrajong Heights; when on the range, it proceeds through the fruit-growing areas of Bilpin and Berambing, before climbing and descending Mount Tomah, passing by the Mount Tomah Botanic Gardens. After Mount Tomah it proceeds through the Blue Mountains National Park passing Mount Bell and Mount Charles and passing close to Pierces Pass and Mount Banks. Eight kilometres before Bell is the turn off to the villages of Mount Irvine. At the village of Bell, Bells Line of Road turns south to run along the crest of the Darling Causeway to Mount Victoria, passing the site of the now-demolished Hartley Vale railway station.

From Bell the majority of traffic uses Chifley Road, which goes west to Lithgow and the Great Western Highway. The route has numerous sections of winding road; the steepest section is at Bellbird Hill, where the road rises around 450 metres from the Hawkesbury Valley to the Bell Range. The road has several tight bends. Other steep sections include the east and west ascents of Mount Tomah and Mount Bell as well as "The Glen" on the west side of Kurrajong Heights. In recent years confusion has arisen as to the western terminus of Bell's Line of Road due to the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority erecting incorrect road signage at a number of locations; this signage confuses the geographical feature of the Darling Causeway between Bell and Mount Victoria with the name of the road itself. Bells Line of Road is part of the former State Route 40, which began in the Sydney CBD and ran via Victoria Road to Parramatta via Windsor Road through Windsor to Richmond via Bells Line of Road and Chifley Road to terminate at the Great Western Highway in Lithgow.

The continuity of this route was broken with the introduction of alpha-numeric route numbering in 2013: east of Windsor State Route 40 became A2 A40, west of Windsor route B59. The length of Bells Line of Road between Richmond and Bell is now designated as part of route B59, which from Bell continues west via Chifley Road to join the Great Western Highway at Bowenfels in Lithgow. In November 2007, the Roads and Traffic Authority announced plans to lower the speed limits along much of Bells Line of Road. Within a week, sufficient opposition was expressed. In October 2008, the same changes were again announced, with the RTA claiming that there had been community consultation, but numerous users of the road, including politicians and councillors based west of the Blue Mountains, claimed to have been unaware of any consultation; as a result of the changes, the maximum speed limit east of Bell is now 80 kilometres per hour. For many years, road-lobby groups have been pushing for what they call a "superhighway" across the Blue Mountains.

They claim that the poor roads across the Blue Mountains are impeding economic growth west of the Mountains. In 2002, road-lobby groups secured $2 million in funding for a feasibility study into building a freeway following Bells Line of Road; the proposed freeway would have linked to the M2 Hills Motorway in Sydney and connected to the Great Western Highway west of Lithgow via a route across the Newnes Plateau. The study report, published in November 2004 concluded that, while feasible to build from an engineering perspective, it would not be economically feasible and would have massive impact on adjacent national parks and local communities; the Great Western Highway has been the main route across the Blue Mountains since its construction in 1815, but after the above studies found that a freeway would be too expensive to build along the route of Bell's Line of Road, the idea was abandoned. However Roads and Maritime Services' 2017 road corridor improvement program provides for a somewhat more modest program of upgradings.

It is revisiting studies last undertake

Doug Free

Douglas Free is a former offensive tackle who spent all his years of his professional career with the Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at Northern Illinois University and was drafted by the Cowboys in the fourth round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Free attended Lincoln High School in Wisconsin; as a senior, he was named Defensive Lineman of the Year, All-state, All-Fox Valley Conference on both offense and defense. He accepted a football scholarship from Northern Illinois University, with the plan of being converted into an offensive tackle. After being redshirted, he was forced to start at right tackle as a freshman, when sophomore tackle Shea Fitzgerald was killed along with 12 others, in a back porch collapse during a party in Lincoln Park, in Chicago, Illinois. In college, he developed into an athletic player that earned him the nickname "Doug Freak" among his teammates, he settled at left tackle and was named second-team All-MAC as a sophomore and first-team All-MAC and honorable mention All-American as a junior.

Free was selected in the fourth round of the 2007 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys. As a rookie, he was named a starter in his first preseason game, but suffered a knee sprain that would delayed his development and contributed to him being inactive for the first 15 games of the season, until playing at right tackle during the fourth quarter of the last game, he was inactive during the first 13 weeks of the 2008 season. The next year, a season-ending injury to Marc Colombo pushed him into starting seven games at right tackle, performing at a high level while allowing only one sack. After the April 1, 2010 release of Flozell Adams, Free became. On July 26, 2011, the Cowboys avoided him testing the free agent market and rewarded him with a four-year, $32 million contract, with $17 million guaranteed. In 2012, the team decided to move him back to right tackle after his play regressed, exchanging positions with Tyron Smith, he was still seen as a liability with the change, so the team gave more playing time to Jermey Parnell in the final four games of the season.

After having to share his playing time and giving up seven sacks, five holding penalties and seven false starts, he accepted a reduced salary in order to avoid being waived before the start of the 2013 season. In 2014, he was a starter in what was arguably considered the best offensive line in the league and emerged as the unit's leader. In October, he suffered a sprained right foot in the last minutes of the Week 6 win against the Seattle Seahawks, causing him to miss three games, he missed the team's last four games with a left ankle stress fracture, that led him to have off season surgery. On March 7, 2015, Free re-signed with the Cowboys on a three-year, $15 million contract, he started all 16 games and although he was a solid contributor at right tackle, he led the team in penalties. In 2016, he was a part of what was considered the best offensive line in the NFL, he started all 16 games though he was limited with foot and ankle injuries. On March 11, 2017, Free announced his retirement from the NFL after 10 seasons.

Northern Illinois bio

Culture of Guernsey

The culture of Guernsey in the Bailiwick of Guernsey is a culture, shaped by its indigenous Norman language and traditions as well as French and British cultural influences. Cultural trends from immigrant communities such as the Portuguese have been added; the national animals of the island of Guernsey are the Guernsey cow. The traditional explanation for the donkey is the steepness of St Peter Port streets that necessitated beasts of burden for transport, although it is used in reference to Guernsey inhabitants' stubbornness who boast that they are "stubborn as a mule, with a kick like a horse!" The Guernsey cow is a more internationally famous icon of the island. As well as being prized for its rich creamy milk, claimed by some to hold health benefits over milk from other breeds, Guernsey cattle are being raised for their beef, which has a distinctive flavour and rich yellow fat. Although the number of individual islanders raising these cattle for private supply has diminished since the 1960s, Guernsey steers can still be seen grazing on L'Ancresse common.

There is a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey, distinguished by its golden-coloured coat At the end of World War II, the Golden Guernsey was extinct, due to interbreeding with other varieties on the island. The resurrection of this breed is credited to the work of a single woman, Miss Miriam Milbourne. Although no longer considered in a'critical' status, the breed remains on the "Watch List" of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Guernsey people are traditionally nicknamed donkeys or ânes by Jersey people. Inhabitants of each of the parishes of Guernsey have traditional nicknames, although these have dropped out of use among the English-speaking population; the so-called Guernsey Lily, Nerine sarniensis, is used as a symbol of the island. Sarnia Cherie is used as the anthem of Guernsey. Liberation Day on 9 May is the occasion of large celebrations every year to mark the end of the German occupation in 1945. Dishes traditional in Guernsey cuisine are the Guernsey gâche, a rich fruit bread, gâche mêlaïe, apple pudding, bean jar, a type of cassoulet of pork and beans, conger soup.

A local delicacy is the ormer - a variety of abalone harvested from the beach at low spring tides. Other seafood such as spider crabs, lobster are popular. In July 2006 smoking in enclosed public places was banned, a law put in place to protect workers' right to a healthy working environment. English is the only language spoken by a majority of the population, while Guernésiais, the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by 2% of the population. However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language and it is taught in a few Island schools; until the early twentieth century French was the only official language. Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage such as the word "hougue" from the Norse meaning hill and "vraic" being a type of seaweed; the island's loss of the language reflects a significant anglicisation of its culture and mindset brought on by a large number of tax exiles from England. Portuguese is spoken by around 2 % of the population. Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while including Les Misérables.

His home in St Peter Port, Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris. In 1866, he published a novel set in the island, Travailleurs de la Mer, which he dedicated to the island of Guernsey; the best-known novel by a Guernseyman is The Book of Ebenezer Le Page, by GB Edwards which, in addition to being a critically acclaimed work of literature, it contains a wealth of insights into life in Guernsey during the twentieth century. George Métivier considered the island's national poet, wrote in Guernésiais. Other important Guernésiais writers are Tam Lenfestey, T. H. Mahy and Marjorie Ozanne. Land area In Guernsey is a vergée, it is 40 Guernsey perches. A Guernsey perch is 21 feet by 21 feet. Money Between 1830 and 1956, Guernsey's four coin denominations, 1, 2, 4 and 8 doubles; the double was worth 1/80 of a French franc. 8 double was a Guernsey penny. 12 Guernsey Pennies made a Guernsey shilling 20 Guernsey Shillings made a Guernsey Pound In 1848, an ordinance was passed that the pound sterling should be legal tender at a value of Guernsey £1 1s 3d.

In 1870, British coins were made legal tender, with the British shilling circulating at 12½ Guernsey pence. In 1914, new banknotes appeared, some of which carried denominations in Guernsey shillings and francs. After 1921 it was decided to adopt 8 doubles=1 penny, 1 penny being the same as an English penny. Weights The Guernsey Pound was 2 ounces heavier than an English Pound Two radio stations, BBC Guernsey and Island FM, serve Guernsey. Guernsey together with the other Channel Islands has an ITV regional franchise. A lot of the content of Channel TV is from/based on Jersey, it produces a daily news programme Channel Report. From the point of view of television coverage, the BBC has always treated the islands as an extension of their South West England region, relaying programme

General Government administration

General Government administration - government and administration of General Government created on part of area of the Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during the duration of World War II between 1939 and early 1945. The formation of the General Government was created because of the German-Soviet claim to the total collapse of the Polish state; the German Wehrmacht attacked Poland with strong air power, massive numbers of troops, tanks on September 1, 1939. The Germans initial intent was to clear the western part of Poland, the Reichsgau, bring it into the Reich. However, those plans stalled. On 23 August 1939, German foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop and his Soviet counterpart agreed to a nonaggression pact and divided Poland. "No government protectorate is anticipated for a complete German administration. Leadership layer of the population in Poland should be as far disposed of; the other lower layers of the population will receive no special schools, but are to be oppressed in some form".

- The excerpts of the minute of the first conference of Heads of the main police officers and commanders of operational groups led by Heydrich`s deputy, SS-Brigadefuhrer Dr. Werner Best, Berlin 7 September 1939. After Invasion of Poland the first German administration on occupied Polish areas was set by German military Wehrmacht. Subordinated to them was improvised civilian "Chiefs of Civil Administration" led by Hans Frank; as of late September in 1939, most Polish territory was in German hands. The other parts of Poland were controlled by either the USSR or Lithuania, with Lithuania controlling 2% of the area; the Reich Interior Ministry drafted two bills on October 8, 1939 – one for the incorporation of western and northern Poland into the Reich, the other for the creation of a General Government in the remaining German-held territory. The General Government was located in the center of Poland, covering about a third of the country’s former territory and including about 45% of its population.

Four days on October 12 of 1939, a decree by Hitler establish the General Government administered by a General Governor and aided by the Office of the General-Governor, which changed on December 9, 1940 to the Government of the General Government. The Governor General was headed by Dr. Hans Frank and the Office was headed by Chief of the Government Seyss-Inquart. Josef Bühler took over Seyss-Inquart’s position in March 1940; the General Government creation was prompted due to the ending of military actions in the Autumn of 1939. Several other individuals had powers to issue legislative decrees in addition to the General Governor, most notably the Higher SS and Police Leader of General Government. All members of the first office: 1. Hans Frank - Generalgouverneur Dr. Hans Frank was the former president of the German Academy of Law and as Governor General, he was subordinate only to Hitler. 2. Josef Bühler - Chief of the Government, 3. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger - Chief of the Police, 4. Otto von Wächter - Gouverneur of the Kraków District, 5.

Friedrich Schmidt - Gouverneur of the Lublin District, 6. Karl Lasch - Gouverneur of the Radom District, 7. Ludwig Fischer - Gouverneur of the Warsaw District, 8. Wilhelm Heuber - Power of attorney of the General Government in Berlin; the General Government had no international recognition. The territories it administered were never either in whole or part intended as any future Polish state. According to the Nazi government the Polish state had ceased to exist, in spite of the existence of a Polish government-in-exile, its character was that of a puppet state. It was not a Polish puppet government, as there were no Polish representatives above the local administration; the General Government was divided into four districts initially: Krakow, Radom and Lublin. Each of these districts was headed by a governor. In 1941, after the outbreak of Russian and German hostilities, the district of Galicia was added as the fifth district; the 5 districts in the General Government include: 1. Kraków District, led by SS-Brigadeführer Dr Otto von Wächter and SS-Brigadeführer Dr Richard Wendler from 31 August 1942 to 26 Mai 1943 2.

Lublin District, led by Friedrich Schmidt, Ernst Zörner and Richard Wendler 3. Radom District, led by Karl Lasch from 26 October 1939 to July 1941 and Ernst Kundt from September 1941 to 16 August 1945, 4. Warsaw District, led by Ludwig Fischer from 26 October 1939 to 17 August 1945, 5. Galicia District, led by dr Karl Lasch from 1 September 1941 to 6 August 1942 and SS-Gruppenführer Otto von Wächter from 1 February 1942 to July 1944; the districts were divided into sub-districts, known as Kreise, each headed by a Kreishauptmann. Stadtkreise were the city districts below that were the Kreishauptmannschaften, the county level; the General Government’s six largest cities – Warsaw, Czestochowa, Lublin and Kielce were governed by Stadthauptmänner. Kreis- and Stadthauptmänner had wide-ranging responsibilities over political and economic life within their area. However, authority at any level was in the hands of the Governor General or Hans Frank. In order to avoid competing jurisdiction, which what the government in the Re