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The Firmicutes are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain gram-negative. Scientists once classified the Firmicutes to include all gram-positive bacteria, but have defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria, they have called cocci, or rod-like forms. Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions, they are found in various environments, the group includes some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria, produce energy through anoxygenic photosynthesis. Firmicutes play an important role in beer and cider spoilage; the group is divided into the Clostridia, which are anaerobic, the Bacilli, which are obligate or facultative aerobes. On phylogenetic trees, the first two groups show up as paraphyletic or polyphyletic, as do their main genera and Bacillus.

The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 by the All-Species Living Tree Project, with the accepted taxonomy based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, National Center for Biotechnology Information, some non-validated clade names from Genome Taxonomic Database. Notes: ♥ Clade names not lodged at National Center for Biotechnology Information or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature The family Synergistaceae and Thermodesulfobiaceae have been removed from Firmicutes based on the fact, they do not form a monophyletic clade with it. More than 274 genera were considered as of 2016 to be within the Firmicutes phylum, notable genera of Firmicutes include: Bacilli, order Bacillales Bacilli, order Lactobacillales Clostridia Erysipelotrichia Firmicutes make up the largest portion of the mouse and human gut microbiome; the division Firmicutes as part of the gut flora has been shown to be involved in energy resorption, related to the development of diabetes and obesity.

Within the gut of healthy human adults, the most abundant bacterium: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which makes up 5% of the total gut microbiome, is a member of the Firmicutes phylum. This species is directly associated with reduced low-grade inflammation in obesity. F. prausnitzii has been found in higher levels within the guts of obese children than in non-obese children. In multiple studies a higher abundance of Firmicutes has been found in obese individuals than in lean controls. A higher level of Lactobacillus has been found in obese patients and in one study, obese patients put on weight loss diets showed a reduced amount of Firmicutes within their guts. Diet changes in mice have been shown to promote changes in Firmicutes abundance. A higher relative abundance of Firmicutes was seen in mice fed a western diet than in mice fed a standard low fat/ high polysaccharide diet; the higher amount of Firmicutes was linked to more adiposity and body weight within mice. Within obese mice, the class Mollicutes was the most common.

When the microbiota of obese mice with this higher Firmicutes abundance was transplanted into the guts of germ-free mice, the germ-free mice gained a significant amount of fat as compared to those transplanted with the microbiota of lean mice with lower Firmicutes abundance. The presence of Christensenella, isolated from human faeces, has been found to correlate with lower body mass index; the presence of Firmicutes can be reliably detected with polymerase chain reaction techniques. Phylum "Firmicutes" - J. P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature

Chris Costner Sizemore

Christine "Chris" Costner Sizemore was an American woman who, in the 1950s, was diagnosed with multiple personality disorder, now known as dissociative identity disorder. Her case, with a pseudonym used, was depicted in the 1950s book The Three Faces of Eve, written by her psychiatrists, Corbett H. Thigpen and Hervey M. Cleckley, upon which a film that starred Joanne Woodward was based, she went public with her true identity in the 1970s. Sizemore was born Christine Costner on April 4, 1927, to parents Acie and Zueline Hastings Costner in Edgefield, South Carolina. In accordance with then-current modes of thought on the disorder, Thigpen reported that Sizemore had developed multiple personalities as a result of her witnessing two deaths and a horrifying accident within three months as a small child. However, in Sizemore's own report, these traumatic incidents only triggered the evidencing of selves which were present: "Despite authorities' claims to the contrary, my former alters were not fragments of my birth personality.

They were entities, whole in their own rights, who coexisted with my birth personality before I was born. They were not me, but they remain intrinsically related to what it means to be me." Thigpen and Cleckley treated her at no cost for several years. In 1956, while still under their care, she signed the rights to her life story to 20th Century Fox - although it was alleged that she had signed this without legal representation and using the names of her alternate personalities; the Three Faces of Eve became a bestseller when it was published in 1957. This was written by Cleckley with limited input from Sizemore. In 1958 she co-wrote Strangers in My Body: The Final Face of Eve, using the pseudonym of Evelyn Lancaster, she wrote two follow-ups: I'm Eve, written with Elen Sain Pittillo. In 1970 she started treatment with Tony Tsitos, whom she credited with making the greatest progress in'integrating' the divergent personalities over the next four-years. According to psychiatrists who worked with her after her treatment with Thigpen and Cleckley, it was not until Sizemore was in Tsitos' that she became aware that she experienced not three selves, but instead more than 20 personalities that were unified.

It was reported. Sizemore reported feeling exploited and objectified by the media blitz surrounding the book and film of Three Faces of Eve. Upon discovering, in 1988, that her legal rights to her own life story had been signed away to 20th Century Fox by Thigpen, Sizemore went to Manhattan's Federal District Court to contest the contract, she accepted an out-of-court settlement, no further films were made. Sizemore's papers, covering 1952 through 1989, have been acquired by the Duke University Library. An overview of the collection and a summary of Sizemore's story are included on its website. Sizemore was interviewed on the BBC News channel series Hardtalk on March 25, 2009. Sizemore died of a heart attack in hospice care on July 2016, in Ocala, Florida, she was 89 years old. The Three Faces of Eve List of autobiographers List of pen names List of people from South Carolina Shirley Ardell Mason Chris Costner Sizemore, Patient Behind ‘The Three Faces of Eve’ - New York Times Obituary 15 Years After Recovery,'Eve' Enjoys the Best of Her 22 Personalities - Article in Deseret News, Utah News organisation

Tokkudu Billa

Tokkudu Billa is a type of Hopscotch played by girls in rural villages of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. It is played as Kunte Bille in Karnataka. Girls play this recreational sport by hopping on the squares; this popular outdoor game is vanishing due to literacy and the influence of Western games. Capture maximum number of boxes by hopping, by using a coin. To win each square, the following phases have to be followed. Phase 1: 1. Stand outside of the grid and drop the coin on 8 2. Starting from 1, hop until 7 to pick up the coin in 8 while in hopping position. 3. Cast the coin out of the grid and jump on it 4. Now throw the coin in the box 7 5. Hop starting from 1 unto 6 6. Standing in hopping position in 6, pick up the coin placed in 7 7. Hop over the box 7, directly from the box 6 into the box 8 and hop out of the grid 8. Repeat the above similar steps from 4 to 7 with the coin thrown in the boxes 6, 3, 2 and 1 Phase 2: 1. Put the coin in your palm opened 2. Hop, starting from 1 to 8 3. Cast the coin out of the grid and jump on the coin 4.

Repeat the steps 5, 6 and 7 with the coin on your palm inverted. Phase 3 5. Ask the opponents for "Kaya" or "pandu" 6. If the opponents choose Kaya, sit down with your back facing the grid, throw the coin in the grid 7. If the opponents choose Pandu, facing your back to the grid and do as in 10. 8. Hop into the square bordering with the square in which the coin is placed. Pick up the coin and draw a cross in the bordering square, indicating that you have captured a square. You can rest your feet in it. In all the above phases, you can rest your both legs in 4 and 5 and in the boxes that you have captured. Do not step on the square in which the coin is placed, but hop over it. Other players follow the same steps as above, except that they are not allowed to land on your won boxes; the winner is the player. Chance losing conditions: The player has to wait for her turn if a chance is lost; the player loses a chance in the game if: 1. The coin falls on the lines or in the crossed boxes or out of the grid 2.

She steps on the square in which the coin is placed 3. She lands on the crossed boxes that are won by others

Surprise (S.E.S. album)

Surprise is a compilation album released in 2001 by S. E. S. under SM Entertainment. This is considered their 4.5 album. It has sold 350,000 copies; the record is composed of Korean versions of the group's Japanese songs. The only single was "꿈을 모아서". A bonus track, "Fate World", was included. 사랑이라는 이름의 용기 Unh... Happy Day 꿈을 모아서 LIKE A SHOOTING STAR W/O/U A Song for You Little Bird Believe in Love Love Is Day by Day Searchin' for My Love Sweety Humming 달 끝까지 운명적인 세상 S. E. S.' Official Site SM Entertainment's Official Site

K.F.C. Verbroedering Geel

K. F. C. Verbroedering Geel was a Belgian association football club, from the city of Geel in Antwerp; the club was born in 1921 as a merger of Flandria and Geel Sport, becoming Flandria Geel Sport, registered in 1924 to the Belgian Football Association receiving the matricule n° 395 after changing its name to FC Verbroedering Geel. It played for the first time in the second division in 1985–86. In 1999 -- 2000 it appeared shortly in the first division. At this time the club merged with neighbours from K. F. C. Herentals leaving both name and matricule of the latter club. On 30 November 2005 Verbroedering Geel is judged by the Control Commission of the FA for having falsified the 2004–05 second division final round and is subsequently downgraded to the third division; the judgement was confirmed on 1 March 2006 after. On 13 April 2006 the Evocation Commission cancelled the decision of the Control Commission. Though on 3 May 2006 it was confirmed by the Appeal Commission of the FA that the club would be relegated.

It thus seized the Evocation Commission. The Executive Committee of the FA decided on 8 May 2006 to let Geel play the 2005–06 second division final round although the rules of the competition state that a relegated club cannot take part in the final round. On 15 June 2006 the Evocation Commission rejected the plaint of Geel and the club was officially relegated to the third division, permitting K. M. S. K. Deinze to avoid relegation; the club was suffering serious financial trouble. Conversations were started with the Egyptian group Wadi Degla Investment to take over the club, they chose to take over Lierse and KFC Turnhout. On 30 June 2008, the club filed for bankruptcy and ceased to exist. A different local team Verbroedering Meerhout, playing in Belgian Promotion, chose to move to the stadium of Verbroedering Geel due to better facilities, they changed their name to a symbolic merger. Belgian Second Division Final Round: Winners: 1998–99 Belgian Third Division B: Winners: 1984–85 Belgian Third Division Final Round: Winners: 2006–2007 Official website of Verbroedering Geel-Meerhout

Tunnel de l'√Čtoile

The tunnel de l'Étoile is a road tunnel in Paris. It links the avenue des Champs-Élysées to the avenue de la Grande Armée, passing underneath the place Charles-de-Gaulle and the Arc de Triomphe, it has two one way lanes. Its entrance has been the site of many road traffic accidents by lorries. In effect the tunnel has a height of 2.4 meters, only signalled by a sign hanging above the entrance. Lorries hit the tunnel roof. No portico can be built on the surface since it would affect the appearance of the Arc de Triomphe and breach the Arc's listing statute. In 2009 an accident occurred there every two weeks. In March 2015, the tunnel was "temporarily" closed. Paris: spectaculaire accident sous le tunnel de l'Étoile, Le Parisien, 10 September 2009 Enquête sur un scandale de 2m40: les accidents de camion du tunnel de l’Etoile,, 24 November 2009 2m40, blog on accidents at the tunnel entranceNotes